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Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine Commons

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Which Drugs Cause Cancer?, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Animal Consultants International

Which Drugs Cause Cancer?, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Animal tests yield misleading results.


Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Animal Consultants International

Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, PhD

The regulation of human exposures to potential carcinogens constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. However, for environmental contaminants of greatest U.S. concern, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered the animal data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or noncarcinogen.

The World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is a leading international authority on carcinogenicity assessments. For chemicals lacking human exposure data (the great majority), IARC classifications of identical chemicals were significantly more conservative than EPA classifications ...


The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, PhD

Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and manhours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this data, that these methods constitute questionable science and pose a hazard to humans. Mean positive and negative predictivities barely exceed 50%; discordance among the species used is substantial; reliable extrapolation from animal data to humans is impossible, and virtually all known human teratogens have so far been identified in spite ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Animal Consultants International

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, PhD

The 2001 European Commission proposal for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) aims to improve public and environmental health by assessing the toxicity of, and restricting exposure to, potentially toxic chemicals. The greatest benefits are expected to accrue from decreased cancer incidences. Hence the accurate identification of chemical carcinogens must be a top priority for the REACH system. Due to a paucity of human clinical data, the identification of potential human carcinogens has conventionally relied on animal tests. However, our survey of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) toxic chemicals database revealed that, for a majority ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Animal Consultants International

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

The regulation of human exposure to potentially carcinogenic chemicals constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. Environmental contaminants of greatest concern within the USA are listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) chemicals database. However, of the 160 IRIS chemicals lacking even limited human exposure data but possessing animal data that had received a human carcinogenicity assessment by 1 January 2004, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160), the EPA considered animal carcinogenicity data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or non-carcinogen. For the ...


Mechanical Conflict System: A Novel Operant Method For The Assessment Of Nociceptive Behavior, Steven E. Harte, Jessica B. Meyers, Renee R. Donahue, Bradley K. Taylor, Thomas J. Morrow 2016 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Mechanical Conflict System: A Novel Operant Method For The Assessment Of Nociceptive Behavior, Steven E. Harte, Jessica B. Meyers, Renee R. Donahue, Bradley K. Taylor, Thomas J. Morrow

Physiology Faculty Publications

A new operant test for preclinical pain research, termed the Mechanical Conflict System (MCS), is presented. Rats were given a choice either to remain in a brightly lit compartment or to escape to a dark compartment by crossing an array of height-adjustable nociceptive probes. Latency to escape the light compartment was evaluated with varying probe heights (0, .5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm above compartment floor) in rats with neuropathic pain induced by constriction nerve injury (CCI) and in naive control rats. Escape responses in CCI rats were assessed following intraperitoneal administration of pregabalin (10 and 30 mg/kg ...


The Pathology Of The Feline Model Of Mucopolysaccharidosis I, Mark E. Haskins, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Peter F. Jezyk, Robert J. Desnick, Donald F. Patterson 2016 University of Pennsylvania

The Pathology Of The Feline Model Of Mucopolysaccharidosis I, Mark E. Haskins, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Peter F. Jezyk, Robert J. Desnick, Donald F. Patterson

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Five cats with feline α-L-iduronidase-deficient mucopolysaccharidosis were studied. Membrane-bound cytoplasmic inclusions were present in central nervous system neurons, hepatocytes, chondrocytes, vascular and splenic smooth muscle cells, bone marrow leukocytes, and fibroblasts of the skin, eye, and cardiac valves. The lesions in these cats closely resemble those described in human patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I H (Hurler syndrome).


Comparative Genomic Mapping Of Uncharacterized Canine Retinal Ests To Identify Novel Candidate Genes For Hereditary Retinal Disorders, Barbara Zangerl, Jennifer L. Johnson, Jarek Pillardy, Qi Sun, Catherine André, Francis Galibert, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Comparative Genomic Mapping Of Uncharacterized Canine Retinal Ests To Identify Novel Candidate Genes For Hereditary Retinal Disorders, Barbara Zangerl, Jennifer L. Johnson, Jarek Pillardy, Qi Sun, Catherine André, Francis Galibert, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose: To identify the genomic location of previously uncharacterized canine retina-expressed expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and thus identify potential candidate genes for heritable retinal disorders. Methods: A set of over 500 retinal canine ESTs were mapped onto the canine genome using the RHDF5000–2 radiation hybrid (RH) panel, and the resulting map positions were compared to their respective localization in the CanFam2 assembly of the canine genome sequence. Results: Unique map positions could be assigned for 99% of the mapped clones, of which only 29% showed significant homology to known RefSeq sequences. A comparison between RH map and sequence assembly ...


