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Modelling Heterogeneous Effects In Network Contagion: Evidence From The Steam Community, Henrique Laurino dos Santos 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Modelling Heterogeneous Effects In Network Contagion: Evidence From The Steam Community, Henrique Laurino Dos Santos

Wharton Research Scholars

This study considers heterogeneous effects of reviews and social interactions on diffusion or contagion of new products in a networked setting, using a sample of interconnected public user profiles from the Steam Community. Ownership and reviews of two cult hit independent games – The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth, and To the Moon – are analyzed over a period of four years. This data was fit with a Hawkes Process Hazard Regression Model with exponential decay kernels for each game, yielding estimates of scale and duration of incremental heterogeneous actions within the network. This analysis finds strong, short term, additive, and marginally decreasing ...


Survival Analysis: A Modified Kaplan-Meir Estimator, Justin A. Bancroft 2017 Missouri State University

Survival Analysis: A Modified Kaplan-Meir Estimator, Justin A. Bancroft

MSU Graduate Theses

The popular Kaplan-Meir estimator has traditionally been used to great effect as a survival function estimator. However, the Kaplan-Meir estimator is dependent upon a maximum likelihood parameter estimator which may not be the best estimator in all cases. We modify the Kaplan-Meir estimator, based on a Bayes parameter estimation, in hopes of providing a more accurate survival estimator for small sample sizes. Core elements of survival analysis are presented, acting as a foundation from which to construct and compare our modified Kaplan-Meir estimator. It is hypothesized that our modified Kaplan-Meir estimator is generally more accurate than the standard Kaplan-Meir estimator ...


On The Estimation Of Penetrance In The Presence Of Competing Risks With Family Data, Daniel Prawira 2017 The University of Western Ontario

On The Estimation Of Penetrance In The Presence Of Competing Risks With Family Data, Daniel Prawira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In family studies, we are interested in estimating the penetrance function of the event of interest in the presence of competing risks. Failure to account for competing risks may lead to bias in the estimation of the penetrance function. In this thesis, three statistical challenges are addressed: clustering, missing data, and competing risks. We proposed the cause-specific model with shared frailty and ascertainment correction to account for clustering and competing risks along with ascertainment of families into study. Multiple imputation is used to account for missing data. The simulation study showed good performance of our proposed model in estimating the ...


Comparision Of Survival Curves Between Cox Proportional Hazards, Random Forests, And Conditional Inference Forests In Survival Analysis, Brandon Weathers, Richard Cutler Dr. 2017 Utah State University

Comparision Of Survival Curves Between Cox Proportional Hazards, Random Forests, And Conditional Inference Forests In Survival Analysis, Brandon Weathers, Richard Cutler Dr.

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Survival analysis methods are a mainstay of the biomedical fields but are finding increasing use in other disciplines including finance and engineering. A widely used tool in survival analysis is the Cox proportional hazards regression model. For this model, all the predicted survivor curves have the same basic shape, which may not be a good approximation to reality. In contrast the Random Survival Forests does not make the proportional hazards assumption and has the flexibility to model survivor curves that are of quite different shapes for different groups of subjects. We applied both techniques to a number of publicly available ...


Statistical Methods For Two Problems In Cancer Research: Analysis Of Rna-Seq Data From Archival Samples And Characterization Of Onset Of Multiple Primary Cancers, Jialu Li 2017 The University of Texas MD ANderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Statistical Methods For Two Problems In Cancer Research: Analysis Of Rna-Seq Data From Archival Samples And Characterization Of Onset Of Multiple Primary Cancers, Jialu Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

My dissertation is focused on quantitative methodology development and application for two important topics in translational and clinical cancer research.

The first topic was motivated by the challenge of applying transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE) tumor samples for reliable diagnostic development. We designed a biospecimen study to directly compare gene expression results from different protocols to prepare libraries for RNA-seq from human breast cancer tissues, with randomization to fresh-frozen (FF) or FFPE conditions. To comprehensively evaluate the FFPE RNA-seq data quality for expression profiling, we developed multiple computational methods for assessment, such as the uniformity and continuity ...


Sidz Dc Article April Twenty, Sidney Twentythree Sr., Ann Test 2017 bepress university libraries

Sidz Dc Article April Twenty, Sidney Twentythree Sr., Ann Test

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Novel Computational Methods For Censored Data And Regression, Yifan Yang 2017 University of Kentucky

Novel Computational Methods For Censored Data And Regression, Yifan Yang

Theses and Dissertations--Statistics

This dissertation can be divided into three topics. In the first topic, we derived a recursive algorithm for the constrained Kaplan-Meier estimator, which promotes the computation speed up to fifty times compared to the current method that uses EM algorithm. We also showed how this leads to the vast improvement of empirical likelihood analysis with right censored data. After a brief review of regularized regressions, we investigated the computational problems in the parametric/non-parametric hybrid accelerated failure time models and its regularization in a high dimensional setting. We also illustrated that, when the number of pieces increases, the discussed models ...


