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Midlife And Late-Life Vascular Risk Factors And White Matter Microstructural Integrity: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Neurocognitive Study., Melinda C Power, Jonathan V Tingle, Robert I Reid, Juebin Huang, A Richey Sharrett, Josef Coresh, Michael Griswold, Kejal Kantarci, Clifford R Jack, David Knopman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley 2017 George Washington University

Midlife And Late-Life Vascular Risk Factors And White Matter Microstructural Integrity: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Neurocognitive Study., Melinda C Power, Jonathan V Tingle, Robert I Reid, Juebin Huang, A Richey Sharrett, Josef Coresh, Michael Griswold, Kejal Kantarci, Clifford R Jack, David Knopman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging measures of white matter (WM) microstructural integrity appear to provide earlier indication of WM injury than WM hyperintensities; however, risk factors for poor WM microstructural integrity have not been established. Our study quantifies the association between vascular risk factors in midlife and late life with measures of late-life WM microstructural integrity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from 1851 participants in ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study) who completed 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging, as part of the ARIC Neurocognitive Study (ARIC-NCS). We quantified the association among lipids, glucose, and blood pressure from ...


Cohort Profile: Seek, Test, Treat And Retain United States Criminal Justice Cohort., Redonna Chandler, Michael S Gordon, Bridget Kruszka, Lauren N Strand, Frederick L Altice, Irene Kuo, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Cohort Profile: Seek, Test, Treat And Retain United States Criminal Justice Cohort., Redonna Chandler, Michael S Gordon, Bridget Kruszka, Lauren N Strand, Frederick L Altice, Irene Kuo, +Several Additional Authors

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement.

METHODS: The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved ...


Comparision Of Survival Curves Between Cox Proportional Hazards, Random Forests, And Conditional Inference Forests In Survival Analysis, Brandon Weathers, Richard Cutler Dr. 2017 Utah State University

Comparision Of Survival Curves Between Cox Proportional Hazards, Random Forests, And Conditional Inference Forests In Survival Analysis, Brandon Weathers, Richard Cutler Dr.

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Survival analysis methods are a mainstay of the biomedical fields but are finding increasing use in other disciplines including finance and engineering. A widely used tool in survival analysis is the Cox proportional hazards regression model. For this model, all the predicted survivor curves have the same basic shape, which may not be a good approximation to reality. In contrast the Random Survival Forests does not make the proportional hazards assumption and has the flexibility to model survivor curves that are of quite different shapes for different groups of subjects. We applied both techniques to a number of publicly available ...


A Comparison Of Statistical Methods Relating Pairwise Distance To A Binary Subject-Level Covariate, Rachael Stone 2017 Utah State University

A Comparison Of Statistical Methods Relating Pairwise Distance To A Binary Subject-Level Covariate, Rachael Stone

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

A community ecologist provided a motivating data set involving a certain animal species with two behavior groups, along with a pairwise genetic distance matrix among individuals. Many community ecologists have analyzed similar data sets with a method known as the Hopkins method, testing for an association between the subject-level covariate (behavior group) and the pairwise distance. This community ecologist wanted to know if they used the Hopkins method, would their results be meaningful? Their question inspired this thesis work, where a different data set was used for confidentiality reasons. Multiple methods (Hopkins method, ADONIS, ANOSIM, and Distance Regression) were used ...


Cancer-Specific Mortality, Cure Fraction, And Noncancer Causes Of Death Among Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients In The Immunochemotherapy Era., Nadia Howlader, Angela B Mariotto, Caroline Besson, Gita Suneja, Kim Robien, Naji Younes, Eric A Engels 2017 George Washington University

Cancer-Specific Mortality, Cure Fraction, And Noncancer Causes Of Death Among Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients In The Immunochemotherapy Era., Nadia Howlader, Angela B Mariotto, Caroline Besson, Gita Suneja, Kim Robien, Naji Younes, Eric A Engels

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND

Survival after the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing since 2002 because of improved therapies; however, long-term outcomes for these patients in the modern treatment era are still unknown.

METHODS

Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, this study first assessed factors associated with DLBCL-specific mortality during 2002-2012. An epidemiologic risk profile, based on clinical and demographic characteristics, was used to stratify DLBCL cases into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. The proportions of DLBCL cases that might be considered cured in these 3 risk groups was estimated. Risks of death due to various noncancer causes ...


