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Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine Commons

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Laboratory Routines Cause Animal Stress, Jonathan P. Balcombe, Neal D. Barnard, Chad Sandusky 2014 Physician's Committee for Responsible Medicine

Laboratory Routines Cause Animal Stress, Jonathan P. Balcombe, Neal D. Barnard, Chad Sandusky

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

Eighty published studies were appraised to document the potential stress associated with three routine laboratory procedures commonly performed on animals: handling, blood collection, and orogastric gavage. We defined handling as any non-invasive manipulation occurring as part of routine husbandry, including lifting an animal and cleaning or moving an animal's cage. Significant changes in physiologic parameters correlated with stress (e.g., serum or plasma concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, growth hormone or prolactin, heart rate, blood pressure, and behavior) were associated with all three procedures in multiple species in the studies we examined. The results of these studies demonstrated that animals ...


Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered maropitant citrate in preventing vomiting after hydromorphone hydrochloride administration in dogs.

Design—Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study.

Animals—40 dogs with American Society of Anesthesiologists status of I or II, > 6 months of age, and weighing between 24 and 58.2 kg (52.8 and 128.04 lb).

Procedures—Dogs were randomly selected to receive maropitant (2.0 to 4.0 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose monohydrate) orally 2 hours prior to receiving hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM). A blinded ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 Animal Consultants International

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: Implications For The Reach System, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

The 2001 European Commission proposal for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) aims to improve public and environmental health by assessing the toxicity of, and restricting exposure to, potentially toxic chemicals. The greatest benefits are expected to accrue from decreased cancer incidences. Hence the accurate identification of chemical carcinogens must be a top priority for the REACH system. Due to a paucity of human clinical data, the identification of potential human carcinogens has conventionally relied on animal tests. However, our survey of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) toxic chemicals database revealed that, for a majority ...


Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward Fewer Animals And Safer Patients, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward Fewer Animals And Safer Patients, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

This paper presents the current status of computer-based simulation in medicine. Recent technological advances have enabled this field to emerge from esoteric explorations in academic laboratories to commercially available simulators designed to train users to perform medical procedures from start to finish. Today, more than a dozen companies are producing virtual reality simulators and interactive manikins for training in endoscopy, laparoscopy, anaesthesia, trauma management, angiography, and needle insertion. For many of these procedures, thousands of animals are still being used in training. Yet simulation has many advantages that can transcend scientific, ethical, economic and logistical problems that arise when using ...


Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe 2014 Animal Consultants International

Animal Carcinogenicity Studies: 1. Poor Human Predictivity, Andrew Knight, Jarrod Bailey, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, PhD

The regulation of human exposure to potentially carcinogenic chemicals constitutes society’s most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. Environmental contaminants of greatest concern within the USA are listed in the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) chemicals database. However, of the 160 IRIS chemicals lacking even limited human exposure data but possessing animal data that had received a human carcinogenicity assessment by 1 January 2004, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160), the EPA considered animal carcinogenicity data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or non-carcinogen. For the ...


Dogs As A Model For Mucopolysaccharidosis: Measuring Learning Ability, Alyssa Swan 2014 Iowa State University

Dogs As A Model For Mucopolysaccharidosis: Measuring Learning Ability, Alyssa Swan

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a family of lysosomal storage disorders, each characterized by the absence of a specific enzyme necessary for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans. We will attempt to document the decline in cognitive function seen in human MPS IIIB patients using a series of mazes that measure working memory, memory acquisition, and short and long term memory in a dog model. We are currently developing the T-maze, following the approach of Sanders et al. This maze assesses learning ability using reversal learning tasks. Each reversal phase consists of 10 trials daily, during which the dog will attempt to choose ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Project 1: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone/protein deacetylase that affects energy homeostasis, often functions coordinately with AMPK, and is capable of binding to PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its activity. This study investigated the role of SIRT1 in the response of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to t10c12 CLA by testing the following hypotheses: 1) SIRT1 is functionally required for robust TG reduction ...


A Study Of The Nutritional Effect Of Grains In The Diet Of A Dog, Kristyn M. Souliere 2014 University of Maine - Main

A Study Of The Nutritional Effect Of Grains In The Diet Of A Dog, Kristyn M. Souliere

Honors College

The present study was designed to address the prevalence of the lack of knowledge for what owners are feeding their dogs, and to determine if grain should be within the diet. It was hypothesized that a bag of feed containing protein at no specific level, with a low level of grain will be more beneficial for the animal, and that a diet needs to contain grains. The crude protein, crude fat, and first five ingredients listed were compared for four bags chosen, and to the nutritional requirements for a dog. “Holistic Blend Grain Free”, contained an extremely high amount of ...