Survival Analysis In A Clinical Setting, Yunzhao Liu 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Survival Analysis In A Clinical Setting, Yunzhao Liu

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the fast paced advancement of modern medicine, cancer treatments have improved greatly over the past few decades; however, the overall survival rate has not improved for head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Traditionally, the general affected population of HNSCC was male over 50-60 years of age, whom have had history of alcohol and tobacco use. Conversely, in the recent decades, HNSCC has exhibited significant rise in younger patients, largely due to the increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among young adults.

Generally, HPV as the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease, consisted of strains that do not cause harm to ...


Joint Modelling In Liver Transplantation, Elizabeth M. Renouf 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Joint Modelling In Liver Transplantation, Elizabeth M. Renouf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the setting of liver transplantation, clinical trials and transplant registries regularly collect repeated measurements of clinical biomarkers which may be strongly associated with a time-to-event such as graft failure or disease recurrence. Multiple time-to-event outcomes are routinely collected. However, joint models are rarely used. This thesis will describe important considerations for joint modelling in the setting of liver transplantation. We will focus on transplant registry data from the United States. We develop a new tool for joint modelling in the context where a critical health event can be tracked in the longitudinal biomarker and often presents as a non-linear ...


Conditional Screening For Ultra-High Dimensional Covariates With Survival Outcomes, Hyokyoung Grace Hong, Jian Kang, Yi Li 2016 Michigan State University

Conditional Screening For Ultra-High Dimensional Covariates With Survival Outcomes, Hyokyoung Grace Hong, Jian Kang, Yi Li

The University of Michigan Department of Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Identifying important biomarkers that are predictive for cancer patients' prognosis is key in gaining better insights into the biological influences on the disease and has become a critical component of precision medicine. The emergence of large-scale biomedical survival studies, which typically involve excessive number of biomarkers, has brought high demand in designing efficient screening tools for selecting predictive biomarkers. The vast amount of biomarkers defies any existing variable selection methods via regularization. The recently developed variable screening methods, though powerful in many practical setting, fail to incorporate prior information on the importance of each biomarker and are less powerful in ...


Multilevel Analysis Of Individual, Neighborhood, And Health Care Facility Characteristics Associated With Achievement And Maintenance Of Hiv Viral Suppression Among Persons Newly Diagnosed With Hiv In New York City, Ellen W. Wiewel 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Multilevel Analysis Of Individual, Neighborhood, And Health Care Facility Characteristics Associated With Achievement And Maintenance Of Hiv Viral Suppression Among Persons Newly Diagnosed With Hiv In New York City, Ellen W. Wiewel

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Objective

To investigate the effect of individual, health care facility, and neighborhood characteristics on achievement and maintenance of HIV viral suppression, among New York City residents aged 13 years and older diagnosed with HIV between 2006 and 2012.

Methods

I used individual-level data from the New York City HIV surveillance registry and Case Surveillance-Based Sampling, facility-level data from the surveillance registry, and neighborhood-level data from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The outcomes of interest were first viral suppression after diagnosis (Aims 1 and 3; ≤400 copies/mL) and virologic failure after first suppression among persons who achieved ...


A Transformation Class For Spatio-Temporal Survival Data With A Cure Fraction, Sandra M. Hurtado Rua, Dipak K. Dey 2016 Cleveland State University

A Transformation Class For Spatio-Temporal Survival Data With A Cure Fraction, Sandra M. Hurtado Rua, Dipak K. Dey

Mathematics Faculty Publications

We propose a hierarchical Bayesian methodology to model spatially or spatio-temporal clustered survival data with possibility of cure. A flexible continuous transformation class of survival curves indexed by a single parameter is used. This transformation model is a larger class of models containing two special cases of the well-known existing models: the proportional hazard and the proportional odds models. The survival curve is modeled as a function of a baseline cumulative distribution function, cure rates, and spatio-temporal frailties. The cure rates are modeled through a covariate link specification and the spatial frailties are specified using a conditionally autoregressive model with ...


Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

We have frequently implemented crossover studies to evaluate new therapeutic interventions for genital herpes simplex virus infection. The outcome measured to assess the efficacy of interventions on herpes disease severity is the viral shedding rate, defined as the frequency of detection of HSV on the genital skin and mucosa. We performed a simulation study to ascertain whether our standard model, which we have used previously, was appropriately considering all the necessary features of the shedding data to provide correct inference. We simulated shedding data under our standard, validated assumptions and assessed the ability of 5 different models to reproduce the ...


Who Is Like Whom? Reclassification And Performance Patterns For Different Groupings Of English Learners, Molly M. Faulkner-Bond 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Who Is Like Whom? Reclassification And Performance Patterns For Different Groupings Of English Learners, Molly M. Faulkner-Bond

Doctoral Dissertations

Approximately 10 percent of the US K-12 population consists of English learners (ELs), or students who are learning English in addition to academic content in areas like English language arts (ELA) and mathematics. In addition to meeting the same academic content and performance standards set for all students, it is also a goal for ELs to be reclassified – i.e., to master English so that they can shed the EL label and participate in academic settings where English is used without needing special support. Working with a longitudinal cohort of ~28,000 ELs in grades 3 through 8 from one ...


