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Minimizing The Perceived Financial Burden Due To Cancer, Hassan Azhar, Zoheb Allam, Gino Varghese, Daniel W. Engels, Sajiny John 2018 Southern Methodist University

Minimizing The Perceived Financial Burden Due To Cancer, Hassan Azhar, Zoheb Allam, Gino Varghese, Daniel W. Engels, Sajiny John

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present a regression model that predicts perceived financial burden that a cancer patient experiences in the treatment and management of the disease. Cancer patients do not fully understand the burden associated with the cost of cancer, and their lack of understanding can increase the difficulties associated with living with the disease, in particular coping with the cost. The relationship between demographic characteristics and financial burden were examined in order to better understand the characteristics of a cancer patient and their burden, while all subsets regression was used to determine the best predictors of financial burden. Age ...


Robust Inference For The Stepped Wedge Design, James P. Hughes, Patrick J. Heagerty, Fan Xia, Yuqi Ren 2018 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Robust Inference For The Stepped Wedge Design, James P. Hughes, Patrick J. Heagerty, Fan Xia, Yuqi Ren

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Based on a permutation argument, we derive a closed form expression for an estimate of the treatment effect, along with its standard error, in a stepped wedge design. We show that these estimates are robust to misspecification of both the mean and covariance structure of the underlying data-generating mechanism, thereby providing a robust approach to inference for the treatment effect in stepped wedge designs. We use simulations to evaluate the type I error and power of the proposed estimate and to compare the performance of the proposed estimate to the optimal estimate when the correct model specification is known. The ...


Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam 2018 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this paper we aim to answer the question, ``How can modeling and simulation of physiological systems be used to evaluate life-critical implantable medical devices?'' Clinical trials for medical devices are becoming increasingly inefficient as they take several years to conduct, at very high cost and suffer from high rates of failure. For example, the Rhythm ID Goes Head-to-head Trial (RIGHT) sought to evaluate the performance of two arrhythmia discriminator algorithms for implantable cardioverter defibrillators, Vitality 2 vs. Medtronic, in terms of time-to-first inappropriate therapy, but concluded with results contrary to the initial hypothesis - after 5 years, 2,000+ patients ...


Therapeutic Benefit Of Apremilast On Enthesitis And Dactylitis In Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis: A Pooled Analysis Of The Palace 1-3 Studies, Dafna D. Gladman, Arthur Kavanaugh, Juan J. Gomez-Reino, Jurgen Wollenhaupt, Maurizio Cutolo, Georg Schett, Eric Lespessailles, Benoit Guerette, Nikolay Delev, Lichen Teng, Christopher J. Edwards, Charles Birbara, Philip J. Mease 2018 Toronto Western Hospital

Therapeutic Benefit Of Apremilast On Enthesitis And Dactylitis In Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis: A Pooled Analysis Of The Palace 1-3 Studies, Dafna D. Gladman, Arthur Kavanaugh, Juan J. Gomez-Reino, Jurgen Wollenhaupt, Maurizio Cutolo, Georg Schett, Eric Lespessailles, Benoit Guerette, Nikolay Delev, Lichen Teng, Christopher J. Edwards, Charles Birbara, Philip J. Mease

Open Access Articles

Objective: The Psoriatic Arthritis Long-term Assessment of Clinical Efficacy (PALACE) clinical trial programme findings demonstrated that apremilast, an oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, is effective for treating psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Enthesitis and dactylitis are difficult-to-treat features of PsA leading to disability and affecting quality of life. PALACE 1, 2 and 3 data were pooled to assess the efficacy of apremilast on enthesitis and dactylitis outcomes in patients with these conditions at baseline.

Methods: Patients with enthesitis (n=945) or dactylitis (n=633) at baseline were analysed after receiving double-blind treatment with placebo, apremilast 30 mg two times per day or apremilast ...


Low-Fat Abiraterone Food Effect Is Of Little Consequence, Jill M. Kolesar, Glenn X. Liu 2018 University of Kentucky

Low-Fat Abiraterone Food Effect Is Of Little Consequence, Jill M. Kolesar, Glenn X. Liu

Pharmacy Practice and Science Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Patient Recruitment Methods For Clinical Trials Of Different Heart And Lung Diseases, Oghenevovwero Vovwe Sido 2018 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

Analysis Of Patient Recruitment Methods For Clinical Trials Of Different Heart And Lung Diseases, Oghenevovwero Vovwe Sido

Theses and Dissertations

Patient recruitment is key to the success of any clinical trial, as clinical trials cannot be conducted without the willful participation of subjects. However, clinical trial recruitment has always been a great challenge in clinical studies. This practicum project conducted over an eight-month period, compares three different methods of subject recruitment into 2 clinical research studies conducted at the Heart & Lung Transplant and Pulmonary Research Department of Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Dallas. The three recruitment methods are: Physician Referral, EHR Screening and Online Portals. We hypothesize that Physician referral is a more successful method for enrolling patients into clinical ...


