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A Simulation Study Of Diagnostics For Bias In Non-Probability Samples, Philip S. Boonstra, Roderick JA Little, Brady T. West, Rebecca R. Andridge, Fernanda Alvarado-Leiton 2019 University Of Michigan

A Simulation Study Of Diagnostics For Bias In Non-Probability Samples, Philip S. Boonstra, Roderick Ja Little, Brady T. West, Rebecca R. Andridge, Fernanda Alvarado-Leiton

The University of Michigan Department of Biostatistics Working Paper Series

A non-probability sampling mechanism is likely to bias estimates of parameters with respect to a target population of interest. This bias poses a unique challenge when selection is 'non-ignorable', i.e. dependent upon the unobserved outcome of interest, since it is then undetectable and thus cannot be ameliorated. We extend a simulation study by Nishimura et al. [International Statistical Review, 84, 43--62 (2016)], adding a recently published statistic, the so-called 'standardized measure of unadjusted bias', which explicitly quantifies the extent of bias under the assumption that a specified amount of non-ignorable selection exists. Our findings suggest that this new sensitivity ...


The Validity Of Online Patient Ratings Of Physicians, Jennifer L. Priestley, Yiyun Zhou, Robert McGrath 2019 Kennesaw State University

The Validity Of Online Patient Ratings Of Physicians, Jennifer L. Priestley, Yiyun Zhou, Robert Mcgrath

Jennifer L. Priestley

Background: Information from ratings sites are increasingly informing patient decisions related to health care and the selection of physicians.

Objective: The current study sought to determine the validity of online patient ratings of physicians through comparison with physician peer review.

Methods: We extracted 223,715 reviews of 41,104 physicians from 10 of the largest cities in the United States, including 1142 physicians listed as “America’s Top Doctors” through physician peer review. Differences in mean online patient ratings were tested for physicians who were listed and those who were not.

Results: Overall, no differences were found between the online ...


Bayesian Approximation Techniques For Scale Parameter Of Laplace Distribution, Uzma Jan, S. P. Ahmad 2019 University of Kashmir, Srinagar

Bayesian Approximation Techniques For Scale Parameter Of Laplace Distribution, Uzma Jan, S. P. Ahmad

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The Bayesian estimation of the scale parameter of a Laplace Distribution is obtained using two approximation techniques, like Normal approximation and Tierney and Kadane (T-K) approximation, under different informative priors.


Can One Test Fit All? Responses To The Article “Striving For Simple But Effective Advice For Comparing The Central Tendency Of Two Populations” (Ruxton & Neuhäuser, 2018), Diep Nguyen, Eun Sook Kim, Yi-Hsin Chen 2019 University of South Florida

Can One Test Fit All? Responses To The Article “Striving For Simple But Effective Advice For Comparing The Central Tendency Of Two Populations” (Ruxton & Neuhäuser, 2018), Diep Nguyen, Eun Sook Kim, Yi-Hsin Chen

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Responses to suggestions made by Ruxton & Neuhäuser (2018) regarding Nguyen et al. (2016) are given.


On The Conditional And Unconditional Type I Error Rates And Power Of Tests In Linear Models With Heteroscedastic Errors, Patrick J. Rosopa, Alice M. Brawley, Theresa P. Atkinson, Stephen A. Robertson 2019 Clemson University

On The Conditional And Unconditional Type I Error Rates And Power Of Tests In Linear Models With Heteroscedastic Errors, Patrick J. Rosopa, Alice M. Brawley, Theresa P. Atkinson, Stephen A. Robertson

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Preliminary tests for homoscedasticity may be unnecessary in general linear models. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, results suggest that when testing for differences between independent slopes, the unconditional use of weighted least squares regression and HC4 regression performed the best across a wide range of conditions.


Φ-Divergence Loss-Based Artificial Neural Network, R. L. Salamwade, D. M. Sakate, S. K. Mathur 2019 Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India

Φ-Divergence Loss-Based Artificial Neural Network, R. L. Salamwade, D. M. Sakate, S. K. Mathur

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can fit non-linear functions and recognize patterns better than several standard techniques. Performance of ANNs is measured by using loss functions. Phi-divergence estimator is generalization of maximum likelihood estimator and it possesses all its properties. A neural network is proposed which is trained using phi-divergence loss.


A Robust Nonparametric Measure Of Effect Size Based On An Analog Of Cohen's D, Plus Inferences About The Median Of The Typical Difference, Rand Wilcox 2019 University of Southern California

A Robust Nonparametric Measure Of Effect Size Based On An Analog Of Cohen's D, Plus Inferences About The Median Of The Typical Difference, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The paper describes a nonparametric analog of Cohen's d, Q. It is established that a confidence interval for Q can be computed via a method for computing a confidence interval for the median of D = X1X2, which in turn is related to making inferences about P(X1 < X2).


