Multi-State Modeling Of Hospital Frequent Users, 2018 University of Windsor
Multi-State Modeling Of Hospital Frequent Users, Yu Liang
The top 1% of frequent users account for 34% of public health system expenditures in Ontario, while the top 5% account for 66%. In this paper, we explore the efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing hospital utilization for a group of patients defined as frequent users, by using Multi-state modeling. We employ time-homogeneous, time-inhomogeneous, parametric and semi-parametric Markov processes to study the transitions of the patients between hospital, ER and outside during a follow up period of one year. The results do not indicate any strong evidence that the intervention was beneficial.
Landscape, Demographic, Entomological, And Climatic Associations With Human Disease Incidence Of West Nile Virus In The State Of Iowa, Usa, John P. Degroote, Ramathan Sugumaran, Sarah M. Brend, Brad J. Tucker, Lyric Bartholomay
Background: West Nile virus (WNV) emerged as a threat to public and veterinary health in the Midwest United States in 2001 and continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality annually. To investigate biotic and abiotic factors associated with disease incidence, cases of reported human disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in the state of Iowa were aggregated by census block groups in Iowa for the years 2002–2006. Spatially explicit data on landscape, demographic, and climatic conditions were collated and analyzed by census block groups. Statistical tests of differences between means and distributions of landscape, demographic, and climatic variables ...
Burden Of Atopic Dermatitis In The United States: Analysis Of Healthcare Claims Data In The Commercial, Medicare, And Medi-Cal Databases, 2017 STATinMED Research/SIMR, Inc.
Burden Of Atopic Dermatitis In The United States: Analysis Of Healthcare Claims Data In The Commercial, Medicare, And Medi-Cal Databases, Sulena Shrestha, Raymond Miao, Li Wang, Jingdong Chao, Huseyin Yuce, Wenhui Wei
Publications and Research
Comparative data on the burden of atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults relative to the general population are limited. We performed a large-scale evaluation of the burden of disease among US adults with AD relative to matched non-AD controls, encompassing comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs, using healthcare claims data. The impact of AD disease severity on these outcomes was also evaluated.
Gelatinization Properties Of Starches From Three Successive Generations Of Six Exotic Corn Lines Grown In Two Locations, Y. Ji, L. M. Pollak, S. Duvick, K. Seetharaman, Philip Dixon, Pamela J. White
The objectives of this research were to evaluate the intra- and interpopulation variability in gelatinization properties of starches from exotic corn lines and their derivatives when grown 1) during two successive years in the same location; and 2) in both temperate and tropical environments. Six novel exotic corn lines (two 100% exotic and four 25% exotic derived from a breeding cross developed by crossing an exotic hybrid with Corn Belt lines) were selected for this research because their starches have significantly different (and potentially useful) thermal properties from those found in starch from normal Corn Belt corn. The Sn (n ...
Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, 2017 George Washington University
Mechanistic Mathematical Models: An Underused Platform For Hpv Research, Marc Ryser, Patti Gravitt, Evan R. Myers
Global Health Faculty Publications
Health economic modeling has become an invaluable methodology for the design and evaluation of clinical and public health interventions against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases. At the same time, relatively little attention has been paid to a different yet complementary class of models, namely that of mechanistic mathematical models. The primary focus of mechanistic mathematical models is to better understand the intricate biologic mechanisms and dynamics of disease. Inspired by a long and successful history of mechanistic modeling in other biomedical fields, we highlight several areas of HPV research where mechanistic models have the potential to advance the ...
Variables Associated With Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Women With Hypertension And/Or Diabetes, 2017 George Washington University
Variables Associated With Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Women With Hypertension And/Or Diabetes, Monica A. Hamilton, Dnp, Rn, Acns-Bc
Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects
Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death next to tobacco use. Although it is prevalent in all populations, it disproportionately affects AA women. Overweight/obesity increases AA women’s chances of developing chronic illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and decreases their life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to explore variables associated with overweight/obese AA women with hypertension and/or diabetes.
A secondary data analysis was conducted using a descriptive-correlational design to analyze cross-sectional data obtained from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The sample consisted of AA women (n ...
