Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

385 Full-Text Articles 871 Authors 61,607 Downloads 24 Institutions

All Articles in Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine

Faceted Search

385 full-text articles. Page 5 of 10.

Carbon Dioxide For Euthanasia: Concerns Regarding Pain And Distress, With Special Reference To Mice And Rats, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan, Lesley A. King 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Carbon Dioxide For Euthanasia: Concerns Regarding Pain And Distress, With Special Reference To Mice And Rats, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan, Lesley A. King

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most commonly used agent for euthanasia of laboratory rodents, used on an estimated tens of millions of laboratory rodents per year worldwide, yet there is a growing body of evidence indicating that exposure to CO2 causes more than momentary pain and distress in these and other animals. We reviewed the available literature on the use of CO2 for euthanasia (as well as anaesthesia) and also informally canvassed laboratory animal personnel for their opinions regarding this topic. Our review addresses key issues such as CO2 flow rate and final concentration, presence of ...


Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Approaches and challenges to refining and reducing animal use in regulatory testing are reviewed. Regulatory testing accounts for the majority of animals reported in the most painful and/or distressful categories in the United States and Canada. Refinements in testing, including the use of humane endpoints, are of increasing concern. Traditional approaches to reduction (e.g., improving experimental design) are being supplemented with complementary approaches, such as the use of tier testing to eliminate some chemicals prior to in vivo testing. Technological advances in telemetry and noninvasive techniques will help decrease either the demand for animals in testing or animal ...


A Vision Becoming Reality, Gill Langley 2014 Animal Studies Repository

A Vision Becoming Reality, Gill Langley

Gill Langley, PhD

Non-animal science in toxicology and health research has been progressing for decades, but only now is it being seen widely as advanced science. The emergence of novel human biology-based tools and models, combined with legislative and regulatory change, a 21st century concept for toxicology, continuing failures in the drug pipeline, and systematic critiques of animal models, have created a pivotal moment of change. The leading edge is starting to become the norm. Humans and other animals are likely to benefit as a result.


Estimates For Worldwide Laboratory Animal Use In 2005, Katy Taylor, Nicky Gordon, Gill Langley, Wendy Higgins 2014 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection

Estimates For Worldwide Laboratory Animal Use In 2005, Katy Taylor, Nicky Gordon, Gill Langley, Wendy Higgins

Gill Langley, PhD

Animal experimentation continues to generate public and political concern worldwide. Relatively few countries collate and publish animal use statistics, yet this is a first and essential step toward public accountability and an informed debate, as well as being important for effective policy-making and regulation. The implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments) should be expected to result in a decline in animal use, but without regular, accurate statistics, this cannot be monitored. Recent estimates of worldwide annual laboratory animal use are imprecise and unsubstantiated, ranging from 28–100 million. We collated data for 37 countries ...


Volunteer Studies In Pain Research — Opportunities And Challenges To Replace Animal Experiments: The Report And Recommendations Of A Focus On Alternatives Workshop, C. K. Langley, Q. Aziz, C. Bountra, N. Gordon, P. Hawkins, A. Jones, G. Langley, T. Nurmikko, I. Tracey 2014 Wingate Institute of Neurogastroenterology

Volunteer Studies In Pain Research — Opportunities And Challenges To Replace Animal Experiments: The Report And Recommendations Of A Focus On Alternatives Workshop, C. K. Langley, Q. Aziz, C. Bountra, N. Gordon, P. Hawkins, A. Jones, G. Langley, T. Nurmikko, I. Tracey

Gill Langley, PhD

Despite considerable research, effective and safe treatments for human pain disorders remain elusive. Understanding the biology of different human pain conditions and researching effective treatments continue to be dominated by animal models, some of which are of limited value. British and European legislation demands that non-animal approaches should be considered before embarking on research using experimental animals. Recent scientific and technical developments, particularly in human neuroimaging, offer the potential to replace some animal procedures in the study of human pain. A group of pain research experts from academia and industry met with the aim of exploring creatively the tools, strategies ...


Considering A New Paradigm For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian R. Langley 2014 Animal Studies Repository

Considering A New Paradigm For Alzheimer’S Disease Research, Gillian R. Langley

Gill Langley, PhD

Using Alzheimer’s disease as a case study, this review argues that it might be time to consider a new paradigm in medical research and drug discovery. The existing framework is overly dependent on often unvalidated animal models, particularly transgenic mice. Translational success remains elusive and costly late-stage drug failure is common. The conventional paradigm tends to overlook species differences and assumes that animal-based findings are generally applicable to humans. Could pathways-based research using advanced human-specific models probed with new tools, including those of systems biology, take centre stage? The current transition in chemical toxicology to a 21st-century paradigm could ...


