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Sensitivity Analysis For Incomplete Data And Causal Inference, Heng Chen 2020 Southern Methodist University

Sensitivity Analysis For Incomplete Data And Causal Inference, Heng Chen

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we explore sensitivity analyses under three different types of incomplete data problems, including missing outcomes, missing outcomes and missing predictors, potential outcomes in \emph{Rubin causal model (RCM)}. The first sensitivity analysis is conducted for the \emph{missing completely at random (MCAR)} assumption in frequentist inference; the second one is conducted for the \emph{missing at random (MAR)} assumption in likelihood inference; the third one is conducted for one novel assumption, the ``sixth assumption'' proposed for the robustness of instrumental variable estimand in causal inference.


A Two-Stage Design For Comparing Binomial Treatments With A Standard, Cecelia K. Schmidt 2020 University of North Florida

A Two-Stage Design For Comparing Binomial Treatments With A Standard, Cecelia K. Schmidt

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We propose a method for comparing success rates of several populations among each other and against a desired standard success rate. This design is appropriate for a situation in which all experimental treatments have only two outcomes that can be considered “success”and “failure” respectively. The goal is to identify which treatment has the highest rate of success that is also higher than the desired standard. The design combines elements of both hypothesis testing and statistical selection. At the first stage, if none of the samples have a number of successes above the appropriate standard for the design, the experiment ...


Comparing Sensitivity To Change Using The 6-Item Versus The 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale In The Guided Randomized Controlled Trial, Boadie W. Dunlop, Sagar V. Parikh, Anthony J. Rothschild, Michael E. Thase, Charles DeBattista, Charles R. Conway, Brent P. Forester, Francis M. Mondimore, Richard C. Shelton, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Logan, Paul Traxler, James Li, Holly Johnson, John F. Greden 2019 Emory University

Comparing Sensitivity To Change Using The 6-Item Versus The 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale In The Guided Randomized Controlled Trial, Boadie W. Dunlop, Sagar V. Parikh, Anthony J. Rothschild, Michael E. Thase, Charles Debattista, Charles R. Conway, Brent P. Forester, Francis M. Mondimore, Richard C. Shelton, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Logan, Paul Traxler, James Li, Holly Johnson, John F. Greden

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) is less sensitive in detecting differences between active treatment and placebo for major depressive disorder (MDD) than is the HAM-D6 scale, which focuses on six core depression symptoms. Whether HAM-D6 shows greater sensitivity when comparing two active MDD treatment arms is unknown.

METHODS: This post hoc analysis used data from the intent-to-treat (ITT) cohort (N = 1541) of the Genomics Used to Improve DEpression Decisions (GUIDED) trial, a rater- and patient-blinded randomized controlled trial. GUIDED compared combinatorial pharmacogenomics-guided care with treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with MDD. Percent ...


Phase Iv Clinical Trials: Postmarketing Surveillance Of Prescription Drugs, Morgan Belling, Jacquline Nunner, Jessica Stemen 2019 Ohio Northern University

Phase Iv Clinical Trials: Postmarketing Surveillance Of Prescription Drugs, Morgan Belling, Jacquline Nunner, Jessica Stemen

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

No abstract provided.


Neutral Diagnosis: An Innovative Concept For Medical Device Clinical Trials, Bo Zhang, Shangyuan Ye, Sravya B. Shankara, Hui Zhang, Qingfeng Zheng 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neutral Diagnosis: An Innovative Concept For Medical Device Clinical Trials, Bo Zhang, Shangyuan Ye, Sravya B. Shankara, Hui Zhang, Qingfeng Zheng

Open Access Articles

Study design and statistical analysis are crucial in pivotal clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of new medical devices under investigation. In recent years, innovative intraoperative in vivo breast tumor diagnostic devices have been proposed to improve the accuracy and surgical outcomes of breast tumor patients undergoing resection. Although such technologies are promising, investigators need to obtain statistical evidence for the effectiveness and safety of these devices by conducting valid clinical trials. However, the study design and statistical analysis for these clinical trials are complicated. While these trials are designed to provide real-time intraoperative diagnosis of cancerous tissue ...


