Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs For Function Estimation, With An Application To Cerebral Cortex Development, 2017 New York University School of Medicine
Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs For Function Estimation, With An Application To Cerebral Cortex Development, Philip T. Reiss
Philip T. Reiss
Surface-Flux Regulation Of The Coupling Between Cumulus Convection And Baroclinic Waves, 2017 Iowa State University
Surface-Flux Regulation Of The Coupling Between Cumulus Convection And Baroclinic Waves, William J. Gutowski Jr., Weidong Jiang
William J. Gutowski, Jr.
The authors examine the role of convection in the dynamics of eddy life cycles through numerical experiments using initial states that are baroclinically and conditionally unstable in midlatitudes. The location of wave-induced convection and its influence on the growing wave depends on how strongly the wave is coupled to the lower boundary through surface fluxes. For all three convective schemes used here (Emanuel, modified Grell, modified Kuo), convective destabilization is favored in the wave’s warm sector when there are no surface fluxes included in the simulation and in the cold sector when there are. Convection is also shallower when ...
Some Conceptual And Scaling Evaluations Of Snowmelt Events Forced By Warm Soil, 2017 Iowa State University
Some Conceptual And Scaling Evaluations Of Snowmelt Events Forced By Warm Soil, M. Segal, Z. Pan, William J. Gutowski Jr.
William J. Gutowski, Jr.
Snowfall occasionally occurs over bare soil with high thermal storage in its upper layer. Quantification and generalization of the potential impact of the thermal storage on episodic snowmelt is evaluated using a scaling approach and assuming negligible net thermal flux at the snow cover top. Soil thermal flux contribution to snowmelt is found to be affected significantly by the level of soil wetness. It is shown that, for a soil temperature of 10°C prior to the snowfall, the contribution of wet soil thermal flux is significant within the first 12 h when compared with intense surface moist enthalpy flux ...
Effects Of Spectral Nudging In Wrf On Arctic Temperature And Precipitation Simulations, 2017 Iowa State University
Effects Of Spectral Nudging In Wrf On Arctic Temperature And Precipitation Simulations, Justin M. Glisan, William J. Gutowski Jr., John J. Cassino, Matthew E. Higgins
William J. Gutowski, Jr.
Spectral (interior) nudging is a way of constraining a model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events since nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes: what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct biases while not limiting the simulation of extreme events? To determine this, case studies were performed using a six-member ensemble of the Pan-Arctic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with varying spectral ...
Effect Of Ocean Surface Heterogeneity On Climate Simulation, 2017 Iowa State University
Effect Of Ocean Surface Heterogeneity On Climate Simulation, William J. Gutowski Jr., Zekai Ötles, Yiben Chen
William J. Gutowski, Jr.
A sensitivity study is performed to examine the potential effect of spatial variations in sea surface temperature (SST) that typically are not resolved in general climate models (GCMs). The study uses a single-column atmospheric model, representing a grid box of a GCM, that overlies a surface domain divided into many subgrid cells. The model is driven by boundary conditions representative of the Gulf Stream off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States, for the year 1987. A heterogeneous simulation, which includes subgrid spatial variability in SST, is contrasted with a homogeneous simulation, which assigns spatial mean SST to all cells ...
Learning And Control Using Gaussian Processes, 2017 University of Pennsylvania
Learning And Control Using Gaussian Processes, Achin Jain, Truong X Nghiem, Manfred Morari, Rahul Mangharam
Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)
Building physics-based models of complex physical systems like buildings and chemical plants is extremely cost and time prohibitive for applications such as real-time optimal control, production planning and supply chain logistics. Machine learning algorithms can reduce this cost and time complexity, and are, consequently, more scalable for large-scale physical systems. However, there are many practical challenges that must be addressed before employing machine learning for closed-loop control. This paper proposes the use of Gaussian Processes (GP) for learning control-oriented models: (1) We develop methods for the optimal experiment design (OED) of functional tests to learn models of a physical system ...