Cloning And Characterization Of The Canine Photoreceptor Specific Cone-Rod Homeobox (Crx) Gene And Evaluation As A Candidate For Early Onset Photoreceptor Diseases In The Dog, Novrouz B. Akhmedov, Victoria Baldwin, Barbara Zangerl, James K. Kijas, Linda S. Hunter, Katayoun D. Minoofar, Cathryn Mellersh, Elaine A. Ostrander, Gregory M. Acland, Debora B. Farber, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Cloning And Characterization Of The Canine Photoreceptor Specific Cone-Rod Homeobox (Crx) Gene And Evaluation As A Candidate For Early Onset Photoreceptor Diseases In The Dog, Novrouz B. Akhmedov, Victoria Baldwin, Barbara Zangerl, James K. Kijas, Linda S. Hunter, Katayoun D. Minoofar, Cathryn Mellersh, Elaine A. Ostrander, Gregory M. Acland, Debora B. Farber, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE: The cone-rod homeobox protein (CRX) is a member of the homeodomain-containing protein family expressed in the retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes; it is involved in the regulation of the coordinate expression of multiple photoreceptor specific genes during retinal development. Mutations in the CRX gene are causally associated with retinal degeneration phenotypes in man. To clone the full length cDNA, characterize the genomic organization of canine CRX, map the gene in a radiation hybrid (RH) panel, and evaluate it as a candidate for canine inherited retinal degenerations. METHODS: cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) was done using normal and cone degeneration (cd ...


Therapeutic Neonatal Hepatic Gene Therapy In Mucopolysaccharidosis Vii Dogs, Katherine Parker Ponder, John R. Melniczek, Lingfei Xu, Margaret A. Weil, Thomas M. O'Malley, Patricia A. O'Donnell, Van W. Knox, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Hamutal Mazrier, N Matthew Ellinwood, Margaret M. Sleeper, Albert M. Maguire, Susan W. Volk, Robert L. Mango, Jean Zweigle, John H. Wolfe, Mark E. Haskins 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Therapeutic Neonatal Hepatic Gene Therapy In Mucopolysaccharidosis Vii Dogs, Katherine Parker Ponder, John R. Melniczek, Lingfei Xu, Margaret A. Weil, Thomas M. O'Malley, Patricia A. O'Donnell, Van W. Knox, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Hamutal Mazrier, N Matthew Ellinwood, Margaret M. Sleeper, Albert M. Maguire, Susan W. Volk, Robert L. Mango, Jean Zweigle, John H. Wolfe, Mark E. Haskins

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) were injected intravenously at 2–3 days of age with a retroviral vector (RV) expressing canine β-glucuronidase (cGUSB). Five animals received RV alone, and two dogs received hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) before RV in an attempt to increase transduction efficiency. Transduced hepatocytes expanded clonally during normal liver growth and secreted enzyme with mannose 6-phosphate. Serum GUSB activity was stable for up to 14 months at normal levels for the RV-treated dogs, and for 17 months at 67-fold normal for the HGF/RV-treated dog. GUSB activity in other organs was 1.5–60% of normal ...


Radiation Hybrid Mapping Of Cataract Genes In The Dog, Linda S. Hunter, Duska J. Sidjanin, Jennifer L. Johnson, Barbara Zangerl, Francis Galibert, Catherine Andre, Ewen Kirkness, Elijah Talamas, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Radiation Hybrid Mapping Of Cataract Genes In The Dog, Linda S. Hunter, Duska J. Sidjanin, Jennifer L. Johnson, Barbara Zangerl, Francis Galibert, Catherine Andre, Ewen Kirkness, Elijah Talamas, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose: To facilitate the molecular characterization of naturally occurring cataracts in dogs by providing the radiation hybrid location of 21 cataract-associated genes along with their closely associated polymorphic markers. These can be used for segregation testing of the candidate genes in canine cataract pedigrees. Methods: Twenty-one genes with known mutations causing hereditary cataracts in man and/or mouse were selected and mapped to canine chromosomes using a canine:hamster radiation hybrid RH5000 panel. Each cataract gene ortholog was mapped in relation to over 3,000 markers including microsatellites, ESTs, genes, and BAC clones. The resulting independently determined RH-map locations were ...


