Comparing Means Under Heteroscedasticity And Nonnormality: Further Exploring Robust Means Modeling, 2020 York University, Toronto

#### Comparing Means Under Heteroscedasticity And Nonnormality: Further Exploring Robust Means Modeling, Alyssa Counsell, Robert Philip Chalmers, Robert A. Cribbie

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Comparing the means of independent groups is a concern when the assumptions of normality and variance homogeneity are violated. Robust means modeling (RMM) was proposed as an alternative to ANOVA-type procedures when the assumptions of normality and variance homogeneity are violated. The purpose of this study is to compare the Type I error and power rates of RMM to the trimmed Welch procedure. A Monte Carlo study was used to investigate RMM and the trimmed Welch procedure under several conditions of nonnormality and variance heterogeneity. The results suggest that the trimmed Welch provides a better balance of Type I error ...

Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Given The Value Of A Covariate, Using A Nonparametric Smoother, 2020 University of Southern California

#### Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Given The Value Of A Covariate, Using A Nonparametric Smoother, Rand Wilcox

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

For a binary random variable *Y*, let *p*(*x*) = *P*(*Y* = 1 | *X* = *x*) for some covariate *X*. The goal of computing a confidence interval for *p*(*x*) is considered. In the logistic regression model, even a slight departure difficult to detect via a goodness-of-fit test can yield inaccurate results. The accuracy of a confidence interval can deteriorate as the sample size increases. The goal is to suggest an alternative approach based on a smoother, which provides a more flexible approximation of *p*(*x*).

A Note On Inferences About The Probability Of Success, 2020 University of Southern California

#### A Note On Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Rand Wilcox

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

There is an extensive literature dealing with inferences about the probability of success. A minor goal in this note is to point out when certain recommended methods can be unsatisfactory when the sample size is small. The main goal is to report results on the two-sample case. Extant results suggest using one of four methods. The results indicate when computing a 0.95 confidence interval, two of these methods can be more satisfactory when dealing with small sample sizes.

On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, 2020 University of Calgary

#### On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Discriminant function coefficients are useful for describing group differences and identifying variables that distinguish between groups. Test procedures were compared based on asymptotically approximations, empirical, and exact distributions for testing hypotheses about discriminant function coefficients. These tests are useful for assessing variable importance in multivariate group designs.

An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, 2020 University of Arizona

#### An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Detailed is a 20-year arduous journey to develop a statistically viable two-phase (AB) single-case two independent-samples randomization test procedure. The test is designed to compare the effectiveness of two different interventions that are randomly assigned to cases. In contrast to the unsatisfactory simulation results produced by an earlier proposed randomization test, the present test consistently exhibited acceptable Type I error control under various design and effect-type configurations, while at the same time possessing adequate power to detect moderately sized intervention-difference effects. Selected issues, applications, and a multiple-baseline extension of the two-sample test are discussed.

Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, 2020 Department of Statistics, Gopal Krishna Gokhale College, Kolhapur (MS), India.

#### Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Support vector machine (SVM) is used for estimation of regression parameters to modify the sum of cross products (Sp). It works well for some nonnormal error distributions. The performance of existing robust methods and the modified Sp is evaluated through simulated and real data. The results show the performance of the modified Sp is good.

Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, 2020 Aligarh Muslim University

#### Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

The exact expressions and some recurrence relations are derived for marginal and joint moment generating functions of *k*^{th} lower record values from Topp-Leone Generated (TLG) Exponential distribution. This distribution is characterized by using the recurrence relation of the marginal moment generating function of *k*^{th} lower record values.

A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, 2020 Vikram University, Ujjain, India

#### A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Classes of ratio-type estimators t (say) and ratio-type exponential estimators *t*_{e} (say) of the population mean are proposed, and their biases and mean squared errors under large sample approximation are presented. It is the class of ratio-type exponential estimators *t*_{e} provides estimators more efficient than the ratio-type estimators.

