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Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine Commons

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Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King 2016 College of William and Mary

Animal Mourning: Précis Of How Animals Grieve (King 2013), Barbara J. King

Animal Sentience

Abstract: When an animal dies, that individual’s mate, relatives, or friends may express grief. Changes in the survivor’s patterns of social behavior, eating, sleeping, and/or of expression of affect are the key criteria for defining grief. Based on this understanding of grief, it is not only big-brained mammals like elephants, apes, and cetaceans who can be said to mourn, but also a wide variety of other animals, including domestic companions like cats, dogs, and rabbits; horses and farm animals; and some birds. With keen attention placed on seeking where grief is found to occur and where it ...


Potentiated Caspase-3 In Ras-Transformed 10t1/2 Cells, P Song, J Wei, Howard Plummer, Hwa-Chain Wang 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Potentiated Caspase-3 In Ras-Transformed 10t1/2 Cells, P Song, J Wei, Howard Plummer, Hwa-Chain Wang

Howard K. Plummer III

Procaspase-3 protein content is highly elevated in fully Ras-transformed mouse embryo fibroblast 10T1/2 cells in which ectopic expression of oncogenic H-Ras is induced by a tetracycline-regulated expression system. Blockage of the ERK pathway results in profound reduction of transcript and protein content of procaspase-3 in both Ras-transformed and non-transformed counterpart 10T1/2 cells, indicating that the ERK pathway is involved in procaspase-3 gene expression. The elevated procaspase-3 protein content appears to facilitate the proteolytic production of active caspase-3 during selective induction of apoptosis of Ras-transformed cells by a discriminating anticancer agent, FR901228, whereas it induces growth arrest of non-transformed ...


The Human Intruder Test: An Anxiety Assessment In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta), Emily J. Peterson 2015 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Human Intruder Test: An Anxiety Assessment In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta), Emily J. Peterson

Masters Theses

The human intruder test (HIT) is a noninvasive tool widely used for assessing anxiety in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). This thesis explores the HIT procedure and applies it to a population of monkeys with a self-injurious behavioral pathology. Individual variation on this test can be used to assess anxiety and temperament. The first experiment of this thesis applied two different procedures of the HIT to 17 monkeys at UMass. Monkeys displayed little response to the intruder, and no significant differences were detected for the two procedures. To determine whether these responses were unique to the UMass monkeys, their behavior was ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2015 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. von Borell, S. R. Webb 2015 Iowa State University

Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, S. R. Webb

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for ...


Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro 2015 Bates College

Psychology And Its Animal Subjects, Kenneth J. Shapiro

Kenneth J. Shapiro, PhD

By way of introducing Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA) to readers of the journal, I have been asked to make some comments about the organization and, from a personal point of view, to suggest some of my own positions and views.


The Harmful, Nontherapeutic Use Of Animals In Research Is Morally Wrong, Nathan Nobis 2015 Morehouse College

The Harmful, Nontherapeutic Use Of Animals In Research Is Morally Wrong, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

It is argued that using animals in research is morally wrong when the research is nontherapeutic and harmful to the animals. This article discusses methods of moral reasoning and discusses how arguments on this and other bioethical issues might be defended and critiqued. A basic method of moral argument analysis is presented and used to show that common objections to the view that “animal research is morally wrong” fail: ie, common arguments for the view that “animal research is morally permissible” are demonstrably unsound or in need of defense. It is argued that the best explanations why harmful, nontherapeutic research ...


Interests And Harms In Primate Research, Nathan Nobis 2015 Morehouse College

Interests And Harms In Primate Research, Nathan Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

The article discusses the moral issues on primate research in reference to the moral defenses by Sughrue and colleagues. It states that Sughrue and colleagues have claimed to provide equal examination of the primate stroke research's ethics. It mentions that the promise to straighten out a number of ethical arguments in favor and against primate research was not fulfilled. Several moral arguments are presented in response to Sughrue and colleagues' moral defense for animal experimentation.


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2015 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...


The Minimization Of Research Animal Distress And Pain: Conclusions And Recommendations, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan 2015 The Humane Society of the United States

The Minimization Of Research Animal Distress And Pain: Conclusions And Recommendations, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

While the attention given to preventing, assessing, and alleviating pain in research animals has increased noticeably in recent decades, much remains to be done both in terms of implementing best practices and conducting studies to answer outstanding questions. In contrast, the attention to distress (particularly non-pain induced distress) has shown no comparable increase. There are many reasons for this discrepancy, including the conceptual untidiness of the distress concept, the paucity of pharmacological treatments for distress, and perceived lack of regulatory emphasis on distress. These are challenges that need to be addressed and overcome. This book is intended to help meet ...


Strain Typing Mycobacterium Marinum From Outbreaks At Zebrafish Research Facilities, Brooke M. Clemons 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Strain Typing Mycobacterium Marinum From Outbreaks At Zebrafish Research Facilities, Brooke M. Clemons

Honors Theses

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used as model organisms for biological research due to their rapid and transparent development and high fecundity amongst other reasons. Research has expanded beyond embryonic studies, with adult fish used for longer-term studies such as human disease and senescence. Zebrafish are often housed at high density in large colonies. As with any similar husbandry situation, diseases can occur, with impacts that range from morbidity to premature mortality costing researchers time and money. Understanding the impact of underlying diseases in zebrafish is crucial, particularly for long-term studies where chronic infections may confound results. One such disease problem ...