Análisis De La Capacidad Diagnóstica De Zoonosis Neurológicas De Tipo Viral En Équidos En Cundinamarca, Ivonne Ximena Bernal Rodríguez 2014 Universidad de La Salle

Análisis De La Capacidad Diagnóstica De Zoonosis Neurológicas De Tipo Viral En Équidos En Cundinamarca, Ivonne Ximena Bernal Rodríguez

Medicina Veterinaria

Las zoonosis de tipo viral en equinos, su detección y diagnóstico se han convertido en un reto para la salud pública en Colombia, ya que son enfermedades de declaración obligatoria ante las autoridades sanitarias y considerando la alta morbilidad y letalidad que estas enfermedades pueden llegar a causar en los équidos, se busca facilitar prácticas de manejo, de exportación e importación, eliminación, prevención y control. Teniendo en cuenta esto, se realizó el trabajo haciendo una comparación acerca de las pruebas diagnósticas realizadas en el departamento de Cundinamarca para este tipo de zoonosis y las realizadas internacionalmente, midiendo en términos de ...


Efecto Del Citrato De Sildenafil En La Irrigación Renal De Caninos Con Enfermedad Renal Crónica, Cindy Johanna Delgado Bernal, Dolly Jeannette Delgado Bernal 2014 Universidad de La Salle

Efecto Del Citrato De Sildenafil En La Irrigación Renal De Caninos Con Enfermedad Renal Crónica, Cindy Johanna Delgado Bernal, Dolly Jeannette Delgado Bernal

Medicina Veterinaria

Se realizó un estudio a una población de 15 caninos con diagnóstico previo de enfermedad renal crónica, para evaluar los efectos benéficos que se podrían obtener con el Citrato de Sildenafil sobre la irrigación renal, Teniendo en cuenta las variables de índice de resistencia de las arterias renales y la tasa de filtración glomerular, las cuales se midieron respectivamente por ecografía doppler y mediante la prueba de depuración de creatinina exógena. Las mediciones de las variables se realizaron en dos grupos de estudio, tanto después de la administración del Citrato de Sildenafil, como luego de la administración de un placebo ...


Efecto De Polipéptidos Linforeticulares, En Los Valores Hemáticos E Inmunoglobulina G En Un Grupo De Equinos De Paso Colombiano En Tabio, Cundinamarca, Diana Patricia Pacheco González, Adriana Paola Bermúdez Rodríguez 2014 Universidad de La Salle

Efecto De Polipéptidos Linforeticulares, En Los Valores Hemáticos E Inmunoglobulina G En Un Grupo De Equinos De Paso Colombiano En Tabio, Cundinamarca, Diana Patricia Pacheco González, Adriana Paola Bermúdez Rodríguez

Medicina Veterinaria

Los Polipéptidos linforeticulares de origen esplénico y hepático porcino son una alternativa como inmunoestimulantes y coadyuvantes en diferentes procedimientos biológicos y enfermedades. Este tratamiento de apoyo metabólico se asocia al concepto de que la célula es una fábrica de proteínas y necesita por consiguiente de un soporte metabólico específico para si misma o un tejido en deterioro. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el efecto de los polipéptidos linforeticulares sobre los valores hemáticos y de inmunoglobulina G en un grupo de equinos de paso criollo Colombiano en Tabio, Cundinamarca. Se seleccionaron 20 equinos sanos del criadero Danielandia, separados en un ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Of Mouse Brain Using High-Resolution Anatomical Models, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, David C. Jiles 2014 Iowa State University

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Of Mouse Brain Using High-Resolution Anatomical Models, Lawrence J. Crowther, Ravi L. Hadimani, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, David C. Jiles

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of braindisorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animalmodels are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse model consisting of 50 tissuetypes to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared ...


Repeated Administration Of Tribromoethanol In C57bl/6nhsd Mice, William Hill, J Tubbs, C Carter, Jane Czarra, Kim Newkirk, T Sparer, Barton Rohrbach, Christine Egger 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Repeated Administration Of Tribromoethanol In C57bl/6nhsd Mice, William Hill, J Tubbs, C Carter, Jane Czarra, Kim Newkirk, T Sparer, Barton Rohrbach, Christine Egger

Barton W Rohrbach Dr.

