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Implementing Propensity Score Matching With Network Data: The Effect Of Gatt On Bilateral Trade, Luca De Benedictis, Bruno Arpino, Alessandra Mattei 2017 Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Implementing Propensity Score Matching With Network Data: The Effect Of Gatt On Bilateral Trade, Luca De Benedictis, Bruno Arpino, Alessandra Mattei

Luca De Benedictis

Motivated by the evaluation of the causal effect of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on bilateral international trade flows, we investigate the role of network structure in propensity score matching under the assumption of strong ignorability. We study the sensitivity of causal inference with respect to the presence of characteristics of the network in the set of confounders conditional on which strong ignorability is assumed to hold. We find that estimates of the average causal effect are highly sensitive to the presence of node-level network statistics in the set of confounders. Therefore, we argue that estimates may suffer ...


The Spatial Dimensions Of State Fiscal Capacity The Mechanisms Of International Influence On Domestic Extractive Efforts, Cameron G. Thies, Olga Chyzh, Mark David Nieman 2017 Arizona State University

The Spatial Dimensions Of State Fiscal Capacity The Mechanisms Of International Influence On Domestic Extractive Efforts, Cameron G. Thies, Olga Chyzh, Mark David Nieman

Mark David Nieman

This paper expands traditional predatory theory approaches to state fiscal capacity by adopting spatial analytical reasoning and methods. While previous work in the predatory theory tradition has often incorporated interdependent external influences, such as war and trade, it has often done so in a way that maintains a theoretical and empirical autonomy of the state. Theoretically, we suggest four mechanisms (coercion, competition, learning, and emulation) that operate to channel information through interstate rivalry and territorial contiguity, trade networks, and the political space associated with regime type and intergovernmental organization membership. We test our predictions using a multi-parametric spatio-temporal autoregressive model ...


The Finney County, Kansas Community Assessment Process: Fact Book, Debra J. Bolton PhD, Shannon L. Dick M.S. 2017 Kansas State University

The Finney County, Kansas Community Assessment Process: Fact Book, Debra J. Bolton Phd, Shannon L. Dick M.S.

Dr. Debra Bolton

This multi-lingual/multi-cultural study was called, Community Assets Processt, by the groups that “commissioned” it: Finnup Foundation, Finney County K-State Research & Extension, Western Kansas Community Foundation, Finney County United Way, Finney County Health Department, United Methodist Community Health Center (UMMAM), Center for Children and Families, Garden City Recreation Commission, and the Garden City Cultural Relations Board, because we intend for this to be an ongoing discussion. An objective, for those promoting the study, was to connect foundation, state, and federal funding with activities or services that addressed the true needs of people living in Finney County. The group was looking for data that would offer insights on ways to address the needs of diverse audiences through human services agencies, County Extension, the schools, churches, and other entities working with community members of Finney County. Initially, an online survey was sent to directors of Finney County’s human service organization/agencies and schools. Directors were asked what sorts of data were required to help them quantify the needs of their client/customer bases. It was from those responses that the committee designed the survey instrument. The objective of the resulting survey instrument was to gather data that would: Identify resources available in Finney County (a Minority-majority county) Identify services needed in the community Capture information regarding well-being of people in Finney County Feature General Demographic (gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, household income) Length of years lived in Finney County Primary and secondary languages spoken at home (the survey was conducted in four (4) languages) Educational needs Health questions (insurance, health conditions, mental health, medical care, etc.) Social and health needs; and Questions to measure community engagement and social involvement Target individuals and groups of varying ages, socio-economic backgrounds, ethnic backgrounds, and religious affiliations. Target survey respondents 18 years or older Keep survey respondents’ identities confidential since the study was approved by Kansas State University’s Institutional Review Board for compliance in Research with Human Subjects. Data were gathered from about 1% of Finney County’s population through surveys and focus groups conducted in four languages better to understand the ...


Consistency Of Cheeger And Ratio Graph Cuts, Nicolas Garcia Trillos, Dejan Slepcev, James von Brecht, Thomas Laurent, Xavier Bresson 2017 Loyola Marymount University

Consistency Of Cheeger And Ratio Graph Cuts, Nicolas Garcia Trillos, Dejan Slepcev, James Von Brecht, Thomas Laurent, Xavier Bresson

Thomas Laurent

This paper establishes the consistency of a family of graph-cut- based algorithms for clustering of data clouds. We consider point clouds obtained as samples of a ground-truth measure. We investigate approaches to clustering based on minimizing objective functionals defined on proximity graphs of the given sample. Our focus is on functionals based on graph cuts like the Cheeger and ratio cuts. We show that minimizers of these cuts converge as the sample size increases to a minimizer of a corresponding continuum cut (which partitions the ground truth measure). Moreover, we obtain sharp conditions on how the connectivity radius can be ...


Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour 2017 University of Akron

Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour

Honors Research Projects

This is a report from two surveys that I created and administered to students and faculty at Bierce library who came to the Circulation Desk or the Tech Desk, as well as some of my other findings when periodically looking around the library to see where students like to study or hang-out. There was a written survey given at the Circulation Desk, and a different survey given at the Tech Check-Out Desk. The project is for Melanie Smith-Farrell, the head of Access Services, and is based on a similar study Ian McCullough did in the science library. While this is ...


Mediation Analysis For Censored Survival Data Under An Accelerated Failure Time Model, Isabel Fulcher, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Paige Williams 2017 Harvard University

Mediation Analysis For Censored Survival Data Under An Accelerated Failure Time Model, Isabel Fulcher, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Paige Williams

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Recent advances in causal mediation analysis have formalized conditions for estimating direct and indirect effects in various contexts. These approaches have been extended to a number of models for survival outcomes including accelerated failure time (AFT) models which are widely used in a broad range of health applications given their intuitive interpretation. In this setting, it has been suggested that under standard assumptions, the “difference” and “product” methods produce equivalent estimates of the indirect effect of exposure on the survival outcome. We formally show that these two methods may produce substantially different estimates in the presence of censoring or truncation ...


Gender Differences In Hiv Care Among Criminal Justice-Involved Persons: Baseline Data From The Care+ Corrections Study., Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo 2017 George Washington University

Gender Differences In Hiv Care Among Criminal Justice-Involved Persons: Baseline Data From The Care+ Corrections Study., Curt Beckwith, Breana Uhrig Castonguay, Claudia Trezza, Lauri Bazerman, Rudy Patrick, Alice Cates, Halli Olsen, Ann Kurth, Tao Liu, James Peterson, Irene Kuo

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals recently released from incarceration have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. We conducted a study to evaluate an information and communication technology intervention to increase linkage to community care among HIV-infected persons recently involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Baseline characteristics including risk behaviors and HIV care indicators are reported and stratified by gender.

METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected individuals in the District of Columbia jail and persons with a recent history of incarceration through community and street outreach. Participants completed a baseline computer-assisted personal interview regarding HIV care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence, substance ...


Penalized Nonparametric Scalar-On-Function Regression Via Principal Coordinates, Philip T. Reiss, David L. Miller, Pei-Shien Wu, Wen-Yu Hua 2016 New York University School of Medicine

Penalized Nonparametric Scalar-On-Function Regression Via Principal Coordinates, Philip T. Reiss, David L. Miller, Pei-Shien Wu, Wen-Yu Hua

Philip T. Reiss

A number of classical approaches to nonparametric regression have recently been extended to the case of functional predictors. This paper introduces a new method of this type, which extends intermediate-rank penalized smoothing to scalar-on-function regression. The core idea is to regress the response on leading principal coordinates defined by a relevant distance among the functional predictors, while applying a ridge penalty. Our publicly available implementation, based on generalized additive modeling software, allows for fast optimal tuning parameter selection and for extensions to multiple functional predictors, exponential family-valued responses, and mixed-effects models. In an application to signature verification data, the proposed ...


What Will Happen Here?, Sidney Fourteen 2016 bepress university

What Will Happen Here?, Sidney Fourteen

Sidney Fourteen

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Novel Models Of Visual Topographic Map Alignment In The Superior Colliculus., Ruben A Tikidji-Hamburyan, Tarek A El-Ghazawi, Jason W. Triplett 2016 George Washington University

Novel Models Of Visual Topographic Map Alignment In The Superior Colliculus., Ruben A Tikidji-Hamburyan, Tarek A El-Ghazawi, Jason W. Triplett

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The establishment of precise neuronal connectivity during development is critical for sensing the external environment and informing appropriate behavioral responses. In the visual system, many connections are organized topographically, which preserves the spatial order of the visual scene. The superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain nucleus that integrates visual inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex (V1) to regulate goal-directed eye movements. In the SC, topographically organized inputs from the retina and V1 must be aligned to facilitate integration. Previously, we showed that retinal input instructs the alignment of V1 inputs in the SC in a manner dependent on ...


Contextual Motivation In Physical Activity By Means Of Association Rule Mining, Sugam Sharma, Udoyara Sunday Tim, Marinelle Payton, Hari Cohly, Shashi Gadia, Johnny Wong, Sudharshanam Karakala 2016 Iowa State University

Contextual Motivation In Physical Activity By Means Of Association Rule Mining, Sugam Sharma, Udoyara Sunday Tim, Marinelle Payton, Hari Cohly, Shashi Gadia, Johnny Wong, Sudharshanam Karakala

U. Sunday Tim

The primary thrust of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of association rule mining in public health domain, focusing on physical activity and exercising. In this paper, the concept of association rule mining is shown assisting to promote the physical exercise as regular human activity. Specifically, similar to the prototypical example of association rule mining, market basket analysis, our proposed novel approach considers two events – exercise (sporadic) and sleep (regular) as the two items of the frequent set; and associating the former, exercise event, with latter, the daily occurring activity sleep at night, helps strengthening the frequency of the ...


