A Novel Pathway-Based Distance Score Enhances Assessment Of Disease Heterogeneity In Gene Expression, 2019 Yale University School of Public Health

#### A Novel Pathway-Based Distance Score Enhances Assessment Of Disease Heterogeneity In Gene Expression, Yunqing Liu, Xiting Yan

*Yale Day of Data*

Distance-based unsupervised clustering of gene expression data is commonly used to identify heterogeneity in biologic samples. However, high noise levels in gene expression data and the relatively high correlation between genes are often encountered, so traditional distances such as Euclidean distance may not be effective at discriminating the biological differences between samples. In this study, we developed a novel computational method to assess the biological differences based on pathways by assuming that ontologically defined biological pathways in biologically similar samples have similar behavior. Application of this distance score results in more accurate, robust, and biologically meaningful clustering results in both ...

Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, 2018 Bharathiar University, Coimbatore & IIT(ISM) Dhanbad

#### Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R.

*Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)*

*The present study is focused on examining the application of Bradford’s law of scattering on research articles published in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics by Indian scientist during 1988-2017. The bibliographic data was retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) bibliographic data base for different period of time. Total 18,877 journal’s article have been published by Indian scientist in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics during 1988-2017 which was further retrieved and analyzed separately for different blocks of 10 years as well as for 30 years consolidated too. The core journal of the field was identified. The Bradford law ...*

Different Estimation Methods For The Basic Independent Component Analysis Model, 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

#### Different Estimation Methods For The Basic Independent Component Analysis Model, Zhenyi An

*Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Inspired by classic cocktail-party problem, the basic Independent Component Analysis (ICA) model is created. What differs Independent Component Analysis (ICA) from other kinds of analysis is the intrinsic non-Gaussian assumption of the data. Several approaches are proposed based on maximizing the non-Gaussianity of the data, which is measured by kurtosis, mutual information, and others. With each estimation, we need to optimize the functions of expectations of non-quadratic functions since it can help us to access the higher-order statistics of non-Gaussian part of the data. In this thesis, our goal is to review the one of the most efficient estimation methods ...

Anisotropic Kernel Smoothing For Change-Point Data With An Analysis Of Fire Spread Rate Variability, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### Anisotropic Kernel Smoothing For Change-Point Data With An Analysis Of Fire Spread Rate Variability, John Ronald James Thompson

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Wildland fires are natural disturbances that enable the renewal of forests. However, these fires also place public safety and property at risk. Understanding forest fire spread in any region of Canada is critical to promoting forest health, and protecting human life and infrastructure. In 2014, Ontario updated its Wildland Fire Management Strategy, moving away from ``zone-based" decision making to ``appropriate response" decision making. This new strategy calls for an assessment of the risks and benefits of every wildland fire reported in the province. My research places the emphasis on the knowledge and understanding of fire spread rates and their variabilities ...

Bias Assessment And Reduction In Kernel Smoothing, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### Bias Assessment And Reduction In Kernel Smoothing, Wenkai Ma

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

When performing local polynomial regression (LPR) with kernel smoothing, the choice of the smoothing parameter, or bandwidth, is critical. The performance of the method is often evaluated using the Mean Square Error (MSE). Bias and variance are two components of MSE. Kernel methods are known to exhibit varying degrees of bias. Boundary effects and data sparsity issues are two potential problems to watch for. There is a need for a tool to visually assess the potential bias when applying kernel smooths to a given scatterplot of data. In this dissertation, we propose pointwise confidence intervals for bias and demonstrate a ...

Analysis Of Covariance (Ancova) In Randomized Trials: More Precision, Less Conditional Bias, And Valid Confidence Intervals, Without Model Assumptions, 2018 Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University

#### Analysis Of Covariance (Ancova) In Randomized Trials: More Precision, Less Conditional Bias, And Valid Confidence Intervals, Without Model Assumptions, Bingkai Wang, Elizabeth Ogburn, Michael Rosenblum

*Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers*

Covariate adjustment" in the randomized trial context refers to an estimator of the average treatment effect that adjusts for chance imbalances between study arms in baseline variables (called “covariates"). The baseline variables could include, e.g., age, sex, disease severity, and biomarkers. According to two surveys of clinical trial reports, there is confusion about the statistical properties of covariate adjustment. We focus on the ANCOVA estimator, which involves fitting a linear model for the outcome given the treatment arm and baseline variables, and trials with equal probability of assignment to treatment and control. We prove the following new (to the ...