Effect Of Continuing Olanzapine Vs Placebo On Relapse Among Patients With Psychotic Depression In Remission: The Stop-Pd Ii Randomized Clinical Trial, Alastair J. Flint, Barnett S. Meyers, Anthony J. Rothschild, Ellen M. Whyte, George S. Alexopoulos, Matthew V. Rudorfer, Patricia Marino, Samprit Banerjee, Cristina D. Pollari, Yiyuan Wu, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Benoit H. Mulsant 2019 University of Toronto

Effect Of Continuing Olanzapine Vs Placebo On Relapse Among Patients With Psychotic Depression In Remission: The Stop-Pd Ii Randomized Clinical Trial, Alastair J. Flint, Barnett S. Meyers, Anthony J. Rothschild, Ellen M. Whyte, George S. Alexopoulos, Matthew V. Rudorfer, Patricia Marino, Samprit Banerjee, Cristina D. Pollari, Yiyuan Wu, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Benoit H. Mulsant

Psychiatry Publications

Importance: Psychotic depression is a severely disabling and potentially lethal disorder. Little is known about the efficacy and tolerability of continuing antipsychotic medication for patients with psychotic depression in remission.

Objective: To determine the clinical effects of continuing antipsychotic medication once an episode of psychotic depression has responded to combination treatment with an antidepressant and antipsychotic agent.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Thirty-six week randomized clinical trial conducted at 4 academic medical centers. Patients aged 18 years or older had an episode of psychotic depression acutely treated with sertraline plus olanzapine for up to 12 weeks and met criteria for remission ...


Reporting And Analysis Of Repeated Measurements In Preclinical Animals Experiments, Jing Zhao, Chong Wang, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor 2019 Iowa State University

Reporting And Analysis Of Repeated Measurements In Preclinical Animals Experiments, Jing Zhao, Chong Wang, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A common feature of preclinical animal experiments is repeated measurement of the outcome, e.g., body weight measured in mice pups weekly for 20 weeks. Separate time point analysis or repeated measures analysis approaches can be used to analyze such data. Each approach requires assumptions about the underlying data and violations of these assumptions have implications for estimation of precision, and type I and type II error rates. Given the ethical responsibilities to maximize valid results obtained from animals used in research, our objective was to evaluate approaches to reporting repeated measures design used by investigators and to assess how ...


Sample Size Calculation Of Clinical Trials With Correlated Outcomes, Dateng Li 2019 Southern Methodist University

Sample Size Calculation Of Clinical Trials With Correlated Outcomes, Dateng Li

Statistical Science Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, we investigate sample size calculation for three kinds of clinical trials: (1). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with longitudinal count outcomes; (2). Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) with count outcomes; (3). CRTs with multiple binary co-primary endpoints.


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan 2019 Temple University

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


A Note On Misspecification In General Linear Models With Correlated Errors For The Analysis Of Crossover Clinical Trials, Wei Wang, Ning Cong, Tian Chen, Hui Zhang, Bo Zhang 2019 University of Mississippi Medical Center

A Note On Misspecification In General Linear Models With Correlated Errors For The Analysis Of Crossover Clinical Trials, Wei Wang, Ning Cong, Tian Chen, Hui Zhang, Bo Zhang

Open Access Articles

Among various approaches to the repeated measures analysis in crossover clinical trials, the general linear models (GLMs) with correlated errors attract substantial attention due to their simplicity in model specification, implementation, and interpretation. The goal of this research note is to conduct simulation studies to numerically investigate the impact of model misspecification in the GLMs with correlated errors in the analysis of crossover trials. A series of synthetic two-treatment and three-treatment crossover trials were designed, and simulation studies were conducted to assess how treatment effect estimation, type I error rates, and power can be affected by misspecified period effects, carryover ...


Antimicrobial Resistance In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Proceedings Of The Star Sexually Transmitted Infection-Clinical Trial Group Programmatic Meeting, Anthony D. Cristillo, Peter A. Rice 2019 Social & Scientific Systems, Inc.

Antimicrobial Resistance In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Proceedings Of The Star Sexually Transmitted Infection-Clinical Trial Group Programmatic Meeting, Anthony D. Cristillo, Peter A. Rice

Open Access Articles

The goal of the Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinical Trial Group's Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) meeting was to assemble experts from academia, government, nonprofit and industry to discuss the current state of research, gaps and challenges in research and technology and priorities and new directions to address the continued emergence of multidrug-resistant NG infections. Topics discussed at the meeting, which will be the focus of this article, include AMR NG global surveillance initiatives, the use of whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics to understand mutations associated with AMR, mechanisms of AMR, and novel antibiotics, vaccines and other methods ...


