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Life And Death: Quantifying The Risk Of Heart Disease With Machine Learning, Jack Scott Glienke 2020 University of Northern Iowa

Life And Death: Quantifying The Risk Of Heart Disease With Machine Learning, Jack Scott Glienke

Honors Program Theses

Coronary heart disease has long been a key area of focus in the discussion of public health. As such, numerous studies have been conducted throughout history with the sole intention of identifying risk factors leading to the onset of cardiovascular conditions. A plethora of statistical procedures can be used to identify an individual’s risk of developing heart disease, yet regression models tend to be the default tool used by researchers. Using the data obtained from the most influential cardiovascular study to date, the Framingham Heart Study, this analysis uses machine learning techniques to generate and test the predictive power ...


Personal Foul: How Head Trauma And The Insurance Industry Are Threatening Sports, Zachary Cooler 2020 Liberty University

Personal Foul: How Head Trauma And The Insurance Industry Are Threatening Sports, Zachary Cooler

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis will investigate the growing problem of head trauma in contact sports like football, hockey, and soccer through medical studies, implications to the insurance industry, and ongoing litigation. The thesis will investigate medical studies that are finding more evidence to support the claim that contact sports players are more likely to receive head trauma symptoms such as memory loss, mood swings, and even Lou Gehrig’s disease in extreme cases. The thesis will also demonstrate that these medical symptoms and monetary losses from medical claims are convincing insurance companies to withdraw insurance coverage for sports leagues, which they are ...


A Mathematical Model For Malaria With Age-Heterogeneous Biting Rate, Sho Kawakami 2020 Minnesota State University, Mankato

A Mathematical Model For Malaria With Age-Heterogeneous Biting Rate, Sho Kawakami

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

We propose a mathematical model for malaria with age-heterogeneous biting rate from mosquitos. The existence of the model, the local behavior of the disease free equilibrium are explored. Furthermore the model is extended to an optimal control problem and the corresponding adjoint equations and optimality conditions are derived. Age dependent parameter values are estimated and numerical simulations are carried out for the model. The new model better accounts for difference in biting rates of mosquitos to different age groups, and improvements in stability to the explicit algorithm. The optimal control is also shown to depend on the age distribution of ...


Detecting Differentially Co-Expressed Gene Modules Via The Edge-Count Test, Anne Gratius Lin 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Detecting Differentially Co-Expressed Gene Modules Via The Edge-Count Test, Anne Gratius Lin

Theses and Dissertations

Background

Gene expression profiling by microarray has been used to uncover molecular variations in many different diseases. Complementary to conventional differential expression analysis, differential co-expression analysis can identify gene markers from the systematic and granular level. There are three aspects for differential co-expression network analysis, including the network global topological comparison, differential co-expression cluster identification, and differential co-expressed genes and gene pair identification. To date, most of the methods available still rely on Pearson’s correlation coefficient despite its nonlinear insensitivity.

Results

Here we present an approach that is robust to nonlinearity by using the edge-count test for differential co-expression ...


Identifying Risk Factors Related To Premature Birth Through Binary Logistic And Proportional Odds Ordinal Logistic Regression, Clayton Elwood 2019 Duquesne University

Identifying Risk Factors Related To Premature Birth Through Binary Logistic And Proportional Odds Ordinal Logistic Regression, Clayton Elwood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Premature birth has been identified as the single greatest cause of death worldwide in children under the age of five. This thesis will implement binary logistic regression and proportional odds ordinal logistic regression to predict different levels of premature birth and identify associated risk factors. The models will be built from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 Vital Statistics Natality Birth Data containing nearly 4 million live births within the United States. Odds ratios and confidence intervals on risk factors were produced utilizing binary logistic regression.


Sickle Cell Disease Complications: Prevalence And Resource Utilization, Huseyin Yuce, Nirmish Shah, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, STATinMED Research 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Sickle Cell Disease Complications: Prevalence And Resource Utilization, Huseyin Yuce, Nirmish Shah, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Statinmed Research

Publications and Research

Objectives: This study evaluated the prevalence rate of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) episodes, rates of uncomplicated and complicated VOC episodes, and the primary reasons for emergency room (ER) visits and inpatient admissions for sickle cell disease (SCD) patients.

