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Learning And Control Using Gaussian Processes, Achin Jain, Truong X Nghiem, Manfred Morari, Rahul Mangharam 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Learning And Control Using Gaussian Processes, Achin Jain, Truong X Nghiem, Manfred Morari, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Building physics-based models of complex physical systems like buildings and chemical plants is extremely cost and time prohibitive for applications such as real-time optimal control, production planning and supply chain logistics. Machine learning algorithms can reduce this cost and time complexity, and are, consequently, more scalable for large-scale physical systems. However, there are many practical challenges that must be addressed before employing machine learning for closed-loop control. This paper proposes the use of Gaussian Processes (GP) for learning control-oriented models: (1) We develop methods for the optimal experiment design (OED) of functional tests to learn models of a physical system ...


Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs For Function Estimation, With An Application To Cerebral Cortex Development, Philip T. Reiss 2017 New York University School of Medicine

Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs For Function Estimation, With An Application To Cerebral Cortex Development, Philip T. Reiss

Philip T. Reiss

Motivated by studies of the development of the human cerebral cortex, we consider
the estimation of a mean growth trajectory and the relative merits of cross-sectional
and longitudinal data for that task. We define a class of relative efficiencies that
compare function estimates in terms of aggregate variance of a parametric function
estimate. These generalize the classical design effect for estimating a scalar with
cross-sectional versus longitudinal data, and in particular cases are shown to be
bounded above by it. Turning to nonparametric function estimation, we find that a
longitudinal fits may tend to have higher aggregate variance than cross-sectional ...


Surface-Flux Regulation Of The Coupling Between Cumulus Convection And Baroclinic Waves, William J. Gutowski Jr., Weidong Jiang 2017 Iowa State University

Surface-Flux Regulation Of The Coupling Between Cumulus Convection And Baroclinic Waves, William J. Gutowski Jr., Weidong Jiang

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

The authors examine the role of convection in the dynamics of eddy life cycles through numerical experiments using initial states that are baroclinically and conditionally unstable in midlatitudes. The location of wave-induced convection and its influence on the growing wave depends on how strongly the wave is coupled to the lower boundary through surface fluxes. For all three convective schemes used here (Emanuel, modified Grell, modified Kuo), convective destabilization is favored in the wave’s warm sector when there are no surface fluxes included in the simulation and in the cold sector when there are. Convection is also shallower when ...


Some Conceptual And Scaling Evaluations Of Snowmelt Events Forced By Warm Soil, M. Segal, Z. Pan, William J. Gutowski Jr. 2017 Iowa State University

Some Conceptual And Scaling Evaluations Of Snowmelt Events Forced By Warm Soil, M. Segal, Z. Pan, William J. Gutowski Jr.

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Snowfall occasionally occurs over bare soil with high thermal storage in its upper layer. Quantification and generalization of the potential impact of the thermal storage on episodic snowmelt is evaluated using a scaling approach and assuming negligible net thermal flux at the snow cover top. Soil thermal flux contribution to snowmelt is found to be affected significantly by the level of soil wetness. It is shown that, for a soil temperature of 10°C prior to the snowfall, the contribution of wet soil thermal flux is significant within the first 12 h when compared with intense surface moist enthalpy flux ...


Effects Of Spectral Nudging In Wrf On Arctic Temperature And Precipitation Simulations, Justin M. Glisan, William J. Gutowski Jr., John J. Cassino, Matthew E. Higgins 2017 Iowa State University

Effects Of Spectral Nudging In Wrf On Arctic Temperature And Precipitation Simulations, Justin M. Glisan, William J. Gutowski Jr., John J. Cassino, Matthew E. Higgins

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Spectral (interior) nudging is a way of constraining a model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events since nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes: what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct biases while not limiting the simulation of extreme events? To determine this, case studies were performed using a six-member ensemble of the Pan-Arctic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with varying spectral ...


Effect Of Ocean Surface Heterogeneity On Climate Simulation, William J. Gutowski Jr., Zekai Ötles, Yiben Chen 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Ocean Surface Heterogeneity On Climate Simulation, William J. Gutowski Jr., Zekai Ötles, Yiben Chen

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

A sensitivity study is performed to examine the potential effect of spatial variations in sea surface temperature (SST) that typically are not resolved in general climate models (GCMs). The study uses a single-column atmospheric model, representing a grid box of a GCM, that overlies a surface domain divided into many subgrid cells. The model is driven by boundary conditions representative of the Gulf Stream off the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States, for the year 1987. A heterogeneous simulation, which includes subgrid spatial variability in SST, is contrasted with a homogeneous simulation, which assigns spatial mean SST to all cells ...