Immunolocalization Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Α (Cntfrα) In Mammalian Photoreceptor Cells, William Beltran, Hermann Rohrer, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Immunolocalization Of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Α (Cntfrα) In Mammalian Photoreceptor Cells, William Beltran, Hermann Rohrer, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE: To characterize the site of expression of the α subunit of the receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTFRα) in the retina of a variety of mammalian species, and determine whether CNTFRα is localized to photoreceptor cells. METHODS: The cellular distribution of CNTFRα (protein) was examined by immunocytochemistry in the adult retinas of several mammalian species that included mouse, rat, dog, cat, sheep, pig, horse, monkey, and human. Developing retinas from 3-day-old and 6-day-old rats were also included in this study. The molecular weight of CNTFRα in rat, dog, cat, pig, and human retinas was determined by immunoblotting. RESULTS: CNTFRα ...


Congenital Stationary Night Blindness In The Dog: Common Mutation In The Rpe65 Gene Indicates Founder Effect, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Victoria Baldwin, Sue Pearce-Kelling, Kristina Narfström, Kunal Ray, Gregory M. Acland 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Congenital Stationary Night Blindness In The Dog: Common Mutation In The Rpe65 Gene Indicates Founder Effect, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Victoria Baldwin, Sue Pearce-Kelling, Kristina Narfström, Kunal Ray, Gregory M. Acland

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose: To clone and characterize the canine RPE65 cDNA from normal dog, examine for mutations, and establish if the mutation identified in Swedish briard dogs with retinal dystrophy is present in dogs of the same breed that originated from the United States and other countries, and are affected with congenital stationary night blindness. Methods: Fifteen briard dogs were studied, of which 10 were affected with csnb, and five were clinically normal. In addition, we tested samples from four Swedish dogs, and samples from a briard affected with progressive retinal atrophy. RPE65 cDNA was cloned a from retinal cDNA library by ...


Canine And Human Visual Cortex Intact And Responsive Despite Early Retinal Blindness From Rpe65 Mutation, Geoffrey K. Aguirre, András M. Komáromy, Artur V. Cideciyan, David H. Brainard, Tomas S. Aleman, Alejandro J. Roman, Brian B. Avants, James C. Gee, Marc Korczykowski, William W. Hauswirth, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Samuel G. Jacobson 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Canine And Human Visual Cortex Intact And Responsive Despite Early Retinal Blindness From Rpe65 Mutation, Geoffrey K. Aguirre, András M. Komáromy, Artur V. Cideciyan, David H. Brainard, Tomas S. Aleman, Alejandro J. Roman, Brian B. Avants, James C. Gee, Marc Korczykowski, William W. Hauswirth, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Samuel G. Jacobson

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Background RPE65 is an essential molecule in the retinoid-visual cycle, and RPE65 gene mutations cause the congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Somatic gene therapy delivered to the retina of blind dogs with an RPE65 mutation dramatically restores retinal physiology and has sparked international interest in human treatment trials for this incurable disease. An unanswered question is how the visual cortex responds after prolonged sensory deprivation from retinal dysfunction. We therefore studied the cortex of RPE65-mutant dogs before and after retinal gene therapy. Then, we inquired whether there is visual pathway integrity and responsivity in adult humans ...


Cloning Of The Canine Abca4 Gene And Evaluation In Canine Cone-Rod Dystrophies And Progressive Retinal Atrophies, James K. Kijas, Barbara Zangerl, Brian Miller, Jacque Nelson, Ewen F. Kirkness, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Gregory M. Acland 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Cloning Of The Canine Abca4 Gene And Evaluation In Canine Cone-Rod Dystrophies And Progressive Retinal Atrophies, James K. Kijas, Barbara Zangerl, Brian Miller, Jacque Nelson, Ewen F. Kirkness, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Gregory M. Acland

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE: To characterize a novel early onset canine retinal disease, and evaluate the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCA4 as a potential candidate gene in this and other canine retinal degenerations. METHODS: Retinal disease was characterized ophthalmoscopically and electroretinographically in two pit bull terrier dogs and their purpose-bred descendants. All 50 exons of the canine ABCA4 gene were amplified, cloned and sequenced from retinal mRNA of a normal, a carrier and an affected animal, and polymorphisms identified. The latter were used to search for association between ABCA4 and retinal disease both within the study pedigrees and in additional canine breeds segregating ...


