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270 full-text articles. Page 1 of 6.

Regression Modeling Of Complex Survival Data Based On Pseudo-Observations, Rong Rong 2022 Southern Methodist University

Regression Modeling Of Complex Survival Data Based On Pseudo-Observations, Rong Rong

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

The restricted mean survival time (RMST) is a clinically meaningful summary measure in studies with survival outcomes. Statistical methods have been developed for regression analysis of RMST to investigate impacts of covariates on RMST, which is a useful alternative to the Cox regression analysis. However, existing methods for regression modeling of RMST are not applicable to left-truncated right-censored data that arise frequently in prevalent cohort studies, for which the sampling bias due to left truncation and informative censoring induced by the prevalent sampling scheme must be properly addressed. Meanwhile, statistical methods have been developed for regression modeling of the cumulative …


Dynamic Prediction For Alternating Recurrent Events Using A Semiparametric Joint Frailty Model, Jaehyeon Yun 2022 Southern Methodist University

Dynamic Prediction For Alternating Recurrent Events Using A Semiparametric Joint Frailty Model, Jaehyeon Yun

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

Alternating recurrent events data arise commonly in health research; examples include hospital admissions and discharges of diabetes patients; exacerbations and remissions of chronic bronchitis; and quitting and restarting smoking. Recent work has involved formulating and estimating joint models for the recurrent event times considering non-negligible event durations. However, prediction models for transition between recurrent events are lacking. We consider the development and evaluation of methods for predicting future events within these models. Specifically, we propose a tool for dynamically predicting transition between alternating recurrent events in real time. Under a flexible joint frailty model, we derive the predictive probability of …


Statistical Methods For Personalized Treatment Selection And Survival Data Analysis Based On Observational Data With High-Dimensional Covariates., Don Ramesh Dinendra Sudaraka Tholkage 2022 University of Louisville

Statistical Methods For Personalized Treatment Selection And Survival Data Analysis Based On Observational Data With High-Dimensional Covariates., Don Ramesh Dinendra Sudaraka Tholkage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to the wide availability of functional data from multiple disciplines, the studies of functional data analysis have become popular in the recent literature. However, the related development in censored survival data has been relatively sparse. In Chapter 2, we consider the problem of analyzing time-to-event data in the presence of functional predictors. We develop a conditional generalized Kaplan Meier (KM) estimator that incorporates functional predictors using kernel weights and rigorously establishes its asymptotic properties. In addition, we propose to select the optimal bandwidth based on a time-dependent Brier score. We then carry out extensive numerical studies to examine the …


New Developments On The Estimability And The Estimation Of Phase-Type Actuarial Models, Cong Nie 2022 The University of Western Ontario

New Developments On The Estimability And The Estimation Of Phase-Type Actuarial Models, Cong Nie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis studies the estimability and the estimation methods for two models based on Markov processes: the phase-type aging model (PTAM), which models the human aging process, and the discrete multivariate phase-type model (DMPTM), which can be used to model multivariate insurance claim processes.

The principal contributions of this thesis can be categorized into two areas. First, an objective measure of estimability is proposed to quantify estimability in the context of statistical models. Existing methods for assessing estimability require the subjective specification of thresholds, which potentially limits their usefulness. Unlike these methods, the proposed measure of estimability is objective. In …


Factors Affecting Time To Recovery: A Covid-19 Survival Analysis, Fernanda Montoya 2022 Northern Illinois University

Factors Affecting Time To Recovery: A Covid-19 Survival Analysis, Fernanda Montoya

Honors Capstones

This project is focused on the recovery rates of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 after different clinical trial drug treatments. Data for the clinical trial studied was obtained from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for the primary purpose of a survival analysis on patient time to recovery under a placebo and therapeutic drug treatment. Specifically, patients in this clinical trial were randomly selected to receive remdesivir, an antiviral drug, in combination with a placebo or baricitinib, a janus kinase inhibitor drug. Cox PH models were used to identify how the different treatment drugs affect time to recovery and …


Flexible Modelling Of Time-Dependent Covariate Effects With Correlated Competing Risks: Application To Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Families, Seungwoo Lee 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Flexible Modelling Of Time-Dependent Covariate Effects With Correlated Competing Risks: Application To Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Families, Seungwoo Lee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis aims to develop a flexible approach for modelling time-dependent covariate effects on event risk using B-splines in the presence of correlated competing risks. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated via simulation in terms of the bias and precision of the estimation of the parameters and penetrance functions. In addition, we extended the concordance index to account for time-dependent effects and competing events simultaneously and demonstrated its inference procedures. We applied our proposed methods to data rising from the BRCA1 mutation families from the breast cancer family registry to evaluate the time-dependent effects of mammographic screening and …


Predicting Tf33-Pw-100a Engine Failures Due To Oil Issues Using Survival Analyses, Anna M. Davis 2022 Air Force Institute of Technology