Using Stability To Select A Shrinkage Method, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

#### Using Stability To Select A Shrinkage Method, Dean Dustin

*Dissertations and Theses in Statistics*

Shrinkage methods are estimation techniques based on optimizing expressions to find which variables to include in an analysis, typically a linear regression. The general form of these expressions is the sum of an empirical risk plus a complexity penalty based on the number of parameters. Many shrinkage methods are known to satisfy an ‘oracle’ property meaning that asymptotically they select the correct variables and estimate their coefficients efficiently. In Section 1.2, we show oracle properties in two general settings. The first uses a log likelihood in place of the empirical risk and allows a general class of penalties. The ...

Modeling Movement: A Machine-Learning Approach To Track Migration Routes After Displacement, 2020 William & Mary

#### Modeling Movement: A Machine-Learning Approach To Track Migration Routes After Displacement, Ethan Harrison

*Undergraduate Honors Theses*

Over the past decade, the number of individuals internally displaced by conflict (IDPs) has reached unprecedented levels. Humanitarian actors and first-responders face persistent information gaps in meeting the needs of these populations. Specifically, they face challenges in understanding where and how IDPs move after they are displaced, which is necessary to locate them in conflict-affected situations and provide them with life-saving assistance. In this paper, I propose a framework, using established machine-learning methods, to forecast the migration routes of these displaced populations (Chapter 1). In a case study of displacement in Yemen, my models predict 80% of IDPs' migration routes ...

Introduction To Research Statistical Analysis: An Overview Of The Basics, 2020 HCA Healthcare

#### Introduction To Research Statistical Analysis: An Overview Of The Basics, Christian Vandever

*HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine*

This article covers many statistical ideas essential to research statistical analysis. Sample size is explained through the concepts of statistical significance level and power. Variable types and definitions are included to clarify necessities for how the analysis will be interpreted. Categorical and quantitative variable types are defined, as well as response and predictor variables. Statistical tests described include t-tests, ANOVA and chi-square tests. Multiple regression is also explored for both logistic and linear regression. Finally, the most common statistics produced by these methods are explored.

A Simulation Study On Increasing Capture Periods In Bayesian Closed Population Capture-Recapture Models With Heterogeneity, 2020 Appalachian State University

#### A Simulation Study On Increasing Capture Periods In Bayesian Closed Population Capture-Recapture Models With Heterogeneity, Ross M. Gosky, Joel Sanqui

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Capture-Recapture models are useful in estimating unknown population sizes. A common modeling challenge for closed population models involves modeling unequal animal catchability in each capture period, referred to as animal heterogeneity. Inference about population size *N* is dependent on the assumed distribution of animal capture probabilities in the population, and that different models can fit a data set equally well but provide contradictory inferences about *N*. Three common Bayesian Capture-Recapture heterogeneity models are studied with simulated data to study the prevalence of contradictory inferences is in different population sizes with relatively low capture probabilities, specifically at different numbers of capture ...

Logistic Growth Modeling With Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation, 2020 The George Washington University

#### Logistic Growth Modeling With Markov Chain Monte Carlo Estimation, Jaehwa Choi, Jinsong Chen, Jeffrey R. Harring

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

A new growth modeling approach is proposed to can fit inherently nonlinear (i.e., logistic) function without constraint nor reparameterization. A simulation study is employed to investigate the feasibility and performance of a Markov chain Monte Carlo method within Bayesian estimation framework to estimate a fully random version of a logistic growth curve model under manipulated conditions such as the number and timing of measurement occasions and sample sizes.

484— Modeling Social Distancing Methods And Their Effectiveness In Combating The Spread Of Ebola, 2020 SUNY Geneseo

#### 484— Modeling Social Distancing Methods And Their Effectiveness In Combating The Spread Of Ebola, Rachel Fair

*GREAT Day*

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare but severe disease that is transmitted among humans through direct-contact with, and close proximity to, infected bodily fluids. From 2014-16, West Africa experienced the largest Ebola outbreak ever recorded, infecting over 28,000 people, and killing over 11,000. Although the symptoms of EVD are treatable, the disease can be extremely deadly, with an average of 50% EVD cases resulting in fatality. In areas where healthcare is scarce and vaccinations are not readily available, the practices of social distancing and self-quarantining have been shown to be highly effective in combating the spread of ...