Estimating Autoantibody Signatures To Detect Autoimmune Disease Patient Subsets, Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A. Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L. Zeger 2017 Department of Biostatistics and Michigan Institute of Data Science, University of Michigan

Estimating Autoantibody Signatures To Detect Autoimmune Disease Patient Subsets, Zhenke Wu, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A. Shah, Antony Rosen, Scott L. Zeger

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by highly specific immune responses against molecules in self-tissues. Different autoimmune diseases are characterized by distinct immune responses, making autoantibodies useful for diagnosis and prediction. In many diseases, the targets of autoantibodies are incompletely defined. Although the technologies for autoantibody discovery have advanced dramatically over the past decade, each of these techniques generates hundreds of possibilities, which are onerous and expensive to validate. We set out to establish a method to greatly simplify autoantibody discovery, using a pre-filtering step to define subgroups with similar specificities based on migration of labeled, immunoprecipitated proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate ...


A Statistical Method For The Conservative Adjustment Of False Discovery Rate (Q-Value), Yinglei Lai 2017 George Washington University

A Statistical Method For The Conservative Adjustment Of False Discovery Rate (Q-Value), Yinglei Lai

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

Background

q-value is a widely used statistical method for estimating false discovery rate (FDR), which is a conventional significance measure in the analysis of genome-wide expression data. q-value is a random variable and it may underestimate FDR in practice. An underestimated FDR can lead to unexpected false discoveries in the follow-up validation experiments. This issue has not been well addressed in literature, especially in the situation when the permutation procedure is necessary for p-value calculation.

Results

We proposed a statistical method for the conservative adjustment of q-value. In practice, it is usually necessary to calculate p ...


Evaluation Of Progress Towards The Unaids 90-90-90 Hiv Care Cascade: A Description Of Statistical Methods Used In An Interim Analysis Of The Intervention Communities In The Search Study, Laura Balzer, Joshua Schwab, Mark J. van der Laan, Maya L. Petersen 2017 Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Heath

Evaluation Of Progress Towards The Unaids 90-90-90 Hiv Care Cascade: A Description Of Statistical Methods Used In An Interim Analysis Of The Intervention Communities In The Search Study, Laura Balzer, Joshua Schwab, Mark J. Van Der Laan, Maya L. Petersen

U.C. Berkeley Division of Biostatistics Working Paper Series

WHO guidelines call for universal antiretroviral treatment, and UNAIDS has set a global target to virally suppress most HIV-positive individuals. Accurate estimates of population-level coverage at each step of the HIV care cascade (testing, treatment, and viral suppression) are needed to assess the effectiveness of "test and treat" strategies implemented to achieve this goal. The data available to inform such estimates, however, are susceptible to informative missingness: the number of HIV-positive individuals in a population is unknown; individuals tested for HIV may not be representative of those whom a testing intervention fails to reach, and HIV-positive individuals with a viral ...


The Use Of Vital Statistics Data For Research Of Consequence: Birth Outcomes And Population Health In A Rural Region, Claudia Kozinetz, Shimin Zheng, Eunice Mogusu 2017 East Tennessee State University

The Use Of Vital Statistics Data For Research Of Consequence: Birth Outcomes And Population Health In A Rural Region, Claudia Kozinetz, Shimin Zheng, Eunice Mogusu

All ETSU Faculty Works

Objective: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has influenced increasing interests in population health and population health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to exemplify the importance of using existing vital statistics data for understanding and monitoring health outcomes and consequentially health disparities at the population level. Data from birth records for two geographic regions from 2009-2014 were compared; low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PD) were used as surrogates for population health outcomes.

Methods: A population-based, multi-year, cross-sectional study design using a pooled dataset of birth records from Tennessee (TN) was the framework for the analyses. A sub-population ...


Confidence Interval Estimation Of Cumulative Incidence For Clustered Competing Risks, Atul Sivaswamy 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Confidence Interval Estimation Of Cumulative Incidence For Clustered Competing Risks, Atul Sivaswamy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In a cluster randomized trial studying a primary outcome patients are sometimes exposed to competing events. These are risks that alter the probability of the primary outcome occurring. Traditional methods of estimating the cumulative incidence for an outcome and its associated confidence interval under competing risks do not account for the eect of clustering. This may cause incorrect estimation of confidence intervals because outcomes among patients from the same center are correlated. This thesis compared six nonparametric methods of confidence interval construction for cumulative incidence, four of which account for clustering eect, under competing risks via simulation study. Over the ...