Methods: The Medicaid Analytic extracts database was used to identify adult SCD patients using claims from 01JUL2009-31DEC2012. The date of the first observed SCD claim was designated as the index date. Patients were required to have continuous medical and pharmacy benefits for .6 months baseline and .12 months follow-up period. Patient demographics, baseline clinical characteristics, the rate of uncomplicated and complicated VOC (VOC ...


Comparative Clinical Outcomes Between Direct Oral Anticoagulants And Warfarin Among Elderly Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation In The Cms Medicare Population, Huseyin Yuce, Alpesh Amin, Oluwaseyi Dina, Allison Keshishian, Amol Dhamane, Anagha Nadkarni, Eric Carda, Cristina Russ, Lisa Rosenblatt, Jack Mardekian, Christine L. Baker 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Comparative Clinical Outcomes Between Direct Oral Anticoagulants And Warfarin Among Elderly Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation In The Cms Medicare Population, Huseyin Yuce, Alpesh Amin, Oluwaseyi Dina, Allison Keshishian, Amol Dhamane, Anagha Nadkarni, Eric Carda, Cristina Russ, Lisa Rosenblatt, Jack Mardekian, Christine L. Baker

Publications and Research

Atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence increases with age; > 80% of US adults with AF are aged ≥ 65 years. Compare the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding (MB), net clinical outcome (NCO), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among elderly non-valvular AF (NVAF) Medicare patients prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) vs warfarin. NVAF patients aged ≥ 65 years who initiated DOACs (apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban) or warfarin were selected from 01JAN2013-31DEC2015 in CMS Medicare data. Propensity score matching was used to balance DOAC and warfarin cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of stroke/SE, MB, NCO, and MACE. 37 ...


Statistical Modeling Of Influenza-Like-Illness In Montana Using Spatial And Temporal Methods, Benjamin A. Stark 2019 University of Montana, Missoula

Statistical Modeling Of Influenza-Like-Illness In Montana Using Spatial And Temporal Methods, Benjamin A. Stark

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Studying air pollution and public health has been a historically important question in science. It has long been hypothesized that severe air pollution conditions lead to negative implications in basic human health. Primarily, areas thats are prone to severe degrees of human pollution are the focus of such studies. Such research relating to less populated areas are scarce, and this scarcity raises the question of how such pollution dynamics (human-made and natural) influence human health in more rural areas.

The aim of this study is to explore this hole in research; in particular we explore possible links between air pollution ...


Real-Time Dengue Forecasting In Thailand: A Comparison Of Penalized Regression Approaches Using Internet Search Data, Caroline Kusiak 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Real-Time Dengue Forecasting In Thailand: A Comparison Of Penalized Regression Approaches Using Internet Search Data, Caroline Kusiak

Masters Theses

Dengue fever affects over 390 million people annually worldwide and is of particu- lar concern in Southeast Asia where it is one of the leading causes of hospitalization. Modeling trends in dengue occurrence can provide valuable information to Public Health officials, however many challenges arise depending on the data available. In Thailand, reporting of dengue cases is often delayed by more than 6 weeks, and a small fraction of cases may not be reported until over 11 months after they occurred. This study shows that incorporating data on Google Search trends can improve dis- ease predictions in settings with severely ...


Analysis Of Episodes Of Care In Medicare Beneficiaries Newly Diagnosed With Alzheimer’S Disease, Huseyin Yuce, Rezaul K. Khandker, Christopher Black, Lin Xie, M. Furaha Kariburyo, Baishali M. Ambegaonkar, Onur Baser, Howard Fillit 2018 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Analysis Of Episodes Of Care In Medicare Beneficiaries Newly Diagnosed With Alzheimer’S Disease, Huseyin Yuce, Rezaul K. Khandker, Christopher Black, Lin Xie, M. Furaha Kariburyo, Baishali M. Ambegaonkar, Onur Baser, Howard Fillit

Publications and Research

OBJECTIVES: To study transitions between healthcare settings and quantify the cost burdens associated with different combinations of transitions during a 6-month period before initial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis so as to investigate how using an episode-of-care approach to payment for specific disease states might apply in AD.

DESIGN: A retrospective observational cohort study.

SETTING: United States.

PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 8,995 individuals aged 65 to 100 with a diagnosis of AD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 331.0) were identified from the Medicare database between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014. This ...


The Test-Retest Reliability Of Erp Components As Assessed By The Brief Neurometric Battery, James D. Cole, Paul Kieffaber 2018 The College of William and Mary

The Test-Retest Reliability Of Erp Components As Assessed By The Brief Neurometric Battery, James D. Cole, Paul Kieffaber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Electroencephalography (EEG) has been a crucial component of neuropsychological research for nearly a century. Recent applications of the EEG recordings in a clinical setting have demonstrated a range of diagnostic and prognostic uses. Certain changes in event-related potentials (ERP) have been linked to the effects of different neurological conditions and can be accurately used to determine the severity of those conditions. However, in order to assess the stability of these ERP recordings over an extended period of time, one must first establish their statistical test-retest reliability. Using a novel Brief Neurometric Battery we assessed seven different ERP components in twenty ...


Burden Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Among Us Medicare Population: Co-Morbidities, Health-Care Resource Utilization And Costs, Huseyin Yuce, Chieh-I Chen, Li Wang, Wenhui Wei, Kristine Phillips 2018 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Burden Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Among Us Medicare Population: Co-Morbidities, Health-Care Resource Utilization And Costs, Huseyin Yuce, Chieh-I Chen, Li Wang, Wenhui Wei, Kristine Phillips

Publications and Research

Objectives. The study aimed to assess the burden of RA among the US Medicare population (aged 65 years) by comparing co-morbidities, health-care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs against matched non-RA Medicare patients.

Methods. Data were obtained from the Medicare fee-for-service claims database from 2010 to 2013. RA Medicare patients were identically matched with Medicare patients without RA (controls) based on demographics. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine differences between cohorts for comorbidities, HCRU and costs. A generalized linear model was used to test relationships between patient-level characteristics, HCRU and costs.

Results. The study population included 115 867 RA patients and ...


Multi-State Modeling Of Hospital Frequent Users, Yu Liang 2018 University of Windsor

Multi-State Modeling Of Hospital Frequent Users, Yu Liang

Major Papers

The top 1% of frequent users account for 34% of public health system expenditures in Ontario, while the top 5% account for 66%. In this paper, we explore the efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing hospital utilization for a group of patients defined as frequent users, by using Multi-state modeling. We employ time-homogeneous, time-inhomogeneous, parametric and semi-parametric Markov processes to study the transitions of the patients between hospital, ER and outside during a follow up period of one year. The results do not indicate any strong evidence that the intervention was beneficial.


The Impact Of Truncating Data On The Predictive Ability For Single-Step Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, Jeremy T. Howard, Thomas A. Rathje, Caitlyn E. Bruns, Danielle F. Wilson-Wells, Stephen D. Kachman, Matthew L. Spangler 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The Impact Of Truncating Data On The Predictive Ability For Single-Step Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, Jeremy T. Howard, Thomas A. Rathje, Caitlyn E. Bruns, Danielle F. Wilson-Wells, Stephen D. Kachman, Matthew L. Spangler

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Simulated and swine industry data sets were utilized to assess the impact of removing older data on the predictive ability of selection candidate estimated breeding values (EBV) when using single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP). Simulated data included thirty replicates designed to mimic the structure of swine data sets. For the simulated data, varying amounts of data were truncated based on the number of ancestral generations back from the selection candidates. The swine data sets consisted of phenotypic and genotypic records for three traits across two breeds on animals born from 2003 to 2017. Phenotypes and genotypes were iteratively ...


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis: Tuberculosis, Tnfα Inhibitors, And Crohn's Disease, Brent L. Cao 2018 University of Central Florida

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis: Tuberculosis, Tnfα Inhibitors, And Crohn's Disease, Brent L. Cao

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Inflammation is often a protective reaction against harmful foreign agents. However, in many disease conditions, the mechanisms behind the inflammatory response are poorly understood. Often times, the inflammation causes adverse effects, such as joint pain, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Thus, many treatments aim to inhibit the inflammatory response in order to control adverse symptoms. Such treatments include TNFα inhibitors. However, a major risk associated with drugs inhibiting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is serious infection, including tuberculosis (TB).

Anti-TNFα therapy is used to treat patients with Crohn’s disease, for which the risk of tuberculosis may ...