Estimation In High-Dimensional Factor Models With Structural Instabilities, 2018 University of Windsor

#### Estimation In High-Dimensional Factor Models With Structural Instabilities, Wen Gao

*Major Papers*

In this major paper, we use high-dimensional models to analyze macroeconomic data which is in influenced by the break point. In particular, we consider to detect the break point and study the changes of the number of factors and the factor loadings with the structural instability.

Concretely, we propose two factor models which explain the processes of pre- and post- break periods. Then, we consider the break point as known or unknown. In both situations, we derive the shrinkage estimators by minimizing the penalized least square function and calculate the estimators of the numbers of pre- and post- break factors ...

Minimizing The Perceived Financial Burden Due To Cancer, 2018 Southern Methodist University

#### Minimizing The Perceived Financial Burden Due To Cancer, Hassan Azhar, Zoheb Allam, Gino Varghese, Daniel W. Engels, Sajiny John

*SMU Data Science Review*

In this paper, we present a regression model that predicts perceived financial burden that a cancer patient experiences in the treatment and management of the disease. Cancer patients do not fully understand the burden associated with the cost of cancer, and their lack of understanding can increase the difficulties associated with living with the disease, in particular coping with the cost. The relationship between demographic characteristics and financial burden were examined in order to better understand the characteristics of a cancer patient and their burden, while all subsets regression was used to determine the best predictors of financial burden. Age ...

Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, 2018 Southern Methodist University

#### Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels

*SMU Data Science Review*

In this paper, we present an analysis of features influencing Yelp's proprietary review filtering algorithm. Classifying or misclassifying reviews as *recommended* or *non-recommended* affects average ratings, consumer decisions, and ultimately, business revenue. Our analysis involves systematically sampling and scraping Yelp restaurant reviews. Features are extracted from review metadata and engineered from metrics and scores generated using text classifiers and sentiment analysis. The coefficients of a multivariate logistic regression model were interpreted as quantifications of the relative importance of features in classifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended. The model classified review recommendations with an accuracy of 78%. We found that ...

Testing Hypotheses Of Covariance Structure In Multivariate Data, 2018 NOVA University of Lisbon

#### Testing Hypotheses Of Covariance Structure In Multivariate Data, Miguel Fonseca, Arkadiusz Koziol, Roman Zmyslony

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

In this paper there is given a new approach for testing hypotheses on the structure of covariance matrices in double multivariate data. It is proved that ratio of positive and negative parts of best unbiased estimators (BUE) provide an F-test for independence of blocks variables in double multivariate models.

Robust Inference For The Stepped Wedge Design, 2018 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

#### Robust Inference For The Stepped Wedge Design, James P. Hughes, Patrick J. Heagerty, Fan Xia, Yuqi Ren

*UW Biostatistics Working Paper Series*

Based on a permutation argument, we derive a closed form expression for an estimate of the treatment effect, along with its standard error, in a stepped wedge design. We show that these estimates are robust to misspecification of both the mean and covariance structure of the underlying data-generating mechanism, thereby providing a robust approach to inference for the treatment effect in stepped wedge designs. We use simulations to evaluate the type I error and power of the proposed estimate and to compare the performance of the proposed estimate to the optimal estimate when the correct model specification is known. The ...

The U.S. Census Bureau Adopts Differential Privacy, 2018 U.S. Census Bureau

#### The U.S. Census Bureau Adopts Differential Privacy, John M. Abowd

*Labor Dynamics Institute*

The U.S. Census Bureau announced, via its Scientific Advisory Committee, that it would protect the publications of the 2018 End-to-End Census Test (E2E) using differential privacy. The E2E test is a dress rehearsal for the 2020 Census, the constitutionally mandated enumeration of the population used to reapportion the House of Representatives and redraw every legislative district in the country. Systems that perform successfully in the E2E test are then used in the production of the 2020 Census.

Motivation: The Census Bureau conducted internal research that confirmed that the statistical disclosure limitation systems used for the 2000 and 2010 Censuses ...

Generalized Spatiotemporal Modeling And Causal Inference For Assessing Treatment Effects For Multiple Groups For Ordinal Outcome., 2018 University of Louisville

#### Generalized Spatiotemporal Modeling And Causal Inference For Assessing Treatment Effects For Multiple Groups For Ordinal Outcome., Soutik Ghosal

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

This dissertation consists of three projects and can be categorized in two broad research areas: generalized spatiotemporal modeling and causal inference based on observational data. In the first project, I introduce a Bayesian hierarchical mixed effect hurdle model with a nested random effect structure to model the count for primary care providers and understand their spatial and temporal variation. This study further enables us to identify the health professional shortage areas and the possible impacting factors. In the second project, I have unified popular parametric and nonparametric propensity score-based methods to assess the treatment effect of multiple groups for ordinal ...