Toxoplasma Gondii Igg Associations With Sleepwake Problems, Sleep Duration And Timing, Celine C. Corona, Ma Zhang, Abhishek Wadhawan, Melanie L. Daue, Maureen W. Groer, Aline Dagang, Christopher A. Lowry, Kathleen A. Ryan, Andrew J. Hoisington, John W. Stiller, Dietmar Fuchs, Braxton D. Mitchell, Teodor T. Postolache 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Toxoplasma Gondii Igg Associations With Sleepwake Problems, Sleep Duration And Timing, Celine C. Corona, Ma Zhang, Abhishek Wadhawan, Melanie L. Daue, Maureen W. Groer, Aline Dagang, Christopher A. Lowry, Kathleen A. Ryan, Andrew J. Hoisington, John W. Stiller, Dietmar Fuchs, Braxton D. Mitchell, Teodor T. Postolache

Faculty Publications

Background: Evidence links Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a neurotropic parasite, with schizophrenia, mood disorders and suicidal behavior, all of which are associated and exacerbated by disrupted sleep. Moreover, low-grade immune activation and dopaminergic overstimulation, which are consequences of T. gondii infection, could alter sleep patterns and duration. Methods: Sleep data on 833 Amish participants [mean age (SD) = 44.28 (16.99) years; 59.06% women] were obtained via self-reported questionnaires that assessed sleep problems, duration and timing. T. gondii IgG was measured with ELISA. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regressions and linear mixed models, with adjustment for age, sex ...


A Parent-Led Intervention To Promote Recovery Following Pediatric Injury: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Meghan L. Marsac, Ginny Sprang, Leila Guller, Kristen L. Kohser, John M. Draus Jr., Nancy Kassam-Adams 2019 University of Kentucky

A Parent-Led Intervention To Promote Recovery Following Pediatric Injury: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Meghan L. Marsac, Ginny Sprang, Leila Guller, Kristen L. Kohser, John M. Draus Jr., Nancy Kassam-Adams

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background: Injury is one of the most prevalent potentially emotionally traumatic events that children experience and can lead to persistent impaired physical and emotional health. There is a need for interventions that promote full physical and emotional recovery and that can be easily accessed by all injured children. Based on research evidence regarding post-injury recovery, we created the Cellie Coping Kit for Children with Injury intervention to target key mechanisms of action and refined the intervention based on feedback from children, families, and experts in the field. The Cellie Coping Kit intervention is parent-guided and includes a toy (for engagement ...


A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu 2019 Iowa State University

A Dataset Of 30-Meter Annual Vegetation Phenology Indicators (1985–2015) In Urban Areas Of The Conterminous United States, Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Lin Meng, Ghassem R. Asrar, Chaoqun Lu, Qiusheng Wu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Fine-resolution satellite observations show great potential for characterizing seasonal and annual dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains, from local to regional and global scales. However, most previous studies were conducted using coarse or moderate resolution data, which are inadequate for characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation phenology in urban domains. In this study, we produced an annual vegetation phenology dataset in urban ecosystems for the conterminous United States (US), using all available Landsat images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. First, we characterized the long-term mean seasonal pattern of phenology indicators of the start of season (SOS) and ...


Safety Constraint Optimization Of Combination Drug Therapy In Hypertension Clinical Trials, Victor Chukwu 2019 Georgia Southern University

Safety Constraint Optimization Of Combination Drug Therapy In Hypertension Clinical Trials, Victor Chukwu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Clinical Practice, combination drug therapy has become common in treating many disease conditions. The purpose of these combinations is often to ensure optimal efficacy and to reduce adverse effects that may arise from monotherapy. Clinical trials have also been conducted to ensure efficacy and safety of these combinations before they are introduced into the market. However, adverse effects still occur with combination therapies. The objective of this study is to (1) To determine a region of optimum doses of Drug A and Drug B in combination while focusing on efficacy alone (2) To determine a region of optimum doses ...


The Potential Of Organ On Chip Technology For Replacing Animal Testing, Malcolm Wilkinson 2019 Kirkstall Ltd.