Calculating Power By Bootstrap, With An Application To Cluster-Randomized Trials, Ken Kleinman, Susan S. Huang 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst, School of Public Health and Health Sciences

Calculating Power By Bootstrap, With An Application To Cluster-Randomized Trials, Ken Kleinman, Susan S. Huang

eGEMs (Generating Evidence & Methods to improve patient outcomes)

Background: A key requirement for a useful power calculation is that the calculation mimic the data analysis that will be performed on the actual data, once it is observed. Close approximations may be difficult to achieve using analytic solutions, however, and thus Monte Carlo approaches, including both simulation and bootstrap resampling, are often attractive. One setting in which this is particularly true is cluster-randomized trial designs. However, Monte Carlo approaches are useful in many additional settings as well. Calculating power for cluster-randomized trials using analytic or simulation-based methods is frequently unsatisfactory due to the complexity of the data analysis methods ...


It's All About Balance: Propensity Score Matching In The Context Of Complex Survey Data, David Lenis, Trang Q. ;Nguyen, Nian Dong, Elizabeth A. Stuart 2017 Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

It's All About Balance: Propensity Score Matching In The Context Of Complex Survey Data, David Lenis, Trang Q. ;Nguyen, Nian Dong, Elizabeth A. Stuart

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Many research studies aim to draw causal inferences using data from large, nationally representative survey samples, and many of these studies use propensity score matching to make those causal inferences as rigorous as possible given the non-experimental nature of the data. However, very few applied studies are careful about incorporating the survey design with the propensity score analysis, which may mean that the results don’t generate population inferences. This may be because few methodological studies examine how to best combine these methods. Furthermore, even fewer of the methodological studies incorporate different non-response mechanisms in their analysis. This study examines ...


The Battle Against Malaria: A Teachable Moment, Randy K. Schwartz 2017 Schoolcraft College

The Battle Against Malaria: A Teachable Moment, Randy K. Schwartz

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Malaria has been humanity’s worst public health problem throughout recorded history. Mathematical methods are needed to understand which factors are relevant to the disease and to develop counter-measures against it. This article and the accompanying exercises provide examples of those methods for use in lower- or upper-level courses dealing with probability, statistics, or population modeling. These can be used to illustrate such concepts as correlation, causation, conditional probability, and independence. The article explains how the apparent link between sickle cell trait and resistance to malaria was first verified in Uganda using the chi-squared probability distribution. It goes on to ...


Estimating The Probability Of Clonal Relatedness Of Pairs Of Tumors In Cancer Patients, Audrey Mauguen, Venkatraman E. Seshan, Irina Ostrovnaya, Colin B. Begg 2017 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Estimating The Probability Of Clonal Relatedness Of Pairs Of Tumors In Cancer Patients, Audrey Mauguen, Venkatraman E. Seshan, Irina Ostrovnaya, Colin B. Begg

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Dept. of Epidemiology & Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Next generation sequencing panels are being used increasingly in cancer research to study tumor evolution. A specific statistical challenge is to compare the mutational profiles in different tumors from a patient to determine the strength of evidence that the tumors are clonally related, i.e. derived from a single, founder clonal cell. The presence of identical mutations in each tumor provides evidence of clonal relatedness, although the strength of evidence from a match is related to how commonly the mutation is seen in the tumor type under investigation. This evidence must be weighed against the evidence in favor of independent ...


Predicting Future Years Of Life, Health, And Functional Ability: A Healthy Life Calculator For Older Adults, Paula Diehr, Michael Diehr, Alice M. Arnold, Laura Yee, Michelle C. Odden, Calvin H. Hirsch, Stephen Thielke, Bruce Psaty, W Craig Johnson, Jorge Kizer, Anne B. Newman 2017 University of Washington

Predicting Future Years Of Life, Health, And Functional Ability: A Healthy Life Calculator For Older Adults, Paula Diehr, Michael Diehr, Alice M. Arnold, Laura Yee, Michelle C. Odden, Calvin H. Hirsch, Stephen Thielke, Bruce Psaty, W Craig Johnson, Jorge Kizer, Anne B. Newman

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Introduction

Planning for the future would be easier if we knew how long we will live and, more importantly, how many years we will be healthy and able to enjoy it. There are few well-documented aids for predicting our future health. We attempted to meet this need for persons 65 years of age and older.