We evaluated the effect of repeated intraperitoneal administration of tribromoethanol on various parameters in C57BL/6NHsd mice. Mice (n = 68) were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups to receive tribromoethanol (500 mg/kg IP) on day 0 or days 0 and 8; vehicle (tert-amyl alcohol in sterile water) only on day 0 or days 0 and 8; sterile water injection on day 0 or days 0 and 8; or no treatment. A single dose of tribromoethanol failed to produce loss of pedal reflex and had no effect on median food and water consumption but altered median body weight on ...


Repeated Administration Of Tribromoethanol In C57bl/6nhsd Mice, William Hill, J Tubbs, C Carter, Jane Czarra, Kim Newkirk, T Sparer, Barton Rohrbach, Christine Egger 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Repeated Administration Of Tribromoethanol In C57bl/6nhsd Mice, William Hill, J Tubbs, C Carter, Jane Czarra, Kim Newkirk, T Sparer, Barton Rohrbach, Christine Egger

Kim M Newkirk

We evaluated the effect of repeated intraperitoneal administration of tribromoethanol on various parameters in C57BL/6NHsd mice. Mice (n = 68) were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups to receive tribromoethanol (500 mg/kg IP) on day 0 or days 0 and 8; vehicle (tert-amyl alcohol in sterile water) only on day 0 or days 0 and 8; sterile water injection on day 0 or days 0 and 8; or no treatment. A single dose of tribromoethanol failed to produce loss of pedal reflex and had no effect on median food and water consumption but altered median body weight on ...


A New Dissection Technique For Approach To Right-Sided Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts: Anatomic Study And Use In Three Dogs, Karen Tobias, JM Byarlay, Robert Henry 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A New Dissection Technique For Approach To Right-Sided Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts: Anatomic Study And Use In Three Dogs, Karen Tobias, Jm Byarlay, Robert Henry

Karen M. Tobias DVM, DACVS, College of Veterinary Medicine

Objective— To determine the feasibility of indirect suture passage around the right portal vein for attenuation of right-sided intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS). Study Design— Anatomic study of cadavers and prospective evaluation of clinical cases. Animals— Nine canine cadavers (median weight, 20.5 kg) and 6 client-owned dogs suspected of having right-sided IHPSS. Methods— Silicone casts of the caudal vena cava and pre- and intrahepatic portal veins were made in fresh canine cadavers. A suture was passed dorsal to the portal vein above and below its bifurcation and pulled laterally so that it surrounded the right portal vein. The number and ...


Transformation Of Non-Cancerous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Line Mcf10a By The Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen Nnk, J Mei, H Hu, Michael McEntee, Howard Plummer, P Song, Hwa-Chain Wang 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Transformation Of Non-Cancerous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Line Mcf10a By The Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen Nnk, J Mei, H Hu, Michael Mcentee, Howard Plummer, P Song, Hwa-Chain Wang

Howard K. Plummer III

Repeated treatments of non-cancerous human breast epithelial cells MCF10A with a low dose of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induced the development of cancerous cells. NNK-transformed MCF10A cells acquired cancerous properties including anchorage-independent cell growth and increased cell motility. Cellular transformation of MCF10A cells was accompanied by a loss of responsiveness to 17beta-estradiol and decreased rate of cell proliferation. NNK-transformed MCF10A cells were also tumorigenic in immunodifficient mice. Studies of changes in the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways revealed that the upstream Erk pathway was down-regulated in the NNK-transformed cells. Our data provide the first evidence ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Selection For Important Traits In Domestic Horse Breeds, Jessica Lynn Petersen, James R. Mickelson, Aaron K. Rendahl, Stephanie K. Valberg, Lisa S. Andersson, Ernie Bailey, Danika L. Bannasch, Matthew M. Binns, Alexandre S. Borges, Pieter Brama, Artur da Câmara Machado, Stefano Capomaccio, Katia Cappelli, E. Gus Cothran, Ottmar Distl, Laura Fox-Clipsham, Kathryn T. Graves, Gérard Guérin, Bianca Haase, Telhia Hasegawa, Karin Hemmann, Emmeline W. Hill, Tosso Leeb, Gabriella Lindgren, Hannes Lohi, Maria Susana Lopes, Beatrice A. McGivney, Sofia Mikko, Nicholas Orr, M. Cecilia T. Penedo, Richard J. Piercy, Marja Raekallio, Stefan Rieder, Knut H. Røed, June Swinburne, Teruaki Tozaki, Mark Vaudin, Claire M. Wade, Molly E. McCue 2013 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Selection For Important Traits In Domestic Horse Breeds, Jessica Lynn Petersen, James R. Mickelson, Aaron K. Rendahl, Stephanie K. Valberg, Lisa S. Andersson, Ernie Bailey, Danika L. Bannasch, Matthew M. Binns, Alexandre S. Borges, Pieter Brama, Artur Da Câmara Machado, Stefano Capomaccio, Katia Cappelli, E. Gus Cothran, Ottmar Distl, Laura Fox-Clipsham, Kathryn T. Graves, Gérard Guérin, Bianca Haase, Telhia Hasegawa, Karin Hemmann, Emmeline W. Hill, Tosso Leeb, Gabriella Lindgren, Hannes Lohi, Maria Susana Lopes, Beatrice A. Mcgivney, Sofia Mikko, Nicholas Orr, M. Cecilia T. Penedo, Richard J. Piercy, Marja Raekallio, Stefan Rieder, Knut H. Røed, June Swinburne, Teruaki Tozaki, Mark Vaudin, Claire M. Wade, Molly E. Mccue