The Validity Of Animal Experiments In Medical Research, Gill Langley 2014 Dr Hadwen Trust for Humane Research

The Validity Of Animal Experiments In Medical Research, Gill Langley

Gill Langley, PhD

Other animals, such as mice, rats, rabbits, dogs and monkeys, are widely used as surrogates for humans in fundamental medical research. This involves creating disorders in animals by chemical, surgical or genetic means, with the aim of mimicking selected aspects of human illnesses. It is a truism that any model or surrogate is not identical to the target being modelled. So, in medical research, experiments using animals or cell cultures or even healthy volunteers instead of patients (being the target population with the target illness) will inevitably have limitations, although these will be greater or lesser depending on the model.


Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dosing interval on the efficacy of maropitant for prevention of opioid-induced vomiting and signs of nausea in dogs.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 client-owned dogs that underwent an elective surgical procedure.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC), then hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM) at 0 (simultaneously; group 0; n = 10), 15 (group 15; 10), 30 (group 30; 10), 45 (group 45; 10), or 60 (group 60; 10) minutes later. Dogs were monitored for vomiting and signs of ...


Development Of A Fatal Noncompressible Truncal Hemorrhage Model With Combined Hepatic And Portal Venous Injury In Normothermic Normovolemic Swine, Ujwal R. Yanala, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Gustavo F. Larsen, William H. Velander, Mark A. Carlson 2014 University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha

Development Of A Fatal Noncompressible Truncal Hemorrhage Model With Combined Hepatic And Portal Venous Injury In Normothermic Normovolemic Swine, Ujwal R. Yanala, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos, Gustavo F. Larsen, William H. Velander, Mark A. Carlson

William H. Velander Publications

Noncompressible truncal hemorrhage and brain injury currently account for most early mortality of warfighters on the battlefield. There is no effective treatment for noncompressible truncal hemorrhage, other than rapid evacuation to a surgical facility. The availability of an effective field treatment for noncompressible truncal hemorrhage could increase the number of warfighters salvaged from this frequently-lethal scenario. Our intent was to develop a porcine model of noncompressible truncal hemorrhage with a ,50% one-hour mortality so that we could develop new treatments for this difficult problem. Normovolemic normothermic domestic swine (barrows, 3 months old, 34–36 kg) underwent one of three injury ...


Evaluation Of Awarded Grant Applications Involving Animal Experimentation, Michael W. Fox, M. Andrea Ward, Andrew N. Rowan, Barbara Jaffe 2014 The Institute for the Study of Animal Problems

Evaluation Of Awarded Grant Applications Involving Animal Experimentation, Michael W. Fox, M. Andrea Ward, Andrew N. Rowan, Barbara Jaffe

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

The potential benefits of animal research are accepted by most. However, painstaking care must be applied to the approach and design of the research to ensure the best possible chance of achieving the research objectives and to minimize both physical and psychological distress to the animals. Consideration should be given not only to transport and housing conditions, but also to practices used in the laboratory. Adequate reasons must also be given as to why the research is necessary.

Public concern over the use and care of laboratory animals in biomedical programs contributed to the passage of the Animal Welfare Act ...


Evaluation Of Awarded Grant Applications Involving Animal Experimentation, Michael W. Fox, M. Andrea Ward, Andrew N. Rowan 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Evaluation Of Awarded Grant Applications Involving Animal Experimentation, Michael W. Fox, M. Andrea Ward, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, D.Phil.

The potential benefits of animal research are accepted by most. However, painstaking care must be applied to the approach and design of the research to ensure the best possible chance of achieving the research objectives and to minimize both physical and psychological distress to the animals. Consideration should be given not only to transport and housing conditions, but also to practices used in the laboratory. Adequate reasons must also be given as to why the research is necessary. Public concern over the use and care of laboratory animals in biomedical programs contributed to the passage of the Animal Welfare Act ...