Robust Multivariate Nonparametric Tests For Detection Of Two-Sample Location Shift In Clinical Trials, Xuejun Jiang, Xu Guo, Ning Zhang, Bo Wang, Bo Zhang 2018 Southern University of Science and Technology

Robust Multivariate Nonparametric Tests For Detection Of Two-Sample Location Shift In Clinical Trials, Xuejun Jiang, Xu Guo, Ning Zhang, Bo Wang, Bo Zhang

Open Access Articles

This article presents and investigates performance of a series of robust multivariate nonparametric tests for detection of location shift between two multivariate samples in randomized controlled trials. The tests are built upon robust estimators of distribution locations (medians, Hodges-Lehmann estimators, and an extended U statistic) with both unscaled and scaled versions. The nonparametric tests are robust to outliers and do not assume that the two samples are drawn from multivariate normal distributions. Bootstrap and permutation approaches are introduced for determining the p-values of the proposed test statistics. Simulation studies are conducted and numerical results are reported to examine performance of ...


Quality Of Life During Treatment With Chemohormonal Therapy: Analysis Of E3805 Chemohormonal Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial In Prostate Cancer, Alicia K. Morgans, Yu-Hui Chen, Christopher J. Sweeney, David F. Jarrard, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Benjamin A. Gartrell, Michael A. Carducci, Maha Hussain, Jorge A. Garcia, David Cella, Robert S. DiPaola, Linda J. Patrick-Miller 2018 Northwestern University

Quality Of Life During Treatment With Chemohormonal Therapy: Analysis Of E3805 Chemohormonal Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial In Prostate Cancer, Alicia K. Morgans, Yu-Hui Chen, Christopher J. Sweeney, David F. Jarrard, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Benjamin A. Gartrell, Michael A. Carducci, Maha Hussain, Jorge A. Garcia, David Cella, Robert S. Dipaola, Linda J. Patrick-Miller

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Purpose

Chemohormonal therapy with docetaxel and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT+D) for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer improves overall survival as compared with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone. We compared the quality of life (QOL) between patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who were treated with ADT+D and those who were treated with ADT alone.

Methods

Men were randomly assigned to ADT+ D (six cycles) or to ADT alone. QOL was assessed by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P), FACT-Taxane, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and the Brief Pain Inventory at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 ...


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis: Tuberculosis, Tnfα Inhibitors, And Crohn's Disease, Brent L. Cao 2018 University of Central Florida

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis: Tuberculosis, Tnfα Inhibitors, And Crohn's Disease, Brent L. Cao

Honors in the Major Theses

Inflammation is often a protective reaction against harmful foreign agents. However, in many disease conditions, the mechanisms behind the inflammatory response are poorly understood. Often times, the inflammation causes adverse effects, such as joint pain, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Thus, many treatments aim to inhibit the inflammatory response in order to control adverse symptoms. Such treatments include TNFα inhibitors. However, a major risk associated with drugs inhibiting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is serious infection, including tuberculosis (TB).

Anti-TNFα therapy is used to treat patients with Crohn’s disease, for which the risk of tuberculosis may ...


A Checklist For Clinical Trials In Rare Disease: Obstacles And Anticipatory Actions-Lessons Learned From The For-Dmd Trial, R Crow, K Hart, M McDermott, R Tawil, W Martens, Mathula Thangarajh, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

A Checklist For Clinical Trials In Rare Disease: Obstacles And Anticipatory Actions-Lessons Learned From The For-Dmd Trial, R Crow, K Hart, M Mcdermott, R Tawil, W Martens, Mathula Thangarajh, +Several Additional Authors

Neurology Faculty Publications

Background: Trials in rare diseases have many challenges, among which are the need to set up multiple sites in different countries to achieve recruitment targets and the divergent landscape of clinical trial regulations in those countries. Over the past years, there have been initiatives to facilitate the process of international study set-up, but the fruits of these deliberations require time to be operationally in place. FOR-DMD (Finding the Optimum Steroid Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) is an academic-led clinical trial which aims to find the optimum steroid regimen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH ...


Simulations For Designing And Interpreting Intervention Trials In Infectious Diseases., M Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E Basta, Steven E Bellan, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Simulations For Designing And Interpreting Intervention Trials In Infectious Diseases., M Elizabeth Halloran, Kari Auranen, Sarah Baird, Nicole E Basta, Steven E Bellan, +Several Additional Authors

Global Health Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods.