A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
As stigmatized persons, registered sex offenders betoken instability in communities. Depressed home sale values are associated with the presence of registered sex offenders even though the public is largely unaware of the presence of registered sex offenders. Using a spatial multilevel approach, the current study examines the role registered sex offenders influence sale values of homes sold in 2015 for three U.S. counties (rural, suburban, and urban) located in Illinois and Kentucky within the social disorganization framework. Homebuyers were surveyed to examine whether awareness of local registered sex offenders and the homebuyer’s community type operate as moderators between ...
The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman
Depending on the population studied, cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 14%-90% of patients do not use their pressurized metered dose inhaler correctly, while 50-60% misuse a dry powder inhaler. This means that unless incorrect technique is acounted for a significant underestimation of how much medication the person actually obtained may be made.
The aim of this thesis was to objectively determine the frequency and importance of inhaler technique errors and to combine these with inhaler use to provide an acurate method of calculating adherence. I then investigated different patterns of inhaler use, determinants of inhaler use and the ...
New Evidence On The Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In A Savannah Habitat At Fongoli, Sénégal, Jill D. Pruetz, P. Bertolani, K. Boyer Ontl, Stacy Marie Lindshield, Mack C. Shelley, E.G. Wessling
For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known nonhuman population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis ...
A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli
Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications
Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed ...
"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of providing quarterly $70 gift card financial incentives to HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to encourage ART adherence and viral suppression, and represents the largest study to-date of a financial incentive intervention for HIV viral suppression. A post-trial qualitative substudy was undertaken to examine acceptability of the financial incentives among those receiving and implementing the intervention.
METHODS: Between July and October 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 12 investigators from 14 sites; three focus groups were conducted with 12 staff from 10 sites. Qualitative data collection elicited ...
Statistics-Bierce Library Study, 2017 The University of Akron
Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour
Honors Research Projects
This is a report from two surveys that I created and administered to students and faculty at Bierce library who came to the Circulation Desk or the Tech Desk, as well as some of my other findings when periodically looking around the library to see where students like to study or hang-out. There was a written survey given at the Circulation Desk, and a different survey given at the Tech Check-Out Desk. The project is for Melanie Smith-Farrell, the head of Access Services, and is based on a similar study Ian McCullough did in the science library. While this is ...
Tuning Optimization Software Parameters For Mixed Integer Programming Problems, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Tuning Optimization Software Parameters For Mixed Integer Programming Problems, Toni P. Sorrell
Theses and Dissertations
The tuning of optimization software is of key interest to researchers solving mixed integer programming (MIP) problems. The efficiency of the optimization software can be greatly impacted by the solver’s parameter settings and the structure of the MIP. A designed experiment approach is used to fit a statistical model that would suggest settings of the parameters that provided the largest reduction in the primal integral metric. Tuning exemplars of six and 59 factors (parameters) of optimization software, experimentation takes place on three classes of MIPs: survivable fixed telecommunication network design, a formulation of the support vector machine with the ...
Analysis Of Variability In Crop Yield For Industrial Hemp On Two Farms In Virginia, 2017 James Madison University
Analysis Of Variability In Crop Yield For Industrial Hemp On Two Farms In Virginia, Nicholas S. Gentile, Evan M. Hylton, Justin Ngo
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
Although the cultivation of Cannabis sativa was substantially halted in the United States with the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Canada reintroduced licenses for industrial hemp research and commercial production by the mid 1990’s. This led to a resurgence of interest in exploring the potential for this industry across North America, and by 2016, permits were granted to grow industrial hemp in Virginia. The ultimate goal of this project is to explore the agricultural feasibility of growing industrial hemp on small and medium sized farms in Virginia, and integrating small-farm production with a potential supply chain for three key ...
When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework, 2017 George Washington University
When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework, J. Jull, M. Whitehead, M. Petticrew, E. Kristjansson, D. Gough, Sarah Baird, +Several Additional Authors
Global Health Faculty Publications
Background Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.