Detection Of A Novel Quiescence-Dependent Protein Kinase, Hwa-Chain Wang, Kellie Fecteau 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Detection Of A Novel Quiescence-Dependent Protein Kinase, Hwa-Chain Wang, Kellie Fecteau

Kellie Fecteau

We have identified a cell quiescence-specific 33-kDa cytoplasmic protein kinase (p33(QIK), Quiescence-Induced Kinase) based on induction of p33(QIK)-specific kinase activity of cells growth-arrested in the quiescent phase and deactivation upon entry into the cell cycle. Blockage of macromolecular synthesis prevents p33(QIK) from deactivation, indicating a requirement of newly synthesized regulators for deactivation of p33(QIK) during G(0)/G(1) transition. Stress shock induces additional increases of p33(QIK) activity in a quiescence-dependent manner that correlates with induction of apoptosis. Using a specific antibody to Krs1/Mst2 protein, we found that p33(QIK) is related to ...


Differential Modulation Of Signaling Pathways And Apoptosis Of Ras-Transformed 10t1/2 Cells By The Depsipeptide Fr901228, Kellie Fecteau, J Mei, Hwa-Chain Wang 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Differential Modulation Of Signaling Pathways And Apoptosis Of Ras-Transformed 10t1/2 Cells By The Depsipeptide Fr901228, Kellie Fecteau, J Mei, Hwa-Chain Wang

Kellie Fecteau

(E)-(1S,4S,10S,21R)-7-[(Z)-ethylidene]-4,21-diisopropyl-2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetraazabicyclo[8,7,6]-tricos-16-ene-3,6,9,19,22-pentanone (FR901228), a natural anticancer depsipeptide, induces apoptosis of ras-transformed 10T1/2 cells whereas it induces growth arrest of nontransformed counterpart cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Our study of the effect of FR901228 treatment on intracellular signaling pathways reveals a discriminating activity of FR901228 to regulate signaling cascades differently in ras-transformed 10T1/2 cells and nontransformed counterpart cells. Induction of apoptosis of ras-transformed cells by FR901228 correlates with suppression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK ...


Scientists And Animal Research: Dr. Jekyll Or Mr. Hyde?, Andrew N. Rowan 2014 The Humane Society of the United States

Scientists And Animal Research: Dr. Jekyll Or Mr. Hyde?, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, DPhil

Why is the public so sensitive about the use of a few tens of millions of animals in research when they do not object to killing hundreds of millions of pigs and cows and billions of chickens for our meat diet? Why is animal research considered so bad despite the public's high opinion of science (and scientists)? Perhaps it is the image of the scientist as an objective and cold individual who deliberately inflicts harm (pain, distress, or death) on his (the public image is usually male) innocent animal victims that arouses so much horror and concern. This paper ...


The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and manhours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this data, that these methods constitute questionable science and pose a hazard to humans. Mean positive and negative predictivities barely exceed 50%; discordance among the species used is substantial; reliable extrapolation from animal data to humans is impossible, and virtually all known human teratogens have so far been identified in spite ...


The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and manhours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this data, that these methods constitute questionable science and pose a hazard to humans. Mean positive and negative predictivities barely exceed 50%; discordance among the species used is substantial; reliable extrapolation from animal data to humans is impossible, and virtually all known human teratogens have so far been identified in spite ...


Dissection: The Scientific Case For Alternatives, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 Immersion Medical

Dissection: The Scientific Case For Alternatives, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

This article presents the scientific argument that learning methods that replace traditional nonhuman animal-consumptive methods in life science education—so-called alternatives to dissection—are pedagogically sound and probably superior to dissection. This article focuses on the pedagogy, a learning method’s effectiveness for conveying knowledge.


Prolonged Pain Research In Mice: Trends In Reference To The 3rs, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Lauren Briese 2014 Independent Scientist and Author

Prolonged Pain Research In Mice: Trends In Reference To The 3rs, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Lauren Briese

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

This literature review documents trends in the use of mice in prolonged pain research, defined herein as research that subjects mice to a source of pain for at least 14 days. The total amount of prolonged pain research on mice has increased dramatically in the past decade for the 3 pain categories examined: neuropathic, inflammatory, and chronic pain. There has also been a significant rise in the number of prolonged mouse pain studies as a proportion of all mouse studies and of all mouse pain studies. The use of transgenic mice has also risen significantly in prolonged pain research, though ...


Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 Animal Consultants International

Cancerous Contradictions: The Mis-Regulation Of Human Carcinogens Based On Animal Data, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

The regulation of human exposures to potential carcinogens constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. However, for environmental contaminants of greatest U.S. concern, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered the animal data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or noncarcinogen.

The World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is a leading international authority on carcinogenicity assessments. For chemicals lacking human exposure data (the great majority), IARC classifications of identical chemicals were significantly more conservative than EPA classifications ...


Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2014 Independent Scientist and Author

Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.


Digital Commons powered by bepress