Does The Stress Inherent To Laboratory Life And Experimentation On Animals Adversely Affect Research Data?, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Does The Stress Inherent To Laboratory Life And Experimentation On Animals Adversely Affect Research Data?, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation

Stress and distress in laboratory animals is often inherent and unavoidable. The effect of these factors on the reliability and relevance of experimental data is not sufficiently appreciated. Greater awareness, debate and discussion of this issue are urgently required.


A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro 2017 University of Louisville

A Cross-Sectional Exploration Of Household Financial Reactions And Homebuyer Awareness Of Registered Sex Offenders In A Rural, Suburban, And Urban County., John Charles Navarro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As stigmatized persons, registered sex offenders betoken instability in communities. Depressed home sale values are associated with the presence of registered sex offenders even though the public is largely unaware of the presence of registered sex offenders. Using a spatial multilevel approach, the current study examines the role registered sex offenders influence sale values of homes sold in 2015 for three U.S. counties (rural, suburban, and urban) located in Illinois and Kentucky within the social disorganization framework. Homebuyers were surveyed to examine whether awareness of local registered sex offenders and the homebuyer’s community type operate as moderators between ...


Letter To The Editor, Jarrod Bailey 2017 Cruelty Free International

Letter To The Editor, Jarrod Bailey

Validation of Animal Experimentation

It seems clear that heeding the opinions and recommendations of experienced neuroscientists such as Professor Beuter, the well-argued probable opinion of the time-travelling Parkinson, and Grimm and Eggel’s demands for high animal welfare and honest and realistic harm–benefit analyses, will be of paramount importance for the advancement and evolution of experiments involving NHPs, particularly in neuroscience. This will benefit animals and humans alike.


The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman

PhD theses

Depending on the population studied, cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 14%-90% of patients do not use their pressurized metered dose inhaler correctly, while 50-60% misuse a dry powder inhaler. This means that unless incorrect technique is acounted for a significant underestimation of how much medication the person actually obtained may be made.

The aim of this thesis was to objectively determine the frequency and importance of inhaler technique errors and to combine these with inhaler use to provide an acurate method of calculating adherence. I then investigated different patterns of inhaler use, determinants of inhaler use and the ...


Digital Forensics Tool Selection With Multi-Armed Bandit Problem, Umit Karabiyik, Tugba Karabiyik 2017 Sam Houston State University

Digital Forensics Tool Selection With Multi-Armed Bandit Problem, Umit Karabiyik, Tugba Karabiyik

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Digital forensics investigation is a long and tedious process for an investigator in general. There are many tools that investigators must consider, both proprietary and open source. Forensics investigators must choose the best tool available on the market for their cases to make sure they do not overlook any evidence resides in suspect device within a reasonable time frame. This is however hard decision to make, since learning and testing all available tools make their job only harder. In this project, we define the digital forensics tool selection for a specific investigative task as a multi-armed bandit problem assuming that ...


New Evidence On The Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In A Savannah Habitat At Fongoli, Sénégal, Jill D. Pruetz, P. Bertolani, K. Boyer Ontl, Stacy Marie Lindshield, Mack C. Shelley, E.G. Wessling 2017 Iowa State University

New Evidence On The Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In A Savannah Habitat At Fongoli, Sénégal, Jill D. Pruetz, P. Bertolani, K. Boyer Ontl, Stacy Marie Lindshield, Mack C. Shelley, E.G. Wessling

Jill Pruetz

For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known nonhuman population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis ...


A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli 2017 George Washington University

A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed ...


Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour 2017 The University of Akron

Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour

Honors Research Projects

This is a report from two surveys that I created and administered to students and faculty at Bierce library who came to the Circulation Desk or the Tech Desk, as well as some of my other findings when periodically looking around the library to see where students like to study or hang-out. There was a written survey given at the Circulation Desk, and a different survey given at the Tech Check-Out Desk. The project is for Melanie Smith-Farrell, the head of Access Services, and is based on a similar study Ian McCullough did in the science library. While this is ...


