Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 385

Full-Text Articles in Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine

Evaluation Of A Pasteurella Multocida Respiratory Disease Induction Model For Goats (Capra Aegagrus Hircus), Joe S. Smith, Jonathan P. Mochel, Yeon-Jung Seo, Amanda P. Ahrens, Ronald W. Griffith Oct 2020

Evaluation Of A Pasteurella Multocida Respiratory Disease Induction Model For Goats (Capra Aegagrus Hircus), Joe S. Smith, Jonathan P. Mochel, Yeon-Jung Seo, Amanda P. Ahrens, Ronald W. Griffith

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Infectious respiratory diseases are a serious health concern worldwide. However, few models describe the experimental induction of lung infection, or the effect of experimental infection on clinical pathologic parameters in goats. Goats offer benefits compared to cattle because of size and tractability and compared to sheep with regard to specific features of their anatomy. In previous experimental models of infection in goats, coadministration of an immunosuppressive dose of a corticosteroid is common; however, protocols that use corticosteroid often note mortality as an adverse effect. We therefore investigated an infection protocol that did not use immunosuppression but instead relied on 2 ...


Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgically Instrumented Sprague-Dawley Rats, Gianna Mangone May 2020

Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgically Instrumented Sprague-Dawley Rats, Gianna Mangone

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Based on current guidelines for housing rodents after surgical instrumentation, rodents may be housed at temperatures that hinder surgical recovery and cause thermal stress– room temperature (21°C) being one of them. Rodents are often housed at room temperature since this temperature is easy for humans to be caring for them. However, if recovering rodents are thermally stressed, experimental results will be confounded. To address this issue, Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically instrumented with radiotelemtry thermoprobes (Data Sciences, #TA-10F40) to monitor their core temperatures, then housed at one of five temperatures to assess the effect ambient temperature had on multiple aspects ...


The Effect Of Intravenous Maropitant On Blood Pressure In Healthy Awake And Anesthetized Dogs, Ting-Ting Chi, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus Feb 2020

The Effect Of Intravenous Maropitant On Blood Pressure In Healthy Awake And Anesthetized Dogs, Ting-Ting Chi, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective To evaluate the effects of intravenous maropitant on arterial blood pressure in healthy dogs while awake and under general anesthesia.

Design Experimental crossover study.

Animals Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs.

Procedure All dogs received maropitant (1 mg kg-1) intravenously under the following conditions: 1) awake with non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwNIBP), 2) awake with invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwIBP), 3) premedication with acepromazine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaAB), and 4) premedication with dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed ...


Accepting Higher Morbidity In Exchange For Sacrificing Fewer Animals In Studies Developing Novel Infection-Control Strategies., Henk J. Busscher, Willem Woudstra, Theo G. Van Kooten, Paul Jutte, Linqi Shi, Jianfeng Liu, Wouter L.J. Hinrichs, Hendrik W. Frijlink, Rui Shi, Jian Liu, Javad Parvizi, Stephen Kates, Vincent M. Rotello, Thomas P. Schaer, Dustin Williams, David W. Grainger, Henny C. Van Der Mei Feb 2020

Accepting Higher Morbidity In Exchange For Sacrificing Fewer Animals In Studies Developing Novel Infection-Control Strategies., Henk J. Busscher, Willem Woudstra, Theo G. Van Kooten, Paul Jutte, Linqi Shi, Jianfeng Liu, Wouter L.J. Hinrichs, Hendrik W. Frijlink, Rui Shi, Jian Liu, Javad Parvizi, Stephen Kates, Vincent M. Rotello, Thomas P. Schaer, Dustin Williams, David W. Grainger, Henny C. Van Der Mei

Rothman Institute Faculty Papers

Preventing bacterial infections from becoming the leading cause of death by the year 2050 requires the development of novel, infection-control strategies, building heavily on biomaterials science, including nanotechnology. Pre-clinical (animal) studies are indispensable for this development. Often, animal infection outcomes bear little relation to human clinical outcome. Here, we review conclusions from pathogen-inoculum dose-finding pilot studies for evaluation of novel infection-control strategies in murine models. Pathogen-inoculum doses are generally preferred that produce the largest differences in quantitative infection outcome parameters between a control and an experimental group, without death or termination of animals due to having reached an inhumane end-point ...