Robust Ancova, Curvature, And The Curse Of Dimensionality, Rand Wilcox 2019 University of Southern California

Robust Ancova, Curvature, And The Curse Of Dimensionality, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

There is a substantial collection of robust analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) methods that effectively deals with non-normality, unequal population slope parameters, outliers, and heteroscedasticity. Some are based on the usual linear model and others are based on smoothers (nonparametric regression estimators). However, extant results are limited to one or two covariates. A minor goal here is to extend a recently-proposed method, based on the usual linear model, to situations where there are up to six covariates. The usual linear model might provide a poor approximation of the true regression surface. The main goal is to suggest a method, based on ...


Logistic Regression: An Inferential Method For Identifying The Best Predictors, Rand Wilcox 2019 University of Southern California

Logistic Regression: An Inferential Method For Identifying The Best Predictors, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

When dealing with a logistic regression model, there is a simple method for estimating the strength of the association between the jth covariate and the dependent variable when all covariates are entered into the model. There is the issue of determining whether the jth independent variable has a stronger or weaker association than the kth independent variable. This note describes a method for dealing with this issue that was found to perform reasonably well in simulations.


Should We Give Up On Causality?, Tom Knapp 2019 The Ohio State University

Should We Give Up On Causality?, Tom Knapp

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

No abstract provided.


Striving For Simple But Effective Advice For Comparing The Central Tendency Of Two Populations, Graeme Ruxton, Markus Neuhäuser 2019 University of St Andrews

Striving For Simple But Effective Advice For Comparing The Central Tendency Of Two Populations, Graeme Ruxton, Markus Neuhäuser

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Nguyen et al. (2016) offered advice to researchers in the commonly-encountered situation where they are interested in testing for a difference in central tendency between two populations. Their data and the available literature support very simple advice that strikes the best balance between ease of implementation, power and reliability. Specifically, apply Satterthwaite’s test, with preliminary ranking of the data if a strong deviation from normality is expected, or is suggested by visual inspection of the data. This simple guideline will serve well except when dealing with small samples of discrete data, when more sophisticated treatment may be required.


A Strategy For Using Bias And Rmse As Outcomes In Monte Carlo Studies In Statistics, Michael Harwell 2019 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

A Strategy For Using Bias And Rmse As Outcomes In Monte Carlo Studies In Statistics, Michael Harwell

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

To help ensure important patterns of bias and accuracy are detected in Monte Carlo studies in statistics this paper proposes conditioning bias and root mean square error (RMSE) measures on estimated Type I and Type II error rates. A small Monte Carlo study is used to illustrate this argument.


Data Analytics Pipeline For Rna Structure Analysis Via Shape, Quinn Nelson 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Data Analytics Pipeline For Rna Structure Analysis Via Shape, Quinn Nelson

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a cardiovirulent enterovirus from the family Picornaviridae. The RNA genome houses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR) that enables cap-independent translation. Ample evidence suggests that the structure of the 5’UTR is a critical element for virulence. We probe RNA structure in solution using base-specific modifying agents such as dimethyl sulfate as well as backbone targeting agents such as N-methylisatoic anhydride used in Selective 2’-Hydroxyl Acylation Analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE). We have developed a pipeline that merges and evaluates base-specific and SHAPE data together with statistical analyses ...


Sustainable Energy Governance In South Tyrol (Italy): A Probabilistic Bipartite Network Model, Jessica Belest, Laura Secco, Elena Pisani, Alberto Caimo 2019 EURAC Research, Italy

Sustainable Energy Governance In South Tyrol (Italy): A Probabilistic Bipartite Network Model, Jessica Belest, Laura Secco, Elena Pisani, Alberto Caimo

Articles

At the national scale, almost all of the European countries have already achieved energy transition targets, while at the regional and local scales, there is still some potential to further push sustainable energy transitions. Regions and localities have the support of political, social, and economic actors who make decisions for meeting existing social, environmental and economic needs recognising local specificities.

These actors compose the sustainable energy governance that is fundamental to effectively plan and manage energy resources. In collaborative relationships, these actors share, save, and protect several kinds of resources, thereby making energy transitions deeper and more effective.

This research ...


Multi-Linear Algebraic Eigendecompositions And Their Application In Data Science, Randy Hoover, Kyle Caudle Dr., Karen Braman Dr. 2019 SDSMT

Multi-Linear Algebraic Eigendecompositions And Their Application In Data Science, Randy Hoover, Kyle Caudle Dr., Karen Braman Dr.