The Potential Of Organ On Chip Technology For Replacing Animal Testing, Malcolm Wilkinson

Human Clinical Trials Collection

The term organ on a chip is used to describe the latest stage of development of in vitro cell culture technology. Figure 26.1 shows its steady development since the 1960s. Each step forward has improved our ability to model human-clinical response to new drugs or therapies and has enabled safety risk assessment of existing cosmetics, personal care products, or other chemicals in the environment. Scientific evidence that the predictive power of in vitro tests is superior to the use of animals will trigger a major shift in the way that medical research, in many areas, is carried out. In ...


Minimizing The Perceived Financial Burden Due To Cancer, Hassan Azhar, Zoheb Allam, Gino Varghese, Daniel W. Engels, Sajiny John 2018 Southern Methodist University

Minimizing The Perceived Financial Burden Due To Cancer, Hassan Azhar, Zoheb Allam, Gino Varghese, Daniel W. Engels, Sajiny John

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present a regression model that predicts perceived financial burden that a cancer patient experiences in the treatment and management of the disease. Cancer patients do not fully understand the burden associated with the cost of cancer, and their lack of understanding can increase the difficulties associated with living with the disease, in particular coping with the cost. The relationship between demographic characteristics and financial burden were examined in order to better understand the characteristics of a cancer patient and their burden, while all subsets regression was used to determine the best predictors of financial burden. Age ...


Robust Inference For The Stepped Wedge Design, James P. Hughes, Patrick J. Heagerty, Fan Xia, Yuqi Ren 2018 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Robust Inference For The Stepped Wedge Design, James P. Hughes, Patrick J. Heagerty, Fan Xia, Yuqi Ren

UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series

Based on a permutation argument, we derive a closed form expression for an estimate of the treatment effect, along with its standard error, in a stepped wedge design. We show that these estimates are robust to misspecification of both the mean and covariance structure of the underlying data-generating mechanism, thereby providing a robust approach to inference for the treatment effect in stepped wedge designs. We use simulations to evaluate the type I error and power of the proposed estimate and to compare the performance of the proposed estimate to the optimal estimate when the correct model specification is known. The ...


A Programme For Risk Assessment And Minimisation Of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Developed For Vedolizumab Clinical Trials, Asit Parikh, Kristin Stephens, Eugene Major, Irving Fox, Catherine Milch, Serap Sankoh, Michael H. Lev, James M. Provenzale, Jesse Shick, Mark Patti, Megan McAuliffe, Joseph R. Berger, David B. Clifford 2018 Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co.

A Programme For Risk Assessment And Minimisation Of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Developed For Vedolizumab Clinical Trials, Asit Parikh, Kristin Stephens, Eugene Major, Irving Fox, Catherine Milch, Serap Sankoh, Michael H. Lev, James M. Provenzale, Jesse Shick, Mark Patti, Megan Mcauliffe, Joseph R. Berger, David B. Clifford

Neurology Faculty Publications

Introduction Over the past decade, the potential for drug-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has become an increasingly important consideration in certain drug development programmes, particularly those of immunomodulatory biologics. Whether the risk of PML with an investigational agent is proven (e.g. extrapolated from relevant experience, such as a class effect) or merely theoretical, the serious consequences of acquiring PML require careful risk minimisation and assessment. No single standard for such risk minimisation exists. Vedolizumab is a recently developed monoclonal antibody to α4β7 integrin. Its clinical development necessitated a dedicated PML risk minimisation assessment as part of a global preapproval ...


Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam 2018 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Computer Aided Clinical Trials For Implantable Cardiac Devices, Kuk Jin Jang, James Weimer, Houssam Abbas, Zhihao Jiang, Jackson Liang, Sanjay Dixit, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

In this paper we aim to answer the question, ``How can modeling and simulation of physiological systems be used to evaluate life-critical implantable medical devices?'' Clinical trials for medical devices are becoming increasingly inefficient as they take several years to conduct, at very high cost and suffer from high rates of failure. For example, the Rhythm ID Goes Head-to-head Trial (RIGHT) sought to evaluate the performance of two arrhythmia discriminator algorithms for implantable cardioverter defibrillators, Vitality 2 vs. Medtronic, in terms of time-to-first inappropriate therapy, but concluded with results contrary to the initial hypothesis - after 5 years, 2,000+ patients ...


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