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Penalized Nonparametric Scalar-On-Function Regression Via Principal Coordinates, Philip T. Reiss, David L. Miller, Pei-Shien Wu, Wen-Yu Hua 2016 New York University School of Medicine

Penalized Nonparametric Scalar-On-Function Regression Via Principal Coordinates, Philip T. Reiss, David L. Miller, Pei-Shien Wu, Wen-Yu Hua

Philip T. Reiss

A number of classical approaches to nonparametric regression have recently been extended to the case of functional predictors. This paper introduces a new method of this type, which extends intermediate-rank penalized smoothing to scalar-on-function regression. The core idea is to regress the response on leading principal coordinates defined by a relevant distance among the functional predictors, while applying a ridge penalty. Our publicly available implementation, based on generalized additive modeling software, allows for fast optimal tuning parameter selection and for extensions to multiple functional predictors, exponential family-valued responses, and mixed-effects models. In an application to signature verification data, the proposed ...


What Will Happen Here?, Sidney Fourteen 2016 bepress university

What Will Happen Here?, Sidney Fourteen

Sidney Fourteen

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A Multi-Indexed Logistic Model For Time Series, Xiang Liu 2016 East Tennessee State University

A Multi-Indexed Logistic Model For Time Series, Xiang Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, we explore a multi-indexed logistic regression (MILR) model, with particular emphasis given to its application to time series. MILR includes simple logistic regression (SLR) as a special case, and the hope is that it will in some instances also produce significantly better results. To motivate the development of MILR, we consider its application to the analysis of both simulated sine wave data and stock data. We looked at well-studied SLR and its application in the analysis of time series data. Using a more sophisticated representation of sequential data, we then detail the implementation of MILR. We compare ...


Pertussis-Associated Pneumonia In Infants And Children From Low- And Middle-Income Countries Participating In The Perch Study., Breanna Barger-Kamate, Maria Deloria Knoll, E Wangeci Kagucia, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E. Park, +31 additional authors 2016 George Washington University

Pertussis-Associated Pneumonia In Infants And Children From Low- And Middle-Income Countries Participating In The Perch Study., Breanna Barger-Kamate, Maria Deloria Knoll, E Wangeci Kagucia, Christine Prosperi, Henry C Baggett, Daniel E. Park, +31 Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:  Few data exist describing pertussis epidemiology among infants and children in low- and middle-income countries to guide preventive strategies.

METHODS:  Children 1-59 months of age hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 African and Asian countries and similarly aged community controls were enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study. They underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and provided nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs and induced sputum (cases only) for Bordetella pertussis polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors and pertussis-associated clinical findings were identified.

RESULTS:  Bordetella pertussis was detected in 53 of 4200 (1.3 ...


Applying Ahp And Clustering Approaches For Public Transportation Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Isfahan City, Alireza Salavati, Hossein Haghshenas, Bahador Ghadirifaraz, Jamshid Laghaei, Ghodrat Eftekhari 2016 Isfahan Dept. of Transportation and Traffic

Applying Ahp And Clustering Approaches For Public Transportation Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Isfahan City, Alireza Salavati, Hossein Haghshenas, Bahador Ghadirifaraz, Jamshid Laghaei, Ghodrat Eftekhari

Journal of Public Transportation

The main purpose of this paper is to define appropriate criteria for the systematic approach to evaluate and prioritize multiple candidate corridors for public transport investment simultaneously to serve travel demand, regarding supply of current public transportation system and road network conditions of Isfahan, Iran. To optimize resource allocation, policymakers need to identify proper corridors to implement a public transportation system. In fact, the main question is to adopt the best public transportation system for each main corridor of Isfahan. In this regard, 137 questionnaires were completed by experts, directors, and policymakers of Isfahan to identify goals and objectives in ...


Gathering Steam In Health Care: A Student History, Michael J. Leach 2016 Bendigo Health

Gathering Steam In Health Care: A Student History, Michael J. Leach

The STEAM Journal

In this reflection, I demonstrate STEAM in health care by outlining my 15 years as a university student engaged in formal education, extracurricular learning, research, and employment.


Sources Of Epidemiological Equivocacy, Timothy Sly 2016 University of New Hampshire

Sources Of Epidemiological Equivocacy, Timothy Sly

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Mr. Sly discusses five sources of uncertainty and ambiguity in health and medical research that can interfere with decision making.