Preparatory Work For The Future Development Of Scientific Opinions On Animal Health, Annette M. O'Connor, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga, D. Wolfe, Jan M. Sargeant, J. Glanville, J Wood 2015 Iowa State University

Preparatory Work For The Future Development Of Scientific Opinions On Animal Health, Annette M. O'Connor, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga, D. Wolfe, Jan M. Sargeant, J. Glanville, J Wood

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

This final report summarizes the results of two reviews and a scoping study related to Canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Three objectives were addressed in this project. Objective 1 was to summarize relative sensitivity and specificity estimates of assays used to detect infection in dogs with Leishmania infantum in studies of naïve dogs in areas where Leishmania infantum infection is endemic. Objective 2 was to summarize data available to estimate the prevalence of parasitological cure (failure to detect organism) after a 12-month follow-up period in animals treated with meglumine antimoniate, miltefosine, and allopurinol or combinations of these drugs for canine leishmaniosis. Objective ...


The Effect Of Il-6 On Satellite Cell Activity In Tumor Bearing Mice, 2014 Selected Works

The Effect Of Il-6 On Satellite Cell Activity In Tumor Bearing Mice

samuel.lambert@uconn.edu

Cancer cachexia results in severe muscle atrophy and can greatly hinder the quality of life and chances of survival for the afflicted individual. In studies where cachexia-induced muscle atrophy is inhibited, survival is prolonged. The activity of satellite cells, the muscle progenitor cells that incorporate into muscle fibers to cause hypertrophy, is the focus of this study. It was hypothesized that mRNA expression of Pax7, MyoD, FoxO1, FoxO3a, and FoxO4 would be altered in injured muscle in TB animals, and this would be attenuated by inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6 signaling. To test this hypothesis, tumor bearing (TB) and control ...


Examining The Regulatory Value Of Multi-Route Mammalian Acute Systemic Toxicity Studies, Troy Seidle, Pilar Prieto, Anna Bulgheroni 2014 Humane Society International

Examining The Regulatory Value Of Multi-Route Mammalian Acute Systemic Toxicity Studies, Troy Seidle, Pilar Prieto, Anna Bulgheroni

Troy Seidle, PhD

Regulatory information requirements for pesticides call for submission of acute systemic toxicity data for up to three different exposure routes (oral, dermal, inhalation) for both active ingredients and formulated products. Similar multi-route testing is required in the European Union and elsewhere for industrial chemicals. To determine the value of acute toxicity testing by more than one route, oral-dermal and oralinhalation concordances among regulatory classifications were examined for large data sets of chemicals and pesticide active ingredients. Across all sectors examined, oral acute toxicity classifications for pure active substances were more severe than those derived from dermal data in more than ...


The Development Of New Concepts For Assessing Reproductive Toxicity Applicable To Large Scale Toxicological Programmes, S. Bremer, C. Pellizzer, S. Hoffmann, T. Seidle, T. Hartung 2014 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

The Development Of New Concepts For Assessing Reproductive Toxicity Applicable To Large Scale Toxicological Programmes, S. Bremer, C. Pellizzer, S. Hoffmann, T. Seidle, T. Hartung

Troy Seidle, PhD

Large scale toxicological testing programmes which are currently ongoing such as the new European chemical legislation REACH require the development of new integrated testing strategies rather than applying traditional testing schemes to thousands of chemicals. The current practice of requiring in vivo testing for every possible adverse effect endanger the success of these programmes due (i) to limited testing facilities and sufficient capacity of scientific/technical knowledge for reproductive toxicity; (ii) an unacceptable number of laboratory animals involved (iii) an intolerable number of chemicals classified as false positive.

A key aspect of the implementation of new testing strategies is the ...


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann 2014 Humane Society International

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, PhD

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance ...


Ideology Masquerading As Science: The Case Of Endocrine Disrupter Screening Programmes, Troy Seidle 2014 People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Ideology Masquerading As Science: The Case Of Endocrine Disrupter Screening Programmes, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

The global move to develop novel testing methods and strategies to identify suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals offers a unique opportunity to move away from traditional animal testing paradigms in this new area of regulatory concern. Regrettably, the programmes under development, both in the USA and internationally through the OECD, have thus far failed to consider in vitro and other nonanimal test methods as more than “pre-screening” or “priority-setting” tools in a larger, animal-based testing strategy. Validation efforts to date have focused almost exclusively on the modification of existing animal tests to detect “endocrine effects”, with no demonstrable effort to promote ...


Humane Society International’S Global Campaign To End Animal Testing, Troy Seidle 2014 Humane Society International

Humane Society International’S Global Campaign To End Animal Testing, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in ...


The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. van der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielmann, Martin Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. van Zutphen 2014 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. Van Der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielmann, Martin Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. Van Zutphen

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

This is the report of the eleventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which was established in 1991 by the European Commission. ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal ...


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