Establecimiento Y Caracterización De Una Línea Celular Derivada De Tejidos Embrionarios De La Mosca Calliphora Vicina Diptera: Calliphoridae, Ingred Pinillos Medina Jan 2020

Establecimiento Y Caracterización De Una Línea Celular Derivada De Tejidos Embrionarios De La Mosca Calliphora Vicina Diptera: Calliphoridae, Ingred Pinillos Medina

Maestría en Ciencias Veterinarias

La importancia de los cultivos celulares derivados de insectos radica en las aplicaciones que tienen a nivel de medicina humana y veterinaria, agricultura y biotecnología. Especialmente, estos cultivos celulares se han venido usando como sustratos para aislamiento e identificación de virus, para la producción de proteínas recombinantes, pesticidas virales, vacunas e insecticidas, como también en investigaciones básicas sobre genética, biología molecular, bioquímica, parasitología y endocrinología. A pesar de que en la actualidad existe un número significativo de líneas celulares que han sido establecidas de diversas especies de insectos, su aplicabilidad no alcanza a cubrir toda la demanda que exigen los ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks Aug 2019

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy Jul 2019

Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Improving animal growth and efficiency are critical points of research as the world’s population and demand for agriculture products increase. Therefore, adaptions or changes in the gut are of interest to maximize growth efficiency and wellbeing of livestock. The gastrointestinal tract of the rumen plays many critical roles with the assistance of the associated microbial community. One way to improve animal performance is supplementation of β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) which are commonly fed to cattle during the last 20-40 days of the finishing period, improving muscle growth by decreasing adipose deposition and increasing muscle accretion. Two β-AA, Ractopamine HCl (β1-AA ...


Preparation And Evaluation Of Single-Stranded Dna Aptamer-Based Immunological Adjuvant In Broiler Chickens, Adil Sabr Al-Ogaili May 2019

Preparation And Evaluation Of Single-Stranded Dna Aptamer-Based Immunological Adjuvant In Broiler Chickens, Adil Sabr Al-Ogaili

Theses and Dissertations

Mineral oils and metal salts are commonly used as adjuvants to enhance acquired immunity. Recently, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and recombinant peptides agonist CD40 receptor have shown remarkable promise for induction of rapid and robust immune responses. Limitations of this approach MAb production costs and multiple administrations due to anti-MAb immune responses. Here we demonstrate the development of a unique and sophisticated DNA aptamer-based alternative for CD40-directed delivery of universal antigens as an alternative in chickens, and potentially other vertebrate species. This receptor, expressed by antigen-presenting cells, acts as a costimulatory molecule for activated T helper lymphocytes. After initially selecting for ...


Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal Jan 2019

Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal

Biología

Los llanos Orientales se distinguen por su variedad de ecosistemas, los cuales albergan una gran diversidad de especies de mamíferos arborícolas, terrestres, voladores, acuáticos y semiacuáticos, encontrándose allí ´´especies clave´´ con mayor importancia ecológica, ya que su deterioro o desaparición podría ocasionar daños irreversibles en el ecosistema. Por su parte, los murciélagos actúan como agentes de control biológico, hacen posible la polinización y están implicados en procesos de dispersión de semillas, siendo estos, ´´especies clave´´ en el equilibrio ecosistémico preservando la biodiversidad de un bosque. Sin embargo, a pesar de su gran valor ecológico se encuentran sujetos a innumerables conflictos ...


Evaluación Molecular, De Ehrlichia Canis Y Babesia Canis En Caninos Militares De La Fuérza Aérea Colombiana, César Enrique Martínez Roa Jan 2019

Evaluación Molecular, De Ehrlichia Canis Y Babesia Canis En Caninos Militares De La Fuérza Aérea Colombiana, César Enrique Martínez Roa

Maestría en Ciencias Veterinarias

La Ehrlichiosis Monocítica Canina (EMC) y la Babesiosis Canina, son patologías de distribución mundial causadas por Ehrlichia canis y Babesia canis, respectivamente, comparten vector (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) y existen reportes en Colombia de infección individual y co-infección. La Fuerza Aérea Colombiana (FAC) cuenta con caninos entrenados en detecciones. En las Unidades de clima cálido del año 2008 al 2012, se ha reportado una alta tasa de mortalidad presuntivamente EMC, sin diagnóstico confirmado. Reemplazar un animal fallecido tiene altos costos económicos e intangibles (tiempo y capacidades adquiridas), por ello surge la necesidad de confirmar la posible presencia E. canis y B. canis ...


Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release And Ovarian Follicular Dynamics In Pre-Pubertal And Adult Murrah Buffaloes, Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala, Chandrasekhar Reddy, Arunakumari Gangineni, Kiran Avula, Sandeep K. Bejjanki, Sriravali Sathagopam, Surabhi Kesharwani, Sathya Velmurugan Jul 2018

Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release And Ovarian Follicular Dynamics In Pre-Pubertal And Adult Murrah Buffaloes, Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala, Chandrasekhar Reddy, Arunakumari Gangineni, Kiran Avula, Sandeep K. Bejjanki, Sriravali Sathagopam, Surabhi Kesharwani, Sathya Velmurugan

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that governs the reproductive axis upstream to GnRH. We wanted to study whether kisspeptin modulates plasma LH and FSH levels and ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes and whether kisspeptin can be used for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). We carried out these studies in comparison with buserelin, a potent GnRH agonist. Kisspeptin dose-dependently increased plasma LH levels. However, the kisspeptin-induced increase in LH was short-lived as the peak reached in 15–30 min returned to basal values by 1–2 h. The kisspeptin-induced increase in LH level was less compared to buserelin-induced increase in LH level ...


Evaluation Of Oncolytic And Immunomodulatory Potential Of The Hsv-1 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain Vc2 In An Immunocompetent Murine Melanoma Model, Natalie Wall Fowlkes Jul 2018

Evaluation Of Oncolytic And Immunomodulatory Potential Of The Hsv-1 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain Vc2 In An Immunocompetent Murine Melanoma Model, Natalie Wall Fowlkes

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Melanoma accounts for 90% of skin cancer-related deaths in humans. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in people is very limited. Melanoma is considered to be an immunogenic tumor, spurring interest in development of immunotherapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Oncolytic virotherapy has been widely investigated. The first ever oncolytic virotherapy to receive FDA-approval is an HSV-1-based virus (Talimogene Laherperavec (T-Vec) or Imlygic) containing a transgene for human GM-CSF to enhance anti-tumor immune responses after injection. Durable response rate in human patients was only 16% despite impressive efficacy in anti-tumor effects in vitro and in murine tumor models. Novel viruses ...


Paclitaxel Enhances Oncolytic Potential Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 In Cancer Cells, Misagh Naderi Apr 2018

Paclitaxel Enhances Oncolytic Potential Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 In Cancer Cells, Misagh Naderi

LSU Master's Theses

Taxanes are spindle poisons that bind to and stabilize microtubules resulting in mitotic arrest. Herpes simplex Typ-1 (HSV-1) virions utilize the microtubular network for intracellular transport during both virus entry and virus egress from infected cells. It has been reported previously that taxanes may synergize with oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in the treatment of experimental prostate and breast tumors in mice. Other reports have indicated that taxanes may inhibit viral replication in infected cells. In this study the previously characterized Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (OSVP), which was constructed in Kousoulas lab was used in conjugation with paclitaxel (taxol ...


An Epidemiologic Study Of Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococcus Species Isolated From Equine Samples Submitted To A Diagnostic Laboratory, Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig N. Carter, Agricola Odoi Feb 2018

An Epidemiologic Study Of Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococcus Species Isolated From Equine Samples Submitted To A Diagnostic Laboratory, Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig N. Carter, Agricola Odoi

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, that included 16 drugs, were performed using cultures followed ...