Using Sensitivity Analyses For Unobserved Confounding To Address Covariate Measurement Error In Propensity Score Methods, Kara E. Rudolph, Elizabeth A. Stuart 2016 School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Using Sensitivity Analyses For Unobserved Confounding To Address Covariate Measurement Error In Propensity Score Methods, Kara E. Rudolph, Elizabeth A. Stuart

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Propensity score methods are a popular tool to control for confounding in observational data, but their bias-reduction properties are threatened by covariate measurement error. There are few easy-to-implement methods to correct for such bias. We describe and demonstrate how existing sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounding---propensity score calibration, Vanderweele and Arah's bias formulas, and Rosenbaum's sensitivity analysis---can be adapted to address this problem. In a simulation study, we examined the extent to which these sensitivity analyses can correct for several measurement error structures: classical, systematic differential, and heteroscedastic covariate measurement error. We then apply these approaches to address covariate ...


Data Predictive Control For Peak Power Reduction, Achin Jain, Madhur Behl, Rahul Mangharam 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Data Predictive Control For Peak Power Reduction, Achin Jain, Madhur Behl, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Decisions on how best to optimize today's energy systems operations are becoming ever so complex and conflicting such that model-based predictive control algorithms must play a key role. However, learning dynamical models of energy consuming systems such as buildings, using grey/white box approaches is very cost and time prohibitive due to its complexity. This paper presents data-driven methods for making control-oriented model for peak power reduction in buildings. Specifically, a data predictive control with regression trees (DPCRT) algorithm, is presented. DPCRT is a finite receding horizon method, using which the building operator can optimally trade off peak power ...


The Media, Risk Assessment And Numbers: They Don't Add Up, Sharon M. Friedman 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Media, Risk Assessment And Numbers: They Don't Add Up, Sharon M. Friedman

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Professor Friedman argues that, for risks to be reported accurately, journalism educators must help their students understand science, numbers and statistics.


Confidence Intervals For Heritability Via Haseman-Elston Regression, Tamar Sofer 2016 University of Washington

Confidence Intervals For Heritability Via Haseman-Elston Regression, Tamar Sofer

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variance in a population that is attributable to individual genotypes. Heritability is considered an important measure in both evolutionary biology and in medicine, and is routinely estimated and reported in genetic epidemiology studies. In population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS), mixed models are used to estimate variance components, from which a heritability estimate is obtained. The estimated heritability is the proportion of the model's total variance that is due to the genetic relatedness matrix (kinship measured from genotypes). Current practice is to use bootstrapping, which is slow, or normal asymptotic approximation to estimate the ...


Generalized Least-Powers Regressions I: Bivariate Regressions, Nataniel Greene 2016 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Generalized Least-Powers Regressions I: Bivariate Regressions, Nataniel Greene

Publications and Research

The bivariate theory of generalized least-squares is extended here to least-powers. The bivariate generalized least-powers problem of order p seeks a line which minimizes the average generalized mean of the absolute pth power deviations between the data and the line. Least-squares regressions utilize second order moments of the data to construct the regression line whereas least-powers regressions use moments of order p to construct the line. The focus is on even values of p, since this case admits analytic solution methods for the regression coefficients. A numerical example shows generalized least-powers methods performing comparably to generalized least-squares methods, but ...


The Actual Cost Of Food Systems On Roadway Infrastructure, Omar G. Smadi, Inya Nienanya, Marwan Ghandour, Silvina Lopez Barrera 2016 Iowa State University

The Actual Cost Of Food Systems On Roadway Infrastructure, Omar G. Smadi, Inya Nienanya, Marwan Ghandour, Silvina Lopez Barrera

Marwan Ghandour

The variations among transportation costs for local, regional and conventional food production and distribution systems were investigated for three Iowa counties.


Correlates Of Hiv Acquisition In A Cohort Of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men In The United States: Hiv Prevention Trials Network (Hptn) 061, Beryl A. Koblin, Kenneth H. Mayer, Susan H. Eshleman, Lei Wang, Sharon B. Mannheimer, Carlos Del Rio, Steve Shoptaw, Manya Magnus, Susan Buchbinder, Leo Wilton, Ting-Yuan Liu, Vanessa Cummings, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Sheldon D. Fields, Sam Griffith, Vanessa Elharrar, Darrell Wheeler 2016 New York Blood Center, New York, NY

Correlates Of Hiv Acquisition In A Cohort Of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men In The United States: Hiv Prevention Trials Network (Hptn) 061, Beryl A. Koblin, Kenneth H. Mayer, Susan H. Eshleman, Lei Wang, Sharon B. Mannheimer, Carlos Del Rio, Steve Shoptaw, Manya Magnus, Susan Buchbinder, Leo Wilton, Ting-Yuan Liu, Vanessa Cummings, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Sheldon D. Fields, Sam Griffith, Vanessa Elharrar, Darrell Wheeler

Leo Wilton

Background

Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States (US) are affected by HIV at disproportionate rates compared to MSM of other race/ethnicities. Current HIV incidence estimates in this group are needed to appropriately target prevention efforts.