Climate Change, Natural Disasters, And Suicide: A Systematic Review, 2017 George Washington
Climate Change, Natural Disasters, And Suicide: A Systematic Review, Ans Irfan, Peter Lapuma
GW Research Days 2016 - Present
Natural disasters are projected to increase due to climate change. Mental health is not a well-researched area in public health, particularly as it relates to environmental health and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The suicide rate is approximately 13 per 100,000 people in the US, nationally. This already high suicide rate warrants researching this area mental health. Understanding the relation between natural disasters and suicide rates might help alleviate human suffering and potentially save lives in the future, in post-disaster settings. This research will further the knowledge of the association between natural disasters and suicide and provide ...
Perspectives On Model Forecasts Of The 2014–2015 Ebola Epidemic In West Africa: Lessons And The Way Forward, 2017 George Washington University
Perspectives On Model Forecasts Of The 2014–2015 Ebola Epidemic In West Africa: Lessons And The Way Forward, Gerardo Chowell, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Stefano Merler, Alessandro Vespignani
Global Health Faculty Publications
The unprecedented impact and modeling efforts associated with the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa provides a unique opportunity to document the performances and caveats of forecasting approaches used in near-real time for generating evidence and to guide policy. A number of international academic groups have developed and parameterized mathematical models of disease spread to forecast the trajectory of the outbreak. These modeling efforts often relied on limited epidemiological data to derive key transmission and severity parameters, which are needed to calibrate mechanistic models. Here, we provide a perspective on some of the challenges and lessons drawn from these ...
Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus
Models For Hsv Shedding Must Account For Two Levels Of Overdispersion, Amalia Magaret
UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series
We have frequently implemented crossover studies to evaluate new therapeutic interventions for genital herpes simplex virus infection. The outcome measured to assess the efficacy of interventions on herpes disease severity is the viral shedding rate, defined as the frequency of detection of HSV on the genital skin and mucosa. We performed a simulation study to ascertain whether our standard model, which we have used previously, was appropriately considering all the necessary features of the shedding data to provide correct inference. We simulated shedding data under our standard, validated assumptions and assessed the ability of 5 different models to reproduce the ...
Spatiotemporal Meta-Analysis: Reviewing Health Psychology Phenomena Over Space And Time., 2016 University of Connecticut
Spatiotemporal Meta-Analysis: Reviewing Health Psychology Phenomena Over Space And Time., Blair T. Johnson
This supplemental material is meant to support this article:
Johnson, B. T., Crowley, E., & Marrouch, N. Spatiotemporal meta-analysis: Reviewing health psychology phenomena over space and time. Health Psychology Review.
Specifically, it is a database of GDPs per capita for nations in the world between 1800 and 2015. It is archived here to support an online supplement to this article.
GDP per capita
Generalized Confidence Intervals And Fiducial Intervals For Some Epidemiological Measures., 2016 George Washington University
Generalized Confidence Intervals And Fiducial Intervals For Some Epidemiological Measures., Ionut Bebu, G. Luta, T. Mathew, B. K. Agan
GW Biostatistics Center
For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR) from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT), and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities ...
Evaluating The Effects Of Standardized Patient Care Pathways On Clinical Outcomes, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Evaluating The Effects Of Standardized Patient Care Pathways On Clinical Outcomes, Anna V. Romanova
The main focus of this study is to create a standardized approach to evaluating the impact of the patient care pathways across all major disease categories and key outcome measures in a hospital setting when randomized clinical trials are not feasible. Toward this goal I identify statistical methods, control factors, and adjustments that can correct for potential confounding in observational studies. I investigate the efficiency of existing bias correction methods under varying conditions of imbalanced samples through a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation results are then utilized in a case study for one of the largest primary diagnosis areas, chronic ...
Teaching Of Biostatistics And Epidemiology In Medical Schools: How Do We Fare Compared With Developed Countries, 2015 National Institute of Health and Family Welfare
Teaching Of Biostatistics And Epidemiology In Medical Schools: How Do We Fare Compared With Developed Countries, Vijay Tiwari, Kuldeep Kumar, Sherin Raj
Background Biostatistics is taught in almost all medical schools at the undergraduate and the postgraduate levels as a core course and is a prerequisite to epidemiology, public health and evidence-based medicine. However, it has to be taught in a different way in medical schools as compared with how it is taught to the students studying MSc (Biostatistics) or in the Statistics Department in universities. Objectives (1) To review the experience of teaching biostatistics in medical schools in India and compares the same with abroad (2) How best the curriculum can be designed as per the need of the medical students ...