The Reporting Characteristics Of Bovine Respiratory Disease Clinical Intervention Trials Published Prior To And Following Publication Of The Reflect Statement, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor Feb 2018

The Reporting Characteristics Of Bovine Respiratory Disease Clinical Intervention Trials Published Prior To And Following Publication Of The Reflect Statement, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The goal of the REFLECT Statement (Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials in livEstoCk and food safeTy) (published in 2010) was to provide the veterinary research community with reporting guidelines tailored for randomized controlled trials for livestock and food safety. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of REFLECT Statement reporting of items 1 to 19 in controlled trials published in journals between 1970 and 2017 examining the comparative efficacy of FDA-registered antimicrobials against naturally acquired BRD (bovine respiratory disease) in weaned beef calves in Canada or the USA, and to compare the prevalence of reporting before and after 2010 ...


Induction Of Central Venous Catheter-Associated Sepsis (Cas): A Novel Sheep Model Simulating The Complex Pathophysiology Observed In Humans. A Paper To Be Submitted To Shock., Matthew Beal Jan 2018

Induction Of Central Venous Catheter-Associated Sepsis (Cas): A Novel Sheep Model Simulating The Complex Pathophysiology Observed In Humans. A Paper To Be Submitted To Shock., Matthew Beal

Creative Components

Catheter-associated blood stream infections (CABSIs) are serious, yet common, outcomes in both human and animals with indwelling catheters. The increasing rate of these infections is partially due to hindered knowledge on how to stop the spred of these pathogens, this due, in part, to inadequate animal models. Current experimental models fail to mimic various aspects of sepsis pathogenesis, diverse clinical symptomology, and in most cases lack the ability to test novel therapies for use in human medicine. In response to the urgent need for a more clinically relevant animal model of CAS, this large animal model was conceptualized and validated ...


Activation Of A Cryptic 5′ Splice Site Reverses The Impact Of Pathogenic Splice Site Mutations In The Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene, Natalia N. Singh, Jose Bruno Del Rio-Malewski, Diou Luo, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Ravindra N. Singh Dec 2017

Activation Of A Cryptic 5′ Splice Site Reverses The Impact Of Pathogenic Splice Site Mutations In The Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene, Natalia N. Singh, Jose Bruno Del Rio-Malewski, Diou Luo, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deletions or mutations of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene coupled with predominant skipping of SMN2 exon 7. The only approved SMA treatment is an antisense oligonucleotide that targets the intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1), located downstream of the 5′ splice site (5′ss) of exon 7. Here, we describe a novel approach to exon 7 splicing modulation through activation of a cryptic 5′ss (Cr1). We discovered the activation of Cr1 in transcripts derived from SMN1 that carries a pathogenic G-to-C mutation at the first position (G1C) of intron 7. We ...


A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh Nov 2017

A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Humans carry two nearly identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Mutations or deletions of SMN1, which codes for SMN, cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic disease associated with infant mortality. Aberrant expression or localization of SMN has been also implicated in other pathological conditions, including male infertility, inclusion body myositis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and osteoarthritis. SMN2 fails to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to skipping of exon 7, leading to the production of SMNΔ7, an unstable protein. In addition, SMNΔ7 is less functional due to the lack of a critical C-terminus of ...


How The Discovery Of Iss-N1 Led To The First Medical Therapy For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Natalia N. Singh, Matthew D. Howell, Elliot J. Androphy, Ravindra N. Singh Sep 2017

How The Discovery Of Iss-N1 Led To The First Medical Therapy For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Natalia N. Singh, Matthew D. Howell, Elliot J. Androphy, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a prominent genetic disease of infant mortality, is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein owing to deletions or mutations of the SMN1 gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1 present in humans, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7 during pre-mRNA splicing. With the recent FDA approval of nusinersen (Spinraza™), the potential for correction of SMN2 exon 7 splicing as a SMA therapy has been affirmed. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that targets intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) discovered in 2004 at the University ...


Lasting Retinal Injury In A Mouse Model Of Blast-Induced Trauma, Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee Jul 2017

Lasting Retinal Injury In A Mouse Model Of Blast-Induced Trauma, Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Traumatic brain injury due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. Although secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure resulting from blast wave pressure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulting retinal pathologies. Using a compressed air-driven shock tube system, adult male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (43.5 psi) per day for 3 successive days, and euthanized 30 days after injury. We assessed retinal tissues using immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic ...


