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Massively Parallel Approximate Gaussian Process Regression, Robert B. Gramacy, Jarad Niemi, Robin M. Weiss 2017 University of Chicago

Massively Parallel Approximate Gaussian Process Regression, Robert B. Gramacy, Jarad Niemi, Robin M. Weiss

Jarad Niemi

We explore how the big-three computing paradigms---symmetric multiprocessor, graphical processing units (GPUs), and cluster computing---can together be brought to bear on large-data Gaussian processes (GP) regression problems via a careful implementation of a newly developed local approximation scheme. Our methodological contribution focuses primarily on GPU computation, as this requires the most care and also provides the largest performance boost. However, in our empirical work we study the relative merits of all three paradigms to determine how best to combine them. The paper concludes with two case studies. One is a real data fluid-dynamics computer experiment which benefits from the local ...


A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli 2017 George Washington University

A Comparison Of The Quality Of Informed Consent For Clinical Trials Of An Experimental Hookworm Vaccine Conducted In Developed And Developing Countries., David J. Diemert, Lucas Lobato, Ashley Styczynski, Maria Zumer, Amanda Soares, Maria Flávia Gazzinelli

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Informed consent is one of the principal ethical requirements of conducting clinical research, regardless of the study setting. Breaches in the quality of the informed consent process are frequently described in reference to clinical trials conducted in developing countries, due to low levels of formal education, a lack of familiarity with biomedical research, and limited access to health services in these countries. However, few studies have directly compared the quality of the informed consent process in developed and developing countries using the same tool and in similar clinical trials. This study was conducted to compare the quality of the informed ...


Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour 2017 The University of Akron

Statistics-Bierce Library Study, Tyler J. Hushour

Honors Research Projects

This is a report from two surveys that I created and administered to students and faculty at Bierce library who came to the Circulation Desk or the Tech Desk, as well as some of my other findings when periodically looking around the library to see where students like to study or hang-out. There was a written survey given at the Circulation Desk, and a different survey given at the Tech Check-Out Desk. The project is for Melanie Smith-Farrell, the head of Access Services, and is based on a similar study Ian McCullough did in the science library. While this is ...


"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble 2017 George Washington University

"It Makes You Feel Like Someone Cares" Acceptability Of A Financial Incentive Intervention For Hiv Viral Suppression In The Hptn 065 (Tlc-Plus) Study., Elizabeth Greene, Allison Pack, Jill Stanton, Victoria Shelus, Elizabeth E Tolley, Jamilah Taylor, Wafaa M El Sadr, Bernard M Branson, Jason Leider, Natella Rakhmanina, Theresa Gamble

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of providing quarterly $70 gift card financial incentives to HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to encourage ART adherence and viral suppression, and represents the largest study to-date of a financial incentive intervention for HIV viral suppression. A post-trial qualitative substudy was undertaken to examine acceptability of the financial incentives among those receiving and implementing the intervention.

METHODS: Between July and October 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 12 investigators from 14 sites; three focus groups were conducted with 12 staff from 10 sites. Qualitative data collection elicited ...


What Affects Parents’ Choice Of Milk? An Application Of Bayesian Model Averaging, Yingzhe Cheng 2016 University of New Mexico

What Affects Parents’ Choice Of Milk? An Application Of Bayesian Model Averaging, Yingzhe Cheng

Mathematics & Statistics ETDs

This study identifies the factors that influence parents’ choice of milk for their children, using data from a unique survey administered in 2013 in Hunan province, China. In this survey, we identified two brands of milk, which differ in their prices and safety claims by the producer. Data were collected on parents’ choice of milk between the two brands, demographics, attitude towards food safety and behaviors related to food. Stepwise model selection and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) are used to search for influential factors. The two approaches consistently select the same factors suggested by an economic theoretical model, including price ...


Applying Ahp And Clustering Approaches For Public Transportation Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Isfahan City, Alireza Salavati, Hossein Haghshenas, Bahador Ghadirifaraz, Jamshid Laghaei, Ghodrat Eftekhari 2016 Isfahan Dept. of Transportation and Traffic

Applying Ahp And Clustering Approaches For Public Transportation Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Isfahan City, Alireza Salavati, Hossein Haghshenas, Bahador Ghadirifaraz, Jamshid Laghaei, Ghodrat Eftekhari

Journal of Public Transportation

The main purpose of this paper is to define appropriate criteria for the systematic approach to evaluate and prioritize multiple candidate corridors for public transport investment simultaneously to serve travel demand, regarding supply of current public transportation system and road network conditions of Isfahan, Iran. To optimize resource allocation, policymakers need to identify proper corridors to implement a public transportation system. In fact, the main question is to adopt the best public transportation system for each main corridor of Isfahan. In this regard, 137 questionnaires were completed by experts, directors, and policymakers of Isfahan to identify goals and objectives in ...