Long-Term Outcomes After Elective Sterilization Procedures — A Comparative Retrospective Cohort Study Of Medicaid Patients, Huseyin Yuce, Rachel Steward, Patricia Carney, Amy Law, Lin Xie, Yuexi Wang 2017 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Long-Term Outcomes After Elective Sterilization Procedures — A Comparative Retrospective Cohort Study Of Medicaid Patients, Huseyin Yuce, Rachel Steward, Patricia Carney, Amy Law, Lin Xie, Yuexi Wang

Publications and Research

Objectives: The objectives were to compare the long-termoutcomes, including hysterectomy, chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), in women post hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) and laparoscopic tubal ligation (TL) in the Medicaid population.

Study design: This was a retrospective observational cohort analysis using data from the US Medicaid Analytic Extracts Encounters database.Women aged 18 to 49 years with at least one claimfor HS (n=3929) or TL (n=10,875) between July 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010, were included. Main outcome measures were hysterectomy, CPP or AUB in the 24 months poststerilization. Propensity score matching was used ...


Some Dimension Reduction Strategies For The Analysis Of Survey Data, Jiaying Weng, Derek S. Young 2017 University of Kentucky

Some Dimension Reduction Strategies For The Analysis Of Survey Data, Jiaying Weng, Derek S. Young

Statistics Faculty Publications

In the era of big data, researchers interested in developing statistical models are challenged with how to achieve parsimony. Usually, some sort of dimension reduction strategy is employed. Classic strategies are often in the form of traditional inference procedures, such as hypothesis testing; however, the increase in computing capabilities has led to the development of more sophisticated methods. In particular, sufficient dimension reduction has emerged as an area of broad and current interest. While these types of dimension reduction strategies have been employed for numerous data problems, they are scantly discussed in the context of analyzing survey data. This paper ...


Economic Burden, Mortality, And Institutionalization In Patients Newly Diagnosed With Alzheimer’S Disease, Huseyin Yuce, Christopher M. Black, Howard Fillit, Lin Xie, Xiaohan Hu, M. Furaha Kariburyo, Baishali M. Ambegaonkar, Onur Baser, Rezaul K. Khandker 2017 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Economic Burden, Mortality, And Institutionalization In Patients Newly Diagnosed With Alzheimer’S Disease, Huseyin Yuce, Christopher M. Black, Howard Fillit, Lin Xie, Xiaohan Hu, M. Furaha Kariburyo, Baishali M. Ambegaonkar, Onur Baser, Rezaul K. Khandker

Publications and Research

Background: Current information is scarce regarding comorbid conditions, treatment, survival, institutionalization, and health care utilization for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients.

Objectives: Compare all-cause mortality, rate of institutionalization, and economic burden between treated and untreated newly-diagnosed AD patients.

Methods: Patients aged 65–100 years with ≥1 primary or ≥2 secondary AD diagnoses (ICD-9-CM:331.0] with continuous medical and pharmacy benefits for ≥12 months pre-index and ≥6 months post-index date (first AD diagnosis date) were identified from Medicare fee-for-service claims 01JAN2011–30JUN2014. Patients with AD treatment claims or AD/ADrelated dementia diagnosis during the pre-index period were excluded. Patients were ...


Burden Of Atopic Dermatitis In The United States: Analysis Of Healthcare Claims Data In The Commercial, Medicare, And Medi-Cal Databases, Sulena Shrestha, Raymond Miao, Li Wang, Jingdong Chao, Huseyin Yuce, Wenhui Wei 2017 STATinMED Research/SIMR, Inc.

Burden Of Atopic Dermatitis In The United States: Analysis Of Healthcare Claims Data In The Commercial, Medicare, And Medi-Cal Databases, Sulena Shrestha, Raymond Miao, Li Wang, Jingdong Chao, Huseyin Yuce, Wenhui Wei

Publications and Research

Comparative data on the burden of atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults relative to the general population are limited. We performed a large-scale evaluation of the burden of disease among US adults with AD relative to matched non-AD controls, encompassing comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs, using healthcare claims data. The impact of AD disease severity on these outcomes was also evaluated.


Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers 2017 George Washington University

Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers

Global Health Faculty Publications

Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the ...


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