Universal Vector Neural Machine Translation With Effective Attention, 2020 SMU

#### Universal Vector Neural Machine Translation With Effective Attention, Joshua Yi, Satish Mylapore, Ryan Paul, Robert Slater

*SMU Data Science Review*

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) leverages one or more trained neural networks for the translation of phrases. Sutskever intro- duced a sequence to sequence based encoder decoder model which be- came the standard for NMT based systems. Attention mechanisms were later introduced to address the issues with the translation of long sen- tences and improving overall accuracy. In this paper, we propose two improvements to the encoder decoder based NMT approach. Most trans- lation models are trained as one model for one translation. We introduce a neutral/universal model representation that can be used to predict more than one language depending ...

An Exploration Of Link Functions Used In Ordinal Regression, 2020 Northern Illinois University

#### An Exploration Of Link Functions Used In Ordinal Regression, Thomas J. Smith, David A. Walker, Cornelius M. Mckenna

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

The purpose of this study is to examine issues involved with choice of a link function in generalized linear models with ordinal outcomes, including distributional appropriateness, link specificity, and palindromic invariance are discussed and an exemplar analysis provided using the Pew Research Center 25th anniversary of the Web Omnibus Survey data. Simulated data are used to compare the relative palindromic invariance of four distinct indices of determination/discrimination, including a newly proposed index by Smith et al. (2017).

Analysis Of Gas Mileage Of A Car, 2020 Georgia College

#### Analysis Of Gas Mileage Of A Car, Joshua Ballard-Myer

*Georgia College Student Research Events*

The objective of this work is to analyze a data set, Auto, from the R package ISLR: Introduction to Statistical Learning in R. The data set includes information for 392 observations on 9 variables including gas mileage, horsepower, weight in pounds, and engine displacement in cubic inches. The data set was taken from the StatLib library maintained at Carnegie Mellon University. The primary response variable will be gas mileage in miles per gallon, with all other variables serving as predictors, but other relationships with other response variables such as acceleration will be explored. Results were similar to expected; traits desirable ...

Personal Foul: How Head Trauma And The Insurance Industry Are Threatening Sports, 2020 Liberty University

#### Personal Foul: How Head Trauma And The Insurance Industry Are Threatening Sports, Zachary Cooler

*Senior Honors Theses*

This thesis will investigate the growing problem of head trauma in contact sports like football, hockey, and soccer through medical studies, implications to the insurance industry, and ongoing litigation. The thesis will investigate medical studies that are finding more evidence to support the claim that contact sports players are more likely to receive head trauma symptoms such as memory loss, mood swings, and even Lou Gehrig’s disease in extreme cases. The thesis will also demonstrate that these medical symptoms and monetary losses from medical claims are convincing insurance companies to withdraw insurance coverage for sports leagues, which they are ...

Investigating The Performance Of Propensity Score Approaches For Differential Item Functioning Analysis, 2020 University of British Columbia

#### Investigating The Performance Of Propensity Score Approaches For Differential Item Functioning Analysis, Yan Liu, Chanmin Kim, Amrey D. Wu, Paul Gustafson, Edward Kroc, Bruno D. Zumbo

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

To evaluate the performance of propensity score approaches for differential item functioning analysis, this simulation study was conducted to assess bias, mean square error, Type I error, and power under different levels of effect size and a variety of model misspecification conditions, including different types and missing patterns of covariates.

Quasi-Likelihood Ratio Tests For Homoscedasticity In Linear Regression, 2020 Georgia Southern University

#### Quasi-Likelihood Ratio Tests For Homoscedasticity In Linear Regression, Lili Yu, Varadan Sevilimedu, Robert Vogel, Hani Samawi

*Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods*

Two quasi-likelihood ratio tests are proposed for the homoscedasticity assumption in the linear regression models. They require few assumptions than the existing tests. The properties of the tests are investigated through simulation studies. An example is provided to illustrate the usefulness of the new proposed tests.