A Comparison Of R, Sas, And Python Implementations Of Random Forests, 2018 Utah State University

#### A Comparison Of R, Sas, And Python Implementations Of Random Forests, Breckell Soifua

*All Graduate Plan B and other Reports*

The Random Forest method is a useful machine learning tool developed by Leo Breiman. There are many existing implementations across different programming languages; the most popular of which exist in R, SAS, and Python. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive comparison of these implementations with regards to the accuracy, variable importance measurements, and timing. This comparison was done on a variety of real and simulated data with different classification difficulty levels, number of predictors, and sample sizes. The comparison shows unexpectedly different results between the three implementations.

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., 2018 University of Louisville

#### Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...

Bayesian Sparse Propensity Score Estimation For Unit Nonresponse, 2018 Iowa State University

#### Bayesian Sparse Propensity Score Estimation For Unit Nonresponse, Hejian Sang, Gyuhyeong Goh, Jae Kwang Kim

*Statistics Preprints*

Nonresponse weighting adjustment using propensity score is a popular method for handling unit nonresponse. However, including all available auxiliary variables into the propensity model can lead to inefficient and inconsistent estimation, especially with high-dimensional covariates. In this paper, a new Bayesian method using the Spike-and-Slab prior is proposed for sparse propensity score estimation. The proposed method is not based on any model assumption on the outcome variable and is computationally efficient. Instead of doing model selec- tion and parameter estimation separately as in many frequentist methods, the proposed method simultaneously selects the sparse response probability model and provides consistent parameter ...

Predictions Generated From A Simulation Engine For Gene Expression Micro-Arrays For Use In Research Laboratories, 2018 Southern Methodist University

#### Predictions Generated From A Simulation Engine For Gene Expression Micro-Arrays For Use In Research Laboratories, Gopinath R. Mavankal, John Blevins, Dominique Edwards, Monnie Mcgee, Andrew Hardin

*SMU Data Science Review*

In this paper we introduce the technical components, the biology and data science involved in the use of microarray technology in biological and clinical research. We discuss how laborious experimental protocols involved in obtaining this data used in laboratories could benefit from using simulations of the data. We discuss the approach used in the simulation engine from [7]. We use this simulation engine to generate a prediction tool in Power BI, a Microsoft, business intelligence tool for analytics and data visualization [22]. This tool could be used in any laboratory using micro-arrays to improve experimental design by comparing how predicted ...

Data Scientist’S Analysis Toolbox: Comparison Of Python, R, And Sas Performance, 2018 Southern Methodist University

#### Data Scientist’S Analysis Toolbox: Comparison Of Python, R, And Sas Performance, Jim Brittain, Mariana Cendon, Jennifer Nizzi, John Pleis

*SMU Data Science Review*

A quantitative analysis will be performed on experiments utilizing three different tools used for Data Science. The analysis will include replication of analysis along with comparisons of code length, output, and results. Qualitative data will supplement the quantitative findings. The conclusion will provide data support guidance on the correct tool to use for common situations in the field of Data Science.

Hierarchical Bayesian Data Fusion Using Autoencoders, 2018 Marquette University

#### Hierarchical Bayesian Data Fusion Using Autoencoders, Yevgeniy Vladimirovich Reznichenko

*Master's Theses (2009 -)*

In this thesis, a novel method for tracker fusion is proposed and evaluated for vision-based tracking. This work combines three distinct popular techniques into a recursive Bayesian estimation algorithm. First, semi supervised learning approaches are used to partition data and to train a deep neural network that is capable of capturing normal visual tracking operation and is able to detect anomalous data. We compare various methods by examining their respective receiver operating conditions (ROC) curves, which represent the trade off between specificity and sensitivity for various detection threshold levels. Next, we incorporate the trained neural networks into an existing data ...

Combining Academics And Social Engagement: A Major-Specific Early Alert Method To Counter Student Attrition In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, 2018 Iowa State University

#### Combining Academics And Social Engagement: A Major-Specific Early Alert Method To Counter Student Attrition In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics, Andrew J. Sage, Cinzia Cervato, Ulrike Genschel, Craig Ogilvie

*Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications*

Students are most likely to leave science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors during their first year of college. We developed an analytic approach using random forests to identify at-risk students. This method is deployable midway through the first semester and accounts for academic preparation, early engagement in university life, and performance on midterm exams. By accounting for cognitive and noncognitive factors, our method achieves stronger predictive performance than would be possible using cognitive or noncognitive factors alone. We show that it is more difficult to predict whether students will leave STEM than whether they will leave the institution. More ...