Empirical Likelihood And Differentiable Functionals, Zhiyuan Shen 2016 University of Kentucky

Empirical Likelihood And Differentiable Functionals, Zhiyuan Shen

Theses and Dissertations--Statistics

Empirical likelihood (EL) is a recently developed nonparametric method of statistical inference. It has been shown by Owen (1988,1990) and many others that empirical likelihood ratio (ELR) method can be used to produce nice confidence intervals or regions. Owen (1988) shows that -2logELR converges to a chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom subject to a linear statistical functional in terms of distribution functions. However, a generalization of Owen's result to the right censored data setting is difficult since no explicit maximization can be obtained under constraint in terms of distribution functions. Pan and Zhou (2002), instead ...


Statistical Methods For Environmental Exposure Data Subject To Detection Limits, Yuchen Yang 2016 University of Kentucky

Statistical Methods For Environmental Exposure Data Subject To Detection Limits, Yuchen Yang

Theses and Dissertations--Statistics

In this dissertation, we develop unified and efficient nonparametric statistical methods for estimating and comparing environmental exposure distributions in presence of detection limits. In the first part, we propose a kernel-smoothed nonparametric estimator for the exposure distribution without imposing any independence assumption between the exposure level and detection limit. We show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in practical situations. A colon cancer study is provided for illustration. In the second part, we develop a class of test statistics to compare exposure distributions between two groups by using ...


A Pairwise Likelihood Augmented Estimator For The Cox Model Under Left-Truncation, Fan Wu, Sehee Kim, Jing Qin, Rajiv Saran, Yi Li 2015 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

A Pairwise Likelihood Augmented Estimator For The Cox Model Under Left-Truncation, Fan Wu, Sehee Kim, Jing Qin, Rajiv Saran, Yi Li

The University of Michigan Department of Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Survival data collected from prevalent cohorts are subject to left-truncation and the analysis is challenging. Conditional approaches for left-truncated data under the Cox model are inefficient as they typically ignore the information in the marginal likelihood of the truncation times. Length-biased sampling methods can improve the estimation efficiency but only when the stationarity assumption of the disease incidence holds, i.e., the truncation distribution is uniform; otherwise they may generate biased estimates. In this paper, we propose a semi-parametric method for the Cox model under general left-truncation, where the truncation distribution is unspecified. Our approach is to make inference based ...


Two Essays In Financial Economics, Kyle J. Putnam 2015 University of New Orleans

Two Essays In Financial Economics, Kyle J. Putnam

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The following dissertation contains two distinct empirical essays which contribute to the overall field of Financial Economics. Chapter 1, entitled “The Determinants of Dynamic Dependence: An Analysis of Commodity Futures and Equity Markets,” examines the determinants of the dynamic equity-commodity return correlations between five commodity futures sub-sectors (energy, foods and fibers, grains and oilseeds, livestock, and precious metals) and a value-weighted equity market index (S&P 500). The study utilizes the traditional DCC model, as well as three time-varying copulas: (i) the normal copula, (ii) the student’s t copula, and (iii) the rotated-gumbel copula as dependence measures. Subsequently, the ...


Characteristics Of Stem Success: A Survival Analysis Model Of Factors Influencing Time To Graduation Among Undergraduate Stem Majors, Riley K. Acton 2015 Ursinus College

Characteristics Of Stem Success: A Survival Analysis Model Of Factors Influencing Time To Graduation Among Undergraduate Stem Majors, Riley K. Acton

Business and Economics Honors Papers

Producing more graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), as well as ensuring students complete college in a timely manner are both areas of national public policy interest. In order to improve these two outcomes, it is imperative to understand what factors lead undergraduate students to persist in, and ultimately graduate with STEM degrees. This paper uses data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study, provided by The National Center of Education Statistics, to model the time to baccalaureate degree among STEM majors using a Cox proportional hazard model.


Uncoupling Lifespan And Healthspan In Caenorhabditis Elegans Longevity Mutants, Ankita Bansal, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kelvin Yen, Heidi A. Tissenbaum 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uncoupling Lifespan And Healthspan In Caenorhabditis Elegans Longevity Mutants, Ankita Bansal, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kelvin Yen, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Aging research has been very successful at identifying signaling pathways and evolutionarily conserved genes that extend lifespan with the assumption that an increase in lifespan will also increase healthspan. However, it is largely unknown whether we are extending the healthy time of life or simply prolonging a period of frailty with increased incidence of age-associated diseases. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the premiere systems for lifespan studies, to determine whether lifespan and healthspan are intrinsically correlated. We conducted multiple cellular and organismal assays on wild type as well as four long-lived mutants (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, dietary restriction ...


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