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Intense selective pressures applied over short evolutionary time have resulted in homogeneity within, but substantial variation among, horse breeds. Utilizing this population structure, 744 individuals from 33 breeds, and a 54,000 SNP genotyping array, breed-specific targets of selection were identified using an FST-based statistic calculated in 500-kb windows across the genome. A 5.5-Mb region of ECA18, in which the myostatin (MSTN) gene was centered, contained the highest signature of selection in both the Paint and Quarter Horse. Gene sequencing and histological analysis of gluteal muscle biopsies showed a promoter variant and intronic SNP of MSTN were ...


Effects Of Intravenous Administration Of Polymyxin B In Neonatal Foals With Experimental Endotoxemia, David M. Wong, Brett A. Sponseller, Cody J. Alcott, Prince N. Agbedanu, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu 2013 Iowa State University

Effects Of Intravenous Administration Of Polymyxin B In Neonatal Foals With Experimental Endotoxemia, David M. Wong, Brett A. Sponseller, Cody J. Alcott, Prince N. Agbedanu, Chong Wang, Walter H. Hsu

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effect of IV administration of polymyxin B on clinical and serum biochemical variables in foals with experimental endotoxemia.

Design—Prospective experimental study.

Animals—14 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Foals were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and were administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (0.5 μg/kg [0.23 μg/lb]) IV over 30 minutes. The treatment group received polymyxin B (6,000 U/kg [2,727 U/lb], IV) immediately after completion of lipopolysaccharide infusion; the control group was administered an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Subsequent doses of ...


Antisense Oligonucleotide Mediated Therapy Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Matthew D. Howell, Christine J. DiDonato, Ravindra N. Singh 2013 Iowa State University

Antisense Oligonucleotide Mediated Therapy Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Matthew D. Howell, Christine J. Didonato, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA results from deletions or mutations of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), an essential gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy, can compensate for SMN1 loss if SMN2 exon 7 skipping is prevented. Among the many cis-elements involved in the splicing regulation of SMN exon 7, intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) has emerged as the most effective target for an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated splicing correction of SMN2 exon 7. Blocking of ISS-N1 by an ASO has been shown to fully restore SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in SMA patient ...


Repeated Administration Of Tribromoethanol In C57bl/6nhsd Mice, William Hill, J Tubbs, C Carter, Jane Czarra, Kim Newkirk, T Sparer, Barton Rohrbach, Christine Egger 2012 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Repeated Administration Of Tribromoethanol In C57bl/6nhsd Mice, William Hill, J Tubbs, C Carter, Jane Czarra, Kim Newkirk, T Sparer, Barton Rohrbach, Christine Egger

William Allen Hill

We evaluated the effect of repeated intraperitoneal administration of tribromoethanol on various parameters in C57BL/6NHsd mice. Mice (n = 68) were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups to receive tribromoethanol (500 mg/kg IP) on day 0 or days 0 and 8; vehicle (tert-amyl alcohol in sterile water) only on day 0 or days 0 and 8; sterile water injection on day 0 or days 0 and 8; or no treatment. A single dose of tribromoethanol failed to produce loss of pedal reflex and had no effect on median food and water consumption but altered median body weight on ...


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