Methods An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.
Results A randomised trial can ...
A Semiparametric Inference To Regression Analysis With Missing Covariates In Survey Data, 2017 North Carolina State University
A Semiparametric Inference To Regression Analysis With Missing Covariates In Survey Data, Shu Yang, Jae Kwang Kim
Parameter estimation in parametric regression models with missing covariates is considered under a survey sampling setup. Under missingness at random, a semiparametric maximum likelihood approach is proposed which requires no parametric specification of the marginal covariate distribution. By drawing from the von Mises calculus and V-Statistics theory, we obtain an asymptotic linear representation of the semiparametric maximum likelihood estimator (SMLE) of the regression parameters, which allows for a consistent estimator of asymptotic variance. An EM algorithm for computation is then developed to implement the proposed method using fractional imputation. Simulation results suggest that the SMLE method is robust, whereas the ...
What Affects Parents’ Choice Of Milk? An Application Of Bayesian Model Averaging, 2016 University of New Mexico
What Affects Parents’ Choice Of Milk? An Application Of Bayesian Model Averaging, Yingzhe Cheng
Mathematics & Statistics ETDs
This study identifies the factors that influence parents’ choice of milk for their children, using data from a unique survey administered in 2013 in Hunan province, China. In this survey, we identified two brands of milk, which differ in their prices and safety claims by the producer. Data were collected on parents’ choice of milk between the two brands, demographics, attitude towards food safety and behaviors related to food. Stepwise model selection and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) are used to search for influential factors. The two approaches consistently select the same factors suggested by an economic theoretical model, including price ...
Applying Ahp And Clustering Approaches For Public Transportation Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Isfahan City, 2016 Isfahan Dept. of Transportation and Traffic
Applying Ahp And Clustering Approaches For Public Transportation Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Isfahan City, Alireza Salavati, Hossein Haghshenas, Bahador Ghadirifaraz, Jamshid Laghaei, Ghodrat Eftekhari
Journal of Public Transportation
The main purpose of this paper is to define appropriate criteria for the systematic approach to evaluate and prioritize multiple candidate corridors for public transport investment simultaneously to serve travel demand, regarding supply of current public transportation system and road network conditions of Isfahan, Iran. To optimize resource allocation, policymakers need to identify proper corridors to implement a public transportation system. In fact, the main question is to adopt the best public transportation system for each main corridor of Isfahan. In this regard, 137 questionnaires were completed by experts, directors, and policymakers of Isfahan to identify goals and objectives in ...
A Traders Guide To The Predictive Universe- A Model For Predicting Oil Price Targets And Trading On Them, 2016 Washington University in St. Louis
A Traders Guide To The Predictive Universe- A Model For Predicting Oil Price Targets And Trading On Them, Jimmie Harold Lenz
Doctor of Business Administration Dissertations
At heart every trader loves volatility; this is where return on investment comes from, this is what drives the proverbial “positive alpha.” As a trader, understanding the probabilities related to the volatility of prices is key, however if you could also predict future prices with reliability the world would be your oyster. To this end, I have achieved three goals with this dissertation, to develop a model to predict future short term prices (direction and magnitude), to effectively test this by generating consistent profits utilizing a trading model developed for this purpose, and to write a paper that anyone with ...
Exploring New Models For Seatbelt Use In Survey Data, 2016 Old Dominion University
Exploring New Models For Seatbelt Use In Survey Data, Mark K. Ledbetter, Norou Diawara, Bryan E. Porter
Virginia Journal of Science
Problem: Several approaches to analyze seatbelt use have been proposed in the literature. Two methods that has not been explored are the use of unweighted and weighted logistic regression model and the use of item response theory (IRT) or the Rasch model. Since accurate methods to predict seatbelt use behavior based upon observed data must include a built-in design method and model, and overcome computation challenges, weighted and IRT method deem to be other options for an observational survey of seat belt use in the state of Virginia.
Method: The observed data from 136 sites within the Commonwealth of Virginia ...