The Moral Significance Of Indetectable Effects, Sven Ove Hansson 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Moral Significance Of Indetectable Effects, Sven Ove Hansson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

A reassessment of Parfit's fifth "mistake in moral mathematics."


Tutorial For Using The Center For High Performance Computing At The University Of Utah And An Example Using Random Forest, Stephen Barton 2016 Utah State University

Tutorial For Using The Center For High Performance Computing At The University Of Utah And An Example Using Random Forest, Stephen Barton

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Random Forests are very memory intensive machine learning algorithms and most computers would fail at building models from datasets with millions of observations. Using the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) at the University of Utah and an airline on-time arrival dataset with 7 million observations from the U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics we built 316 models by adjusting the depth of the trees and randomness of each forest and compared the accuracy and time each took. Using this dataset we discovered that substantial restrictions to the size of trees, observations allowed for each tree, and ...


Review Of: Charles R. Bennett, Risks In The Environment: How To Assess Them, Penny Dean 2016 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Charles R. Bennett, Risks In The Environment: How To Assess Them, Penny Dean

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: Charles R. Bennett, Risks in the Environment: How to Assess Them (Burloak Publications 1996). Appendices, references for the appendices, prologue. ISBN 0-9680438-0-1 [305 pp. Paper $23.95. 277 Belvenia Rd., Burlington, Ontario.]


A Method Of Identifying Hazardous Highway Locations Using The Principle Of Individual Lifetime Risk, Paul J. Ossenbruggen 2016 University of New Hampshire

A Method Of Identifying Hazardous Highway Locations Using The Principle Of Individual Lifetime Risk, Paul J. Ossenbruggen

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Ossenbruggen presents a scientific framework for identifying hazardous highway locations that may be more easily understood by non-scientists and has potential for comparing highway with other risks to health.


Risk Regulation And The Faces Of Uncertainty, Vern R. Walker 2016 University of New Hampshire

Risk Regulation And The Faces Of Uncertainty, Vern R. Walker

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Walker addresses the difficulty of regulators' working with potentially inaccurate information and clarifies related aspects of decision making by presenting a taxonomy for the kinds of uncertainty inherent in necessarily incomplete data.


Monte Carlo Simulation In Environmental Risk Assessment--Science, Policy And Legal Issues, Susan R. Poulter 2016 University of New Hampshire

Monte Carlo Simulation In Environmental Risk Assessment--Science, Policy And Legal Issues, Susan R. Poulter

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Poulter notes that agencies should anticipate judicial requirements for justification of Monte Carlo simulations and, meanwhile, should consider, e.g., whether their use will make risk assessment policy choices more opaque or apparent.


Book Review Of Deborah G. Mayo, Error And The Growth Of Experimental Knowledge (University Of Chicago Press 1996), Kristin S. Shrader-Frechette 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review Of Deborah G. Mayo, Error And The Growth Of Experimental Knowledge (University Of Chicago Press 1996), Kristin S. Shrader-Frechette

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: Deborah G. Mayo, Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge (University of Chicago Press 1996). Figures, index, preface, references. ISBN 0-226-51197-9 [493 pp. $74.00 Cloth; $29.95 Paper. 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.]


An Administrative View Of Model Uncertainty In Public Health, Clark D. Carrington 2016 University of New Hampshire

An Administrative View Of Model Uncertainty In Public Health, Clark D. Carrington

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dr. Carrington reviews several ways to deal with model uncertainty, including those failing to acknowledge any use of models. He then evaluates six such methods with regard to, e.g., transparency and cost of execution.


Stochastic Optimization Of Adaptive Enrichment Designs For Two Subpopulations, Aaron Fisher, Michael Rosenblum 2016 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Stochastic Optimization Of Adaptive Enrichment Designs For Two Subpopulations, Aaron Fisher, Michael Rosenblum

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

An adaptive enrichment design is a randomized trial that allows enrollment criteria to be modified at interim analyses, based on a preset decision rule. When there is prior uncertainty regarding treatment effect heterogeneity, these trial designs can provide improved power for detecting treatment effects in subpopulations. We present a simulated annealing approach to search over the space of decision rules and other parameters for an adaptive enrichment design. The goal is to minimize the expected number enrolled or expected duration, while preserving the appropriate power and Type I error rate. We also explore the benefits of parallel computation in the ...


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