Cloning And Characterization Of Canine Pax6 And Evaluation As A Candidate Gene In A Canine Model Of Aniridia, Linda S. Hunter, Duska J. Sidjanin, Manuel Villagrasa Hijar, Jennifer L. Johnson, Ewen Kirkness, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Cloning And Characterization Of Canine Pax6 And Evaluation As A Candidate Gene In A Canine Model Of Aniridia, Linda S. Hunter, Duska J. Sidjanin, Manuel Villagrasa Hijar, Jennifer L. Johnson, Ewen Kirkness, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose: Mutations in PAX6 cause human aniridia. The small eye (sey) mouse represents an animal model for aniridia. However, no large animal model currently exists. We cloned and characterized canine PAX6, and evaluated PAX6 for causal associations with inherited aniridia in dogs. Methods: Canine PAX6 was cloned from a canine retinal cDNA library using primers designed from human and mouse PAX6 consensus sequences. An RH3000 radiation hybrid panel was used to localize PAX6 within the canine genome. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of dogs with inherited aniridia, and association testing was performed using markers on CFA18. Fourteen PAX6 ...


Calcium Channel Blocker D-Cis-Diltiazem Does Not Slow Retinal Degeneration In The Pde6b Mutant Rcd1 Canine Model Of Retinitis Pigmentosa, Susan E. Pearce-Kelling, Tomas S. Aleman, Amanda Nickle, Alan M. Laties, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gregory M. Acland 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Calcium Channel Blocker D-Cis-Diltiazem Does Not Slow Retinal Degeneration In The Pde6b Mutant Rcd1 Canine Model Of Retinitis Pigmentosa, Susan E. Pearce-Kelling, Tomas S. Aleman, Amanda Nickle, Alan M. Laties, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gregory M. Acland

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose: D-cis-diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, has been reported to enhance photoreceptor survival in the rd mouse, a model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) resulting from mutation of the PDE6B gene. We tested the hypothesis that diltiazem treatment would similarly rescue the canine rcd1 model of RP, which is also caused by a null mutation in the PDE6B gene. Methods: D-cis-diltiazem was delivered orally twice daily to rcd1 affected dogs beginning at 4 weeks of age; untreated age-matched rcd1 dogs served as controls. At 14 weeks, electroretinograms (ERG) were performed on all animals; 14 dogs were euthanized at this age, and ...


Animal Model Of Human Disease: Mucopolysaccharidosis Type Vii (Sly Syndrome). Beta-Glucuronidase-Deficient Mucopolysaccharidosis In The Dog, Mark E. Haskins, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Peter F. Jezyk, Edward H. Schuchman, Robert J. Desnick, Donald F. Patterson 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Animal Model Of Human Disease: Mucopolysaccharidosis Type Vii (Sly Syndrome). Beta-Glucuronidase-Deficient Mucopolysaccharidosis In The Dog, Mark E. Haskins, Gustavo D. Aguirre, Peter F. Jezyk, Edward H. Schuchman, Robert J. Desnick, Donald F. Patterson

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Six Candidate Genes As Potential Modifiers Of Disease Expression In Canine Xlpra1, A Model For Human X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa 3, Richard Guyon, Susan E. Pearce-Kelling, Caroline J. Zeiss, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Analysis Of Six Candidate Genes As Potential Modifiers Of Disease Expression In Canine Xlpra1, A Model For Human X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa 3, Richard Guyon, Susan E. Pearce-Kelling, Caroline J. Zeiss, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose: Canine X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA) is caused by mutations in RPGR exon ORF15, which is also a mutation hotspot in human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 3 (RP3). The XLPRA1 form of disease has shown extensive phenotypic variability in a colony of dogs that all inherited the same mutant X-chromosome. This variability in onset and severity makes XLPRA1 a valuable model to use to identify genes influencing photoreceptors degeneration in dog and to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying RP in its human homolog. In this study, RPGRIP1, RANBP2, NPM1, PDE6D, NPHP5, and ABCA4 genes were selected on the basis of interaction ...


Resistant Starch Alters The Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications For Dietary Modulation Of Behavior, Mark Lyte, Ashley Chapel, Joshua M. Lyte, Yongfeng Ai, Alexandra Proctor, Jay-Lin Jane, Gregory J. Phillips 2016 Iowa State University

Resistant Starch Alters The Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications For Dietary Modulation Of Behavior, Mark Lyte, Ashley Chapel, Joshua M. Lyte, Yongfeng Ai, Alexandra Proctor, Jay-Lin Jane, Gregory J. Phillips

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to ...


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