Predicting Tf33-Pw-100a Engine Failures Due To Oil Issues Using Survival Analyses, Anna M. Davis

Theses and Dissertations

In 2007, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Sustainment pushed for the need to transition to a Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM ) initiative for weapon systems in the U.S. Department of Defense. The CBM initiative can help increase aircraft availability (AA) for the United States Air Force. There are many reasons where AA can be affected but one such issue is engine availability primarily due to oil issues. Within the CBM perspective, this study examines the risk of a jet engine failure due to an oil issue and attempts to predict an engines time until next …


Examining Failures Of Kc-135s Using Survival Analysis, Vanessa I. R. Unseth 2022 Air Force Institute of Technology

Examining Failures Of Kc-135s Using Survival Analysis, Vanessa I. R. Unseth

Theses and Dissertations

The United States Air Force manages an inventory of 396 KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft. With mission capability rates falling and total non-mission capability supply rates increasing, it is necessary to take a deeper look at recurrent failures. The study applies non-parametric and semi-parametric survival models to a dataset retrieved from LIMS-EV to look at the duration(s) until failure for the KC-135. Results of non-parametric models show cumulative failure rates increase as sorties or flight hours increase. In addition, semi-parametric models or Cox proportional hazards models with frailty confirm that locations or air bases are not associated with recurrent failures.


Addressing Bias In Non-Experimental Studies Assessing Treatment Outcomes In Prostate Cancer, David E. Guy 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Addressing Bias In Non-Experimental Studies Assessing Treatment Outcomes In Prostate Cancer, David E. Guy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We evaluated the ability of matching techniques to balance baseline characteristics between treatment groups using non-experimental data. We identified a set of balance diagnostics that assessed key differences in baseline covariates with potential for confounding. These diagnostics were used in a novel systematic approach to developing and evaluating models for use in propensity score matching that optimized balance and data retention. We then compared the performance of propensity score and coarsened exact matching strategies in optimizing balance and data retention, using non-experimental data from a pan-Canadian prostate cancer database. Both matching techniques balanced baseline covariates adequately and retained approximately 70% …


Asymptotic Results For Empirical Processes In Informative Model Of Random Censorship From Both Sides, Abdurakhim Abdushukurov, Dilshod Mansurov 2021 Moscow State University Tashkent branch

Asymptotic Results For Empirical Processes In Informative Model Of Random Censorship From Both Sides, Abdurakhim Abdushukurov, Dilshod Mansurov

Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences

In the paper, the empirical process in informative model of random censorship from both sides is investigated. For it, the limit Gaussian process with mean zero is founded. Under investigating of empirical process, the characterization properties of the considered informative model is used. The properties of the semiparametric estimator by using methods of numerical modeling are discussed.


An Examination Into Retention Behavior Of Air Force Female Officers, Jessica M. Astudillo 2021 Air Force Institute of Technology

An Examination Into Retention Behavior Of Air Force Female Officers, Jessica M. Astudillo

Theses and Dissertations

Female retention rates in the US military have been considerably lower than that of their male counterparts for numerous years. In the Air Force, women represent 14 percent of officer ranks from O-5 level and above. Comparatively, the overall rate of women officers in service is 20 percent. Understanding the negative factors associated with the attrition rate of this group can help the Air Force leverage positive change. It may also influence adjustments that will increase the number of women serving, and improve diversity throughout both the officer and enlisted ranks. In this study, logistic regression and survival analysis are …


An Examination Of Civilian Retention In The United States Air Force, William F. Wilson 2021 Air Force Institute of Technology

An Examination Of Civilian Retention In The United States Air Force, William F. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

The backbone of the United States Air Force is undoubtedly the large civilian workforce that supplements the great work that is accomplished. Many research studies have been conducted on officer and enlisted personnel to ensure that the career fields are properly developed and managed to meet the ever growing demands of the military's varied missions, but no recent studies have focused on the civilian workforce. Striking a balance between new and experienced employees is paramount to success given the ever-changing economic and political landscapes where we find ourselves. The first part of the research uses logistic regression to determine the …


Optimizing Critical Values And Combining Axes For Multi-Axial Neck Injury Criteria, Ethan J. Gaston 2021 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimizing Critical Values And Combining Axes For Multi-Axial Neck Injury Criteria, Ethan J. Gaston

Theses and Dissertations

The Air Force employs ejection seats in its high-performance aircraft. While these systems are intended to ensure aircrew safety, the ejection process subjects the aircrew to potentially injurious forces. System validation includes evaluation of forces against a standard which is linked to the probability of injury. The Muti-Axial Neck Injury Criteria (MANIC) was developed to account for forces in all six degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, the MANIC is applied to each of the three linear input directions separately and applies different criterion values for each direction. These three separate criteria create a lack of clarity regarding acceptable neck loading, leading …


Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic Analytical Overview With Machine Learning Predictability, Anthony Tanaydin, Jingchen Liang, Daniel W. Engels 2021 Southern Methodist University

Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic Analytical Overview With Machine Learning Predictability, Anthony Tanaydin, Jingchen Liang, Daniel W. Engels

SMU Data Science Review

Understanding diagnostic tests and examining important features of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection are essential steps for controlling the current pandemic of 2020. In this paper, we study the relationship between clinical diagnosis and analytical features of patient blood panels from the US, Mexico, and Brazil. Our analysis confirms that among adults, the risk of severe illness from COVID-19 increases with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes and immunosuppression. Although more than eight months into pandemic, more data have become available to indicate that more young adults were getting infected. In addition, we expand on the definition of COVID-19 test and discuss …


Improved Statistical Methods For Time-Series And Lifetime Data, Xiaojie Zhu 2020 Southern Methodist University

Improved Statistical Methods For Time-Series And Lifetime Data, Xiaojie Zhu

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, improved statistical methods for time-series and lifetime data are developed. First, an improved trend test for time series data is presented. Then, robust parametric estimation methods based on system lifetime data with known system signatures are developed.

In the first part of this dissertation, we consider a test for the monotonic trend in time series data proposed by Brillinger (1989). It has been shown that when there are highly correlated residuals or short record lengths, Brillinger’s test procedure tends to have significance level much higher than the nominal level. This could be related to the discrepancy between …


Survival Analysis: An Exact Method For Rare Events, Kristina Reutzel 2020 Utah State University

Survival Analysis: An Exact Method For Rare Events, Kristina Reutzel

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Conventional asymptotic methods for survival analysis work well when sample sizes are at least moderately sufficient. When dealing with small sample sizes or rare events, the results from these methods have the potential to be inaccurate or misleading. To handle such data, an exact method is proposed and compared against two other methods: 1) the Cox proportional hazards model and 2) stratified logistic regression for discrete survival analysis data.


Causal Inference And Prediction On Observational Data With Survival Outcomes, Xiaofei Chen 2020 Southern Methodist University / UT Southwestern Medical Center

Causal Inference And Prediction On Observational Data With Survival Outcomes, Xiaofei Chen

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome require an initial Norwood operation, followed some months later by a stage 2 palliation (S2P). The timing of S2P is critical for the operation’s success and the infant’s survival, but the optimal timing, if one exists, is unknown. We attempt to estimate the optimal timing of S2P by analyzing data from the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial (SVRT), which randomized patients between two different types of Norwood procedure. In the SVRT, the timing of the S2P was chosen by the medical team; thus with respect to this exposure, the trial constitutes an observational study, and …


Statistical Models And Analysis Of Univariate And Multivariate Degradation Data, Lochana Palayangoda 2020 Southern Methodist University

Statistical Models And Analysis Of Univariate And Multivariate Degradation Data, Lochana Palayangoda

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

For degradation data in reliability analysis, estimation of the first-passage time (FPT) distribution to a threshold provides valuable information on reliability characteristics. Recently, Balakrishnan and Qin (2019; Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, 35:571-590) studied a nonparametric method to approximate the FPT distribution of such degradation processes if the underlying process type is unknown. In this thesis, we propose improved techniques based on saddlepoint approximation, which enhance upon their suggested methods. Numerical examples and Monte Carlo simulation studies are used to illustrate the advantages of the proposed techniques. Limitations of the improved techniques are discussed and some possible solutions …


The Opioid Crisis And Life Expectancy In The U.S., Gabriel Lozano 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The Opioid Crisis And Life Expectancy In The U.S., Gabriel Lozano

Joseph Wharton Scholars

Since the 1990s, when opioids started to be grossly over-prescribed, almost 450,000 people have died as a direct result of opioid abuse in the United States. This study analyzes the role the opioid crisis has in the decreasing life expectancy in the United States, a troubling trend given the enormous and growing national healthcare expenditure. Employing a multiple decrement model and national life expectancy tables, this paper removes the opioid-related mortality and develops a new life expectancy model. The actuarial analysis of the observed and estimated life expectancies reveals the impact of opioid-related deaths: overall, U.S persons are losing 153 …


Estimation Of The Treatment Effect With Bayesian Adjustment For Covariates, Li Xu 2020 University of Kentucky

Estimation Of The Treatment Effect With Bayesian Adjustment For Covariates, Li Xu

Theses and Dissertations--Statistics

The Bayesian adjustment for confounding (BAC) is a Bayesian model averaging method to select and adjust for confounding factors when evaluating the average causal effect of an exposure on a certain outcome. We extend the BAC method to time-to-event outcomes. Specifically, the posterior distribution of the exposure effect on a time-to-event outcome is calculated as a weighted average of posterior distributions from a number of candidate proportional hazards models, weighing each model by its ability to adjust for confounding factors. The Bayesian Information Criterion based on the partial likelihood is used to compare different models and approximate the Bayes factor. …


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