DISCUSSION: Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process. In an increasingly complex world, simulations can explicitly represent transmission dynamics ...


Long-Term Follow-Up Of Cardiac Function And Quality Of Life For Patients In Nsabp Protocol B-31/Nrg Oncology: A Randomized Trial Comparing The Safety And Efficacy Of Doxorubicin And Cyclophosphamide (Ac) Followed By Paclitaxel With Ac Followed By Paclitaxel And Trastuzumab In Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer With Tumors Overexpressing Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2, Patricia A. Ganz, Edward H. Romond, Reena S. Cecchini, Priya Rastogi, Charles E. Geyer Jr., Sandra M. Swain, Jong-Hyeon Jeong, Louis Fehrenbacher, Howard M. Gross, Adam M. Brufsky, Patrick J. Flynn, Tanya A. Wahl, Thomas E. Seay, James L. Wade III, David D. Biggs, James N. Atkins, Jonathan Polikoff, John L. Zapas, Eleftherios P. Mamounas, Norman Wolmark 2017 University of California - Los Angeles

Long-Term Follow-Up Of Cardiac Function And Quality Of Life For Patients In Nsabp Protocol B-31/Nrg Oncology: A Randomized Trial Comparing The Safety And Efficacy Of Doxorubicin And Cyclophosphamide (Ac) Followed By Paclitaxel With Ac Followed By Paclitaxel And Trastuzumab In Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer With Tumors Overexpressing Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2, Patricia A. Ganz, Edward H. Romond, Reena S. Cecchini, Priya Rastogi, Charles E. Geyer Jr., Sandra M. Swain, Jong-Hyeon Jeong, Louis Fehrenbacher, Howard M. Gross, Adam M. Brufsky, Patrick J. Flynn, Tanya A. Wahl, Thomas E. Seay, James L. Wade Iii, David D. Biggs, James N. Atkins, Jonathan Polikoff, John L. Zapas, Eleftherios P. Mamounas, Norman Wolmark

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Purpose

Early cardiac toxicity is a risk associated with adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. However, objective measures of cardiac function and health-related quality of life are lacking in long-term follow-up of patients who remain cancer free after completion of adjuvant treatment.

Patients and Methods

Patients in NSABP Protocol B-31 received anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of node-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive early-stage breast cancer. A long-term follow-up assessment was undertaken for patients who were alive and disease free, which included measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction by multigated acquisition scan along with ...


Impact Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy On Clinical And Patient-Reported Quality-Of-Life Outcomes In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, Ani John, George W. Reed, Tmirah Haselkorn, Chitra Karki, YouFu Li, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer, Jeffrey D. Greenberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Impact Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy On Clinical And Patient-Reported Quality-Of-Life Outcomes In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, Ani John, George W. Reed, Tmirah Haselkorn, Chitra Karki, Youfu Li, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer, Jeffrey D. Greenberg

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy has been proven as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical trials. However, there are limited data available regarding the effectiveness of TCZ monotherapy in real-world clinical settings in the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of TCZ monotherapy on disease activity and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a US-based observational cohort of patients with RA seen in routine clinical practice.

METHODS: Eligible patients had active RA, no prior use of TCZ, and initiated TCZ as monotherapy. Changes in disease activity and PROs were assessed 1 year after TCZ ...


Reducing Symptom Distress In Patients With Advanced Cancer Using An E-Alert System For Caregivers: Pooled Analysis Of Two Randomized Clinical Trials, David H. Gustafson, Lori L. DuBenske, Amy K. Atwood, Ming-Yuan Chih, Roberta A. Johnson, Fiona McTavish, Andrew Quanbeck, Roger L. Brown, James F. Cleary, Dhavan Shah 2017 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Reducing Symptom Distress In Patients With Advanced Cancer Using An E-Alert System For Caregivers: Pooled Analysis Of Two Randomized Clinical Trials, David H. Gustafson, Lori L. Dubenske, Amy K. Atwood, Ming-Yuan Chih, Roberta A. Johnson, Fiona Mctavish, Andrew Quanbeck, Roger L. Brown, James F. Cleary, Dhavan Shah

Clinical Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Symptom distress in patients toward the end of life can change rapidly. Family caregivers have the potential to help patients manage those symptoms, as well as their own stress, if they are equipped with the proper resources. Electronic health (eHealth) systems may be able to provide those resources. Very sick patients may not be able to use such systems themselves to report their symptoms but family caregivers could.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to assess the effects on cancer patient symptom distress of an eHealth system that alerts clinicians to significant changes in the patient’s symptoms ...