Methods

Data came from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a large longitudinal study of older adults that began in 1990. Years of life (YOL) were defined by measuring time to death. Years of healthy life (YHL) were defined by an annual question about self-rated health, and ...


Quantifying The Totality Of Treatment Effect With Multiple Event-Time Observations In The Presence Of A Terminal Event From A Comparative Clinical Study, Brian Claggett, Lu Tian, Haoda Fu, Scott D. Solomon, L. J. Wei 2017 Harvard Medical School

Quantifying The Totality Of Treatment Effect With Multiple Event-Time Observations In The Presence Of A Terminal Event From A Comparative Clinical Study, Brian Claggett, Lu Tian, Haoda Fu, Scott D. Solomon, L. J. Wei

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

To evaluate the totality of one treatment's benefit/risk profile relative to an alternative treatment via a longitudinal comparative clinical study, the timing and occurrence of multiple clinical events are typically collected during the patient's followup. These multiple observations reflect the patient's disease progression/burden over time. The standard practice is to create a composite endpoint from the multiple outcomes, the timing of the occurrence of the first clinical event, to evaluate the treatment via the standard survival analysis techniques. By ignoring all events after the composite outcome, this type of assessment may not be ideal. Various ...


Mediation Analysis For Censored Survival Data Under An Accelerated Failure Time Model, Isabel Fulcher, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Paige Williams 2017 Harvard University

Mediation Analysis For Censored Survival Data Under An Accelerated Failure Time Model, Isabel Fulcher, Eric J. Tchetgen Tchetgen, Paige Williams

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Recent advances in causal mediation analysis have formalized conditions for estimating direct and indirect effects in various contexts. These approaches have been extended to a number of models for survival outcomes including accelerated failure time (AFT) models which are widely used in a broad range of health applications given their intuitive interpretation. In this setting, it has been suggested that under standard assumptions, the “difference” and “product” methods produce equivalent estimates of the indirect effect of exposure on the survival outcome. We formally show that these two methods may produce substantially different estimates in the presence of censoring or truncation ...


Examining The Activities, Effectiveness, And Contribution Of Local Health Departments Using A National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems, Lava R. Timsina 2017 University of Kentucky

Examining The Activities, Effectiveness, And Contribution Of Local Health Departments Using A National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems, Lava R. Timsina

Theses and Dissertations--Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Health services research and public health services and systems research in the past have contributed to a strong foundation of evidence-based progress in organizing, financing, and delivering medical care and public health strategies across the United States. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine disparities in public health systems and in the delivery of population health services in communities served by these systems using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Local Public Health Systems (1998, 2006, 2012, and 2014).

Data from the 1998 cohort of 497 local health jurisdictions serving at least 100,000 residents, and ...


Mixture Modeling With Applications In Alzheimer's Disease, Frank Appiah 2017 University of Kentucky

Mixture Modeling With Applications In Alzheimer's Disease, Frank Appiah

Theses and Dissertations--Epidemiology and Biostatistics

This dissertation involves an application of mixture of regression models to 114 individuals who are cognitively intact (from the Alzheimer's Disease and Neuroimaging Initiative-ADNI, data). The correct number of components in the model were estimated with the Singular BIC (SBIC), marking the first time it has been applied to such a problem. The smallest true model in conjunction with the approximation of SBIC was fixed at 1. The resulting posterior probabilities from the model were used to estimate the probability of a person transitioning and risk plots were obtained that could in principle be used by clinicians to identify ...


Risk Of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Dabigatran Users – A Self Controlled Case Series Analysis, Wenze Tang, Hsien-Yen Chang, Meijia Zhou, Sonal Singh 2017 George Washington University

Risk Of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Dabigatran Users – A Self Controlled Case Series Analysis, Wenze Tang, Hsien-Yen Chang, Meijia Zhou, Sonal Singh

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Faculty Publications

This article aims to evaluate the real world risk of gastrointestinal bleeding among users naïve to dabigatran. We adopted a self-controlled case series design. We sampled 1215 eligible adult participants who were continuous insured users between July 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012 with use of dabigatran and at least one gastrointestinal bleeding episode. We used a conditional Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios. The population consisted of 64.69% of male and 60.25% patients equal to or greater than age 65 at start of observation. After adjustment for time-variant confounders, the incidence rate of gastrointestinal bleeding was ...


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