Inference From Network Data In Hard-To-Reach Populations, Isabelle Beaudry 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Inference From Network Data In Hard-To-Reach Populations, Isabelle Beaudry

Doctoral Dissertations

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to make inference about the prevalence of an outcome of interest in hard-to-reach populations. The proposed methods address issues specific to the survey strategies employed to access those populations.

One of the common sampling methodology used in this context is respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Under RDS, the network connecting members of the target population is used to uncover the hidden members. Specialized techniques are then used to make inference from the data collected in this fashion. Our first objective is to correct traditional RDS prevalence estimators and their associated uncertainty estimators for ...


A Semiparametric Inference To Regression Analysis With Missing Covariates In Survey Data, Shu Yang, Jae Kwang Kim 2017 North Carolina State University

A Semiparametric Inference To Regression Analysis With Missing Covariates In Survey Data, Shu Yang, Jae Kwang Kim

Statistics Publications

Parameter estimation in parametric regression models with missing covariates is considered under a survey sampling setup. Under missingness at random, a semiparametric maximum likelihood approach is proposed which requires no parametric specification of the marginal covariate distribution. By drawing from the von Mises calculus and V-Statistics theory, we obtain an asymptotic linear representation of the semiparametric maximum likelihood estimator (SMLE) of the regression parameters, which allows for a consistent estimator of asymptotic variance. An EM algorithm for computation is then developed to implement the proposed method using fractional imputation. Simulation results suggest that the SMLE method is robust, whereas the ...


Analysis Of Variability In Crop Yield For Industrial Hemp On Two Farms In Virginia, Nicholas S. Gentile, Evan M. Hylton, Justin Ngo 2017 James Madison University

Analysis Of Variability In Crop Yield For Industrial Hemp On Two Farms In Virginia, Nicholas S. Gentile, Evan M. Hylton, Justin Ngo

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Although the cultivation of Cannabis sativa was substantially halted in the United States with the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Canada reintroduced licenses for industrial hemp research and commercial production by the mid 1990’s. This led to a resurgence of interest in exploring the potential for this industry across North America, and by 2016, permits were granted to grow industrial hemp in Virginia. The ultimate goal of this project is to explore the agricultural feasibility of growing industrial hemp on small and medium sized farms in Virginia, and integrating small-farm production with a potential supply chain for three key ...


"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble 2017 George Washington University

"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of providing quarterly $70 gift card financial incentives to HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to encourage ART adherence and viral suppression, and represents the largest study to-date of a financial incentive intervention for HIV viral suppression. A post-trial qualitative substudy was undertaken to examine acceptability of the financial incentives among those receiving and implementing the intervention.

METHODS: Between July and October 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 12 investigators from 14 sites; three focus groups were conducted with 12 staff from 10 sites. Qualitative data collection elicited ...


When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework, J. Jull, M. Whitehead, M. Petticrew, E. Kristjansson, D. Gough, Sarah Baird, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

When Is A Randomised Controlled Trial Health Equity Relevant? Development And Validation Of A Conceptual Framework, J. Jull, M. Whitehead, M. Petticrew, E. Kristjansson, D. Gough, Sarah Baird, +Several Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

Background Randomised controlled trials can provide evidence relevant to assessing the equity impact of an intervention, but such information is often poorly reported. We describe a conceptual framework to identify health equity-relevant randomised trials with the aim of improving the design and reporting of such trials.

Methods An interdisciplinary and international research team engaged in an iterative consensus building process to develop and refine the conceptual framework via face-to-face meetings, teleconferences and email correspondence, including findings from a validation exercise whereby two independent reviewers used the emerging framework to classify a sample of randomised trials.

Results A randomised trial can ...


Tuning Optimization Software Parameters For Mixed Integer Programming Problems, Toni P. Sorrell 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Tuning Optimization Software Parameters For Mixed Integer Programming Problems, Toni P. Sorrell

Theses and Dissertations

The tuning of optimization software is of key interest to researchers solving mixed integer programming (MIP) problems. The efficiency of the optimization software can be greatly impacted by the solver’s parameter settings and the structure of the MIP. A designed experiment approach is used to fit a statistical model that would suggest settings of the parameters that provided the largest reduction in the primal integral metric. Tuning exemplars of six and 59 factors (parameters) of optimization software, experimentation takes place on three classes of MIPs: survivable fixed telecommunication network design, a formulation of the support vector machine with the ...


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