A Traders Guide To The Predictive Universe- A Model For Predicting Oil Price Targets And Trading On Them, Jimmie Harold Lenz 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

A Traders Guide To The Predictive Universe- A Model For Predicting Oil Price Targets And Trading On Them, Jimmie Harold Lenz

Doctor of Business Administration Dissertations

At heart every trader loves volatility; this is where return on investment comes from, this is what drives the proverbial “positive alpha.” As a trader, understanding the probabilities related to the volatility of prices is key, however if you could also predict future prices with reliability the world would be your oyster. To this end, I have achieved three goals with this dissertation, to develop a model to predict future short term prices (direction and magnitude), to effectively test this by generating consistent profits utilizing a trading model developed for this purpose, and to write a paper that anyone with ...


Exploring New Models For Seatbelt Use In Survey Data, Mark K. Ledbetter, Norou Diawara, Bryan E. Porter 2016 Old Dominion University

Exploring New Models For Seatbelt Use In Survey Data, Mark K. Ledbetter, Norou Diawara, Bryan E. Porter

Virginia Journal of Science

Problem: Several approaches to analyze seatbelt use have been proposed in the literature. Two methods that has not been explored are the use of unweighted and weighted logistic regression model and the use of item response theory (IRT) or the Rasch model. Since accurate methods to predict seatbelt use behavior based upon observed data must include a built-in design method and model, and overcome computation challenges, weighted and IRT method deem to be other options for an observational survey of seat belt use in the state of Virginia.

Method: The observed data from 136 sites within the Commonwealth of Virginia ...


An Assessment Of The Role Of Chimpanzees In Aids Vaccine Research, Jarrod Bailey 2016 New England Anti-Vivisection Society

An Assessment Of The Role Of Chimpanzees In Aids Vaccine Research, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.

Prior to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-infected macaques becoming the ‘model of choice’ in the 1990s, chimpanzees were widely used in AIDS vaccine research and testing. Faced with the continued failure to develop an effective human vaccine, some scientists are calling for a return to their widespread use. To assess the past and potential future contribution of chimpanzees to AIDS vaccine development, databases and published literature were systematically searched to compare the results of AIDS vaccine trials in chimpanzees with those of human clinical trials, and to determine whether the chimpanzee trials were predictive of the human response. Protective and ...


Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor 2016 Cruelty Free International

Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor

Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D.

Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP ...


Institutional Animal Care And Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm Or Work In Progress?, John P. Gluck, F. Barbara Orlans 2016 University of New Mexico

Institutional Animal Care And Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm Or Work In Progress?, John P. Gluck, F. Barbara Orlans

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

In his challenging article, Steneck (1997) criticized the creation of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) system established by the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. He saw the IACUC review and approval of biomedical and behavioral research with animals as an unnecessary "reassignment" of duties from existing animal care programs to IACUC committees. He argued that the committees are unable to do the work expected of them for basically three reasons: (a) the membership lacks the expertise in matters relevant to animal research and care, (b) there exists an inherent and disabling conflict of interest, and ...


Combined Computational-Experimental Design Of High-Temperature, High-Intensity Permanent Magnetic Alloys With Minimal Addition Of Rare-Earth Elements, Rajesh Jha 2016 Florida International University

Combined Computational-Experimental Design Of High-Temperature, High-Intensity Permanent Magnetic Alloys With Minimal Addition Of Rare-Earth Elements, Rajesh Jha

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

AlNiCo magnets are known for high-temperature stability and superior corrosion resistance and have been widely used for various applications. Reported magnetic energy density ((BH) max) for these magnets is around 10 MGOe. Theoretical calculations show that ((BH) max) of 20 MGOe is achievable which will be helpful in covering the gap between AlNiCo and Rare-Earth Elements (REE) based magnets. An extended family of AlNiCo alloys was studied in this dissertation that consists of eight elements, and hence it is important to determine composition-property relationship between each of the alloying elements and their influence on the bulk properties.

In the present ...


Walking To Recovery - The Effects Of Postsurgical Ambulation On Patient Recovery Times, Trent William Stethen 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Walking To Recovery - The Effects Of Postsurgical Ambulation On Patient Recovery Times, Trent William Stethen

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Psychological Aspects Of Slaughter: Reactions Of College Students To Killing And Butchering Cattle And Hogs, Harold A. Herzog Jr., Sandy McGee 2016 Mars Hill College

Psychological Aspects Of Slaughter: Reactions Of College Students To Killing And Butchering Cattle And Hogs, Harold A. Herzog Jr., Sandy Mcgee

Harold Herzog, Ph.D.