Outcomes Of Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (Grid) For Bulky Soft Tissue Sarcomas In A Large Animal Model, Michael W. Nolan, Tracy L. Gieger, Alexander A. Karakashian, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Lysa P. Posner, Donald M. Roback, Judith N. Rivera, Sha Chang Jun 2017

Outcomes Of Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (Grid) For Bulky Soft Tissue Sarcomas In A Large Animal Model, Michael W. Nolan, Tracy L. Gieger, Alexander A. Karakashian, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Lysa P. Posner, Donald M. Roback, Judith N. Rivera, Sha Chang

Physiology Faculty Publications

GRID directs alternating regions of high- and low-dose radiation at tumors. A large animal model mimicking the geometries of human treatments is needed to complement existing rodent systems (eg, microbeam) and clarify the physical and biological attributes of GRID. A pilot study was undertaken in pet dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas to characterize responses to GRID. Subjects were treated with either 20 Gy (3 dogs) or 25 Gy (3 dogs), delivered using 6 MV X-rays and a commercial GRID collimator. Acute toxicity and tumor responses were assessed 2, 4, and 6 weeks later. Acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth May 2017

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Bioavailability And Biochemical Effects Of Diclofenac Sodium 0.1% Ophthalmic Solution In The Domestic Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), Angela N. Griggs, Taylor J. Yaw, Joseph S. Haynes, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Kyle L. Tofflemire, Rachel A. Allbaugh Mar 2017

Bioavailability And Biochemical Effects Of Diclofenac Sodium 0.1% Ophthalmic Solution In The Domestic Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), Angela N. Griggs, Taylor J. Yaw, Joseph S. Haynes, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Kyle L. Tofflemire, Rachel A. Allbaugh

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective To determine if topical ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution alters renal parameters in the domestic chicken, and to determine if the drug is detectable in plasma after topical ophthalmic administration.

Animals Thirty healthy domestic chickens

Procedures Over seven days, 6 birds were treated unilaterally with 1 drop of artificial tear solution (group 1), 12 birds were treated unilaterally (group 2) and 12 bilaterally (group 3) with diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution. Treatments were provided for 7 days, every 12 hours in all groups. Pre- and post-treatment plasma samples from all birds were evaluated for changes in albumin ...


The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson Jan 2017

The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of methamphetamine combined with hypoxia on the development and function of the cardiovascular system in Danio rerio embryos. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of the drug and decreased oxygen concentration would result in decreased cardiac parameters due to underdevelopment of the ventricle and vessels resulting from cardiomyopathy and lack of blood flow to tissues. It was found that methamphetamine exposure correlated to an increase in stroke volume, caudal artery and vein diameters and RBC velocities alone, while having a multiplicative effect of increasing arterial RBC velocity when combined ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel Jan 2017

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel Jan 2017

Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) have been purposely designed to characterize the sources of variability in ...


Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward Nov 2016

Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included ...


The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe Sep 2016

The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and manhours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this data, that these methods constitute questionable science and pose a hazard to humans. Mean positive and negative predictivities barely exceed 50%; discordance among the species used is substantial; reliable extrapolation from animal data to humans is impossible, and virtually all known human teratogens have so far been identified in spite ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe Sep 2016

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The 2001 European Commission proposal for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) aims to improve public and environmental health by assessing the toxicity of, and restricting exposure to, potentially toxic chemicals. The greatest benefits are expected to accrue from decreased cancer incidences. Hence the accurate identification of chemical carcinogens must be a top priority for the REACH system. Due to a paucity of human clinical data, the identification of potential human carcinogens has conventionally relied on animal tests. However, our survey of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) toxic chemicals database revealed that, for a majority ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe Sep 2016

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

The regulation of human exposure to potentially carcinogenic chemicals constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. Environmental contaminants of greatest concern within the USA are listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) chemicals database. However, of the 160 IRIS chemicals lacking even limited human exposure data but possessing animal data that had received a human carcinogenicity assessment by 1 January 2004, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160), the EPA considered animal carcinogenicity data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or non-carcinogen. For the ...