Analyzing Alcohol Behavior In San Luis Obispo, 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo
Analyzing Alcohol Behavior In San Luis Obispo, Ariana Montes
No abstract provided.
Should We Love Or Hate Big Data? The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly, 2014 La Salle University
Should We Love Or Hate Big Data? The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly, Dennis Crossen M.Sc., Mba, Karti Puranam Phd, Madjid Tavana Phd
No abstract provided.
Stratified Meta-Analysis To Examine Data Biases In Lung Cancer Studies Of Refinery Workers, Sherman Selix
Yale Day of Data
Petroleum refineries employ a variety of workers who historically experienced different potentials for asbestos exposure depending on job tasks. Associations between petroleum refinery work and lung cancer related to occupational asbestos exposure have been quantified among various locations, corporations, and time periods. To combine the data from several individual refinery studies and examine an overall effect, a systematic review and stratified meta-analysis was employed. Using set search terms among four databases, 112 potential publications were identified, of which 29 qualified for meta-analysis. Risk estimates and confidence intervals were extracted from these publications to construct four separate datasets. Inverse variance weighting ...
Mathematical Modeling Of Tick-Borne Encephalitis In Humans, 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato
Mathematical Modeling Of Tick-Borne Encephalitis In Humans, Amanda Kriesel, Michael Meyer, Geoffrey Peterson
Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato
Tick-Borne Encephalitis is a virus that affects ones nervous system and is transmitted from tick to human through tick bite. In recent years, the number of cases of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe has been increasing. This mathematical biological model of Tick-Borne Encephalitis was created in order to further our understanding of such phenomenon, as well as study the relationship between vectors and their hosts. Specifically, we will investigate the population model of ticks in certain regions and its correlation to tick-borne encephalitis infections in the region.
Herd Immunity And The Necessity Of Vaccinations: Modeling The Effects Of Mmr Vaccinations, 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato
Herd Immunity And The Necessity Of Vaccinations: Modeling The Effects Of Mmr Vaccinations, Caitlyn Cardetti, Katie Groskreutz, Melissa Zins
Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato
The MMR vaccination is a two dose vaccine given to children between the ages of 12 – 15 months and the second dose between the ages of 4 – 6 years to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella. The objective was to mathematically model the effects of the MMR vaccinations in a hypothetical school through multiple compartment and spatial models. These models were based on each disease individually with their respective vaccine effectiveness and disease infection rates. These models demonstrated the limits of herd immunity. Herd immunity occurs when a high enough percentage of the population is immune or vaccinated to prevent the ...
Using Remote Sensing Data To Predict The Spread Of Mosquito Borne Disease, 2014 NASA Jet Propulsion Lab
Using Remote Sensing Data To Predict The Spread Of Mosquito Borne Disease, Mary Ellen O'Donnell, Erika Podest
STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations
There is interest in how environmental variables derived from satellite data such as temperature, vegetation cover, and precipitation correlate to vector borne disease occurrence such as malaria and dengue fever. This study will be carried out using a decision tree based open source software called Random Forests to find correlations between the remote sensing variables and mosquito abundance. Software will be written in C# to take large amounts of data from the NASA satellite database and automatically format it for the Random Forest Software input. Correlations found, using Random Forests, between disease incidence and the variables can be used as ...
Associations Of Total Activity Counts And Physical Activity Intensity Levels With The Metabolic Syndrome: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach, 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Associations Of Total Activity Counts And Physical Activity Intensity Levels With The Metabolic Syndrome: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach, Dana Lizbeth Wolff
To clarify the protective benefits of physical activity (PA), epidemiologists and public health researchers continue to seek improved methods of assessing PA. In particular, accelerometers have gained acceptance with researchers as they provide reliable estimates of PA and can record both the amount and intensity of ambulatory movement. However, there is concern that accelerometer data reduction techniques may not provide quantitatively accurate measurements of time spent in various PA intensity categories. One way to circumvent these inaccuracies is to use the accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC), which is a more direct expression of what the monitor records.
In order to ...