Infection Rates In Patients From Five Rheumatoid Arthritis (Ra) Registries: Contextualising An Ra Clinical Trial Programme, Hisashi Yamanaka, George W. Reed 2017 Tokyo Women's Medical University

Infection Rates In Patients From Five Rheumatoid Arthritis (Ra) Registries: Contextualising An Ra Clinical Trial Programme, Hisashi Yamanaka, George W. Reed

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of serious infections. Comparing infection rates across RA populations is complicated by differences in background infection risk, population composition and study methodology. We measured infection rates from five RA registries globally, with the aim to contextualise infection rates from an RA clinical trials population.

METHODS: We used data from Consortium of Rheumatology Research of North America (CORRONA) (USA), Swedish Rheumatology Quality of Care Register (Sweden), Norfolk Arthritis Register (UK), CORRONA International (multiple countries) and Institute of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis (Japan) and an RA clinical trial programme (fostamatinib). Within each registry ...


Reducing Therapeutic Misconception: A Randomized Intervention Trial In Hypothetical Clinical Trials, Paul P. Christopher, Paul S. Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise S. Maranda, Charles W. Lidz 2017 Brown University

Reducing Therapeutic Misconception: A Randomized Intervention Trial In Hypothetical Clinical Trials, Paul P. Christopher, Paul S. Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise S. Maranda, Charles W. Lidz

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials.

METHODS: This prospective randomized trial was conducted from 2015 to 2016 to test the efficacy of an informed consent intervention based on scientific reframing compared to a traditional ...


Novel Bayesian Adaptive Clinical Trial Designs In Early Phases, Haitao Pan 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Novel Bayesian Adaptive Clinical Trial Designs In Early Phases, Haitao Pan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Early phase, or phase I and phase II, trials are the first step in testing new medicines that have been developed in the lab. The main goal of phase I clinical trials is to establish the recommended dose of new drugs for phase II trials. For the cytotoxic drugs, the goal is to find maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The guiding principle for dose escalation in phase I trials is to avoid exposing too many patients to subtherapeutic doses while preserving safety and maintaining rapid accrual. Therefore, dose escalation methods, especially Bayesian designs, are recommended to be used in phase I ...


Burden Of Atopic Dermatitis In The United States: Analysis Of Healthcare Claims Data In The Commercial, Medicare, And Medi-Cal Databases, Sulena Shrestha, Raymond Miao, Li Wang, Jingdong Chao, Huseyin Yuce, Wenhui Wei 2017 STATinMED Research/SIMR, Inc.

Burden Of Atopic Dermatitis In The United States: Analysis Of Healthcare Claims Data In The Commercial, Medicare, And Medi-Cal Databases, Sulena Shrestha, Raymond Miao, Li Wang, Jingdong Chao, Huseyin Yuce, Wenhui Wei

Publications and Research

Comparative data on the burden of atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults relative to the general population are limited. We performed a large-scale evaluation of the burden of disease among US adults with AD relative to matched non-AD controls, encompassing comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs, using healthcare claims data. The impact of AD disease severity on these outcomes was also evaluated.


The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Importance Of Inhaler Technique In Measuring And Calculating Inhaler Adherence, And Its Clinical Outcomes, Imran Sulaiman

PhD theses

Depending on the population studied, cross-sectional observational studies suggest that between 14%-90% of patients do not use their pressurized metered dose inhaler correctly, while 50-60% misuse a dry powder inhaler. This means that unless incorrect technique is acounted for a significant underestimation of how much medication the person actually obtained may be made.

The aim of this thesis was to objectively determine the frequency and importance of inhaler technique errors and to combine these with inhaler use to provide an acurate method of calculating adherence. I then investigated different patterns of inhaler use, determinants of inhaler use and the ...


Evaluation Of Multiple Interventions Using A Stepped Wedge Design, Vivian H. Lyons, Lingyu Li, James Hughes, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar 2017 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Evaluation Of Multiple Interventions Using A Stepped Wedge Design, Vivian H. Lyons, Lingyu Li, James Hughes, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Background: Stepped wedge cluster randomized trials are a class of unidirectional crossover studies that have historically been limited to evaluating a single intervention. This design is especially suitable for pragmatic trials where the study feasibility can be improved with a phased introduction of the intervention. We examined variations of stepped wedge designs that would support evaluation of multiple interventions. Methods: We propose four different design variants for implementing a stepped wedge trial with two interventions: concurrent design, supplementation, replacement, and factorial designs. Analyses were conducted comparing the precision of the estimated intervention effects for the different designs. Results: Concurrent, supplementation ...


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