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Multi-dimensional data analysis has seen increased interest in recent years. With more and more data arriving as 2-dimensional arrays (images) as opposed to 1-dimensioanl arrays (signals), new methods for dimensionality reduction, data analysis, and machine learning have been pursued. Most notably have been the Canonical Decompositions/Parallel Factors (commonly referred to as CP) and Tucker decompositions (commonly regarded as a high order SVD: HOSVD). In the current research we present an alternate method for computing singular value and eigenvalue decompositions on multi-way data through an algebra of circulants and illustrate their application to two well-known machine learning methods: Multi-Linear Principal ...


Predicting Unplanned Medical Visits Among Patients With Diabetes Using Machine Learning, Arielle Selya, Eric L. Johnson 2019 Sanford Health

Predicting Unplanned Medical Visits Among Patients With Diabetes Using Machine Learning, Arielle Selya, Eric L. Johnson

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Diabetes poses a variety of medical complications to patients, resulting in a high rate of unplanned medical visits, which are costly to patients and healthcare providers alike. However, unplanned medical visits by their nature are very difficult to predict. The current project draws upon electronic health records (EMR’s) of adult patients with diabetes who received care at Sanford Health between 2014 and 2017. Various machine learning methods were used to predict which patients have had an unplanned medical visit based on a variety of EMR variables (age, BMI, blood pressure, # of prescriptions, # of diagnoses on problem list, A1C, HDL ...


Refusal Bias In Hiv Data From The Demographic And Health Surveys: Evaluation, Critique And Recommendations, Oyelola A. ADEGBOYE, Tomoki FUJII, Denis H. Y. LEUNG 2019 Singapore Management University

Refusal Bias In Hiv Data From The Demographic And Health Surveys: Evaluation, Critique And Recommendations, Oyelola A. Adegboye, Tomoki Fujii, Denis H. Y. Leung

Research Collection School Of Economics

Non-response is a commonly encountered problem in many population-based surveys. Broadly speaking, non-response can be due to refusal or failure to contact the sample units. Although both types of non-response may lead to bias, there is much evidence to indicate that it is much easier to reduce the proportion of non-contacts than to do the same with refusals. In this article, we use data collected from a nationally-representative survey under the Demographic and Health Surveys program to study non-response due to refusals to HIV testing in Malawi. We review existing estimation methods and propose novel approaches to the estimation of ...


Level Crossing Simulation Of A Queueing Model, Zhanxuan Ding 2019 University of Windsor

Level Crossing Simulation Of A Queueing Model, Zhanxuan Ding

Major Papers

Simulation of the level crossing method will be used to find approximations of the distribution of the workload for several queueing models. In particular, three different type of queueing models, with different methods of handling workload bound thresholds, will be considered. Simulation applied to workload bound thresholds is new work.


Pedestrian Safety -- Fundamental To A Walkable City, Joshua Herrera, Patrick McDevitt, Preeti Swaminathan, Raghuram Srinivas 2019 Southern Methodist University

Pedestrian Safety -- Fundamental To A Walkable City, Joshua Herrera, Patrick Mcdevitt, Preeti Swaminathan, Raghuram Srinivas

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present a method to identify urban areas with a higher likelihood of pedestrian safety related events. Pedestrian safety related events are pedestrian-vehicle interactions that result in fatalities, injuries, accidents without injury, or near--misses between pedestrians and vehicles. To develop a solution to this problem of identifying likely event locations, we assemble data, primarily from the City of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, that include safety reports from a five year period, geographic information for these events, citizen survey of pedestrian reported concerns, non-emergency requests for service for any cause in the city, property values and public transportation ...


Improving Vix Futures Forecasts Using Machine Learning Methods, James Hosker, Slobodan Djurdjevic, Hieu Nguyen, Robert Slater 2019 Southern Methodist University

Improving Vix Futures Forecasts Using Machine Learning Methods, James Hosker, Slobodan Djurdjevic, Hieu Nguyen, Robert Slater

SMU Data Science Review

The problem of forecasting market volatility is a difficult task for most fund managers. Volatility forecasts are used for risk management, alpha (risk) trading, and the reduction of trading friction. Improving the forecasts of future market volatility assists fund managers in adding or reducing risk in their portfolios as well as in increasing hedges to protect their portfolios in anticipation of a market sell-off event. Our analysis compares three existing financial models that forecast future market volatility using the Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility Index (VIX) to six machine/deep learning supervised regression methods. This analysis determines which models provide ...


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