Methods

From July 2009 to October 2010, Black MSM reporting unprotected anal intercourse with a man in the past six months were enrolled and followed for one year in six US cities for a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention to reduce HIV infection. HIV incidence based on HIV seroconversion was calculated as number of events/100 person-years ...


Estimating Consumers' Valuation Of Organic And Cosmetically Damaged Apples, Chenyan Yue, Helen H. Jensen, Daren S. Mueller, Gail R. Nonnecke, Douglas Bonnet, Mark L. Gleason 2016 Iowa State University

Estimating Consumers' Valuation Of Organic And Cosmetically Damaged Apples, Chenyan Yue, Helen H. Jensen, Daren S. Mueller, Gail R. Nonnecke, Douglas Bonnet, Mark L. Gleason

Helen Jensen

The sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) disease complex causes cosmetic damage but does not affect the safety or eating quality of apples. Treatment for disease is more difficult and costly for organic producers, and consumers' willingness to pay for organic apples needs to be considered in growers' choice of production technologies. A mixed probit model was applied to survey data to evaluate consumers' willingness to buy apples. The results show consumers will pay a premium for organic production methods and for apples with low amounts of SBFS damage. Behavioral variables such as experience growing fruit significantly affect the willingness to ...


A New Exponential Type Estimator For The Population Mean In Simple Random Sampling, Gamze Özel Kadilar 2016 Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

A New Exponential Type Estimator For The Population Mean In Simple Random Sampling, Gamze Özel Kadilar

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

This paper provides a new exponential type estimator in simple random sampling for population mean. It is shown that proposed exponential type estimator is always more efficient than estimators considered by Bahl and Tuteja (1991) and Singh, Chauhan, Sawan, and Smarandache (2009). From numerical examples it is also observed that proposed modified ratio estimator performs better than existing estimators.


Vol. 15, No. 2 (Full Issue), JMASM Editors 2016 Wayne State University

Vol. 15, No. 2 (Full Issue), Jmasm Editors

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

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A New Test For Correlation On Bivariate Nonnormal Distributions, Ping Wang, Ping Sa 2016 Great Basin College

A New Test For Correlation On Bivariate Nonnormal Distributions, Ping Wang, Ping Sa

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

A new method to conduct a right-tailed test for the correlation on bivariate non-normal distribution is proposed. The comparative simulation study shows that the new test controls the type I error rates well for all the distributions considered. An investigation of the power performance is also provided.


A Comprehensive Review Of The Two-Sample Independent Or Paired Binary Data, With Or Without Stratum Effects, Dewi Rahardja, Ying Yang, Zhiwei Zhang 2016 U.S. Department of Defense

A Comprehensive Review Of The Two-Sample Independent Or Paired Binary Data, With Or Without Stratum Effects, Dewi Rahardja, Ying Yang, Zhiwei Zhang

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Various statistical hypotheses testing for discrete or categorical or binary data have been extensively discussed in the literature. A comprehensive review is given for the two-sample binary or categorical data testing methods on data with or without Stratum Effects. The review includes traditional methods such as Fisher’s Exact, Pearson’s Chi-Square, McNemar, Bowker, Stuart-Maxwell, Breslow-Day and, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel, as well as newly developed ones. We also provide the roadmap, in a figure or diagram format to which methods are available in the literature. In addition, the implementation of these methods in popular statistical software packages such as SAS and/or ...


Doubly Censored Data From Two-Component Mixture Of Inverse Weibull Distributions: Theory And Applications, Tabassum Sindhu, Navid Feroze, Muhammad Aslam 2016 Government Post Graduate College Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Doubly Censored Data From Two-Component Mixture Of Inverse Weibull Distributions: Theory And Applications, Tabassum Sindhu, Navid Feroze, Muhammad Aslam

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Finite mixture distributions consist of a weighted sum of standard distributions and are a useful tool for reliability analysis of a heterogeneous population. They provide the necessary flexibility to model failure distributions of components with multiple failure models. The analysis of the mixture models under Bayesian framework has received sizable attention in the recent years. However, the Bayesian estimation of the mixture models under doubly censored samples has not yet been introduced in the literature. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the Bayes estimation of the inverse Weibull mixture distributions under doubly censoring. Different priors and loss ...


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