This study examined the reactions of college students involved in slaughtering cattle and hogs as part of their jobs on a college work crew. The 27 students were surveyed on attitudes containing items toward slaughtering animals and toward different uses of animals. Nineteen were later interviewed. Some aspects of slaughtering were reported to be more bothersome than others. There was a relationship between the amount of experience of the subjects in slaughtering and also their general attitudes toward various uses of animals and their responses to several of the items on the questionnaire. The perceived benefits of the slaughtering experience ...


Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor 2016 Cruelty Free International

Non-Human Primates In Neuroscience Research: The Case Against Its Scientific Necessity, Jarrod Bailey, Katy Taylor

EXP

Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP ...


Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

We have frequently implemented crossover studies to evaluate new therapeutic interventions for genital herpes simplex virus infection. The outcome measured to assess the efficacy of interventions on herpes disease severity is the viral shedding rate, defined as the frequency of detection of HSV on the genital skin and mucosa. We performed a simulation study to ascertain whether our standard model, which we have used previously, was appropriately considering all the necessary features of the shedding data to provide correct inference. We simulated shedding data under our standard, validated assumptions and assessed the ability of 5 different models to reproduce the ...


Analysis Of The Precipitation Detection Algorithm For The Geonor T-200b Precipitation Gauge To Improve Accuracy, Megan Lerman, Robert K. Goodrich 2016 San Diego State University

Analysis Of The Precipitation Detection Algorithm For The Geonor T-200b Precipitation Gauge To Improve Accuracy, Megan Lerman, Robert K. Goodrich

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

In an effort to improve the precipitation detection algorithm for the Geonor All Weather Precipitation Gauge, an automated truth algorithm has been created to detect errors in the original algorithm. The original algorithm detects precipitation in real time and uses the rate of precipitation to indicate an event. The automated truth does not detect in real time, and focuses on precipitation accumulation to indicate an event. Since the automated truth is delayed, it is able to consider the data collected before and after the point it is analyzing. The automated truth is already more accurate than the original algorithm but ...


Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs For Function Estimation, With An Application To Cerebral Cortex Development, Philip T. Reiss 2015 New York University School of Medicine

Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs For Function Estimation, With An Application To Cerebral Cortex Development, Philip T. Reiss

Philip T. Reiss

Motivated by studies of the development of the human cerebral cortex, we consider
the estimation of a mean growth trajectory and the relative merits of cross-sectional
and longitudinal data for that task. We define a class of relative efficiencies that
compare function estimates in terms of aggregate variance of a parametric function
estimate. These generalize the classical design effect for estimating a scalar with
cross-sectional versus longitudinal data, and in particular cases are shown to be
bounded above by it. Turning to nonparametric function estimation, we find that a
longitudinal fits may tend to have higher aggregate variance than cross-sectional ...


Confidence Intervals For The Population Mean Tailored To Small Sample Sizes, With Applications To Survey Sampling, Michael Rosenblum, Mark van der Laan 2015 Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

Confidence Intervals For The Population Mean Tailored To Small Sample Sizes, With Applications To Survey Sampling, Michael Rosenblum, Mark Van Der Laan

Michael Rosenblum MD

The validity of standard confidence intervals constructed in survey sampling is based on the central limit theorem. For small sample sizes, the central limit theorem may give a poor approximation, resulting in confidence intervals that are misleading. We discuss this issue and propose methods for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean tailored to small sample sizes. We present a simple approach for constructing confidence intervals for the population mean based on tail bounds for the sample mean that are correct for all sample sizes. Bernstein's inequality provides one such tail bound. The resulting confidence intervals have guaranteed coverage ...


Detailed Version: Analyzing Direct Effects In Randomized Trials With Secondary Interventions: An Application To Hiv Prevention Trials, Michael Rosenblum, Nicholas Jewell, Mark van der Laan, Stephen Shiboski, Ariane van der Straten, Nancy Padian 2015 University of California, Berkeley

Detailed Version: Analyzing Direct Effects In Randomized Trials With Secondary Interventions: An Application To Hiv Prevention Trials, Michael Rosenblum, Nicholas Jewell, Mark Van Der Laan, Stephen Shiboski, Ariane Van Der Straten, Nancy Padian

Michael Rosenblum MD

This is the detailed technical report that accompanies the paper “Analyzing Direct Effects in Randomized Trials with Secondary Interventions: An Application to HIV Prevention Trials” (an unpublished, technical report version of which is available online at http://www.bepress.com/ucbbiostat/paper223). The version here gives full details of the models for the time-dependent analysis, and presents further results in the data analysis section. The Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA) trial is a recently completed randomized trial that investigated the effect of diaphragm and lubricant gel use in reducing HIV infection among susceptible women. 5,045 women ...


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