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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2018

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Cathy O’Neil. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York, NY: Crown) 272 pp. ISBN 978-0553418811.

Accessible to a wide readership, Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy provides a lucid yet alarming account of the extensive reach of mathematical models in influencing all of our lives. With a particular eye towards social justice, O’Neil not only warns modelers to be cognizant of the effects of their work on real people—especially vulnerable groups who have less power to fight back—but also ...


Integrating Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors And Thermal Energy Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials With Rotary Desiccant Cooling Systems, Haoshan Ren, Zhenjun Ma, Wenye Lin, Wenke Fan, Weihua Li Jan 2018

Integrating Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors And Thermal Energy Storage Systems Using Phase Change Materials With Rotary Desiccant Cooling Systems, Haoshan Ren, Zhenjun Ma, Wenye Lin, Wenke Fan, Weihua Li

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

This paper presents a feasibility investigation of integrating a hybrid photovoltaic thermal collector-solar air heater (PVT-SAH) and an air-based thermal energy storage (TES) system using phase change materials (PCMs) with rotary desiccant cooling systems for residential applications. The PVT-SAH is used to generate both electricity and thermal energy, while the TES unit is used to solve the mismatch between energy demand for desiccant wheel regeneration and thermal energy generation from the PVT-SAH. A near-optimal design of the proposed system is first identified using the response surface method. The feasibility is then examined using three performance indicators, including Solar Thermal Contribution ...


Legged Motion Planning In Complex Three-Dimensional Environments, Andrew Short, Tirthankar Bandyopadhyay Jan 2018

Legged Motion Planning In Complex Three-Dimensional Environments, Andrew Short, Tirthankar Bandyopadhyay

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

While legged robots are well suited to navigating complex three-dimensional (3-D) environments, their practical applicability is still hampered by the time taken to plan manoeuvres to traverse these challenging environments. We present contact dynamic roadmaps (CDRM), which extend dynamic roadmaps with contact information. The CDRM is precomputed offline to generate a discretized mapping from each leg's workspace to its configuration space, and then adapted online to the environment to rapidly identify collision-free foothold positions. The concept behind this is to perform the expensive foothold candidate generation and collision checking phases offline and store the data for use in the ...


A Cost-Effective Software Testing Strategy Employing Online Feedback Information, Zhiquan Zhou, Arnaldo Sinaga, Willy Susilo, Lei Zhao, Kai-Yuan Cai Jan 2018

A Cost-Effective Software Testing Strategy Employing Online Feedback Information, Zhiquan Zhou, Arnaldo Sinaga, Willy Susilo, Lei Zhao, Kai-Yuan Cai

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

An online partitioning strategy is presented, in which test cases are selected based on feedback information collected during the testing process. The strategy differs from con- ventional approaches because the partitioning is performed online rather than off-line and because the partitioning is not based on program code or specifications. It can, therefore, be implemented in the absence of the source code or specification of the program under test. The cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been empirically investigated with a set of subject programs, namely, SPACE, SED, GREP, and the Siemens Suite of Programs. The results demonstrate that the proposed ...


Technology, Hyperbole, And Irony, Alan G. Gross Jan 2018

Technology, Hyperbole, And Irony, Alan G. Gross

Poroi

Except for metaphor, tropes are arguably irrelevant to the analysis of science and technology. Among tropes, moreover, hyperbole and irony seem particularly ill-suited as the former exaggerates, while the latter undermines, two strategies at odds with a language intent on closely following the contours of the world of experience. While neither hyperbole nor irony has a place in the professional discourses of science and technology, both play a role in their popular representations. Hyperbole expresses our sense that these achievements exemplify the sublime, a form of experience applied at first to feelings of awe generated by great literature, then in ...


The Pursuit Of Innovation: An Analysis Of International Competitive Advantage In A Globalized Knowledge Economy, Tanay Gupte Jan 2018

The Pursuit Of Innovation: An Analysis Of International Competitive Advantage In A Globalized Knowledge Economy, Tanay Gupte

CMC Senior Theses

With the advent of the internet age, the way in which global society interacts with technology has changed dramatically. The instantaneous availability of information and connectivity, signal the rise of a knowledge economy. This is a system in which the most valuable resource, to nations and private enterprise, is knowledge. This thesis argues that value is created through knowledge flows, which result in innovation and technological advancement. This technological advancement is the primary determinant of a nation’s global competitive advantage in a globalized knowledge economy. This thesis then posits that these innovations are fostered by institutional, social, cultural, economic ...


Metamorphic Testing: A Review Of Challenges And Opportunities, Tsong Yueh Chen, Fei-Ching Kuo, Huai Liu, Pak-Lok Poon, Dave Towey, T H. Tse, Zhiquan Zhou Jan 2018

Metamorphic Testing: A Review Of Challenges And Opportunities, Tsong Yueh Chen, Fei-Ching Kuo, Huai Liu, Pak-Lok Poon, Dave Towey, T H. Tse, Zhiquan Zhou

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Metamorphic testing is an approach to both test case generation and test result verification. A central element is a set of metamorphic relations, which are necessary properties of the target function or algorithm in relation to multiple inputs and their expected outputs. Since its first publication, we have witnessed a rapidly increasing body of work examining metamorphic testing from various perspectives, including metamorphic relation identification, test case generation, integration with other software engineering techniques, and the validation and evaluation of software systems. In this article, we review the current research of metamorphic testing and discuss the challenges yet to be ...


Data-Centric Intelligent Computing, Jun Shen, Chih-Cheng Hung, Ghassan Beydoun, Yan Li, William Guo Jan 2018

Data-Centric Intelligent Computing, Jun Shen, Chih-Cheng Hung, Ghassan Beydoun, Yan Li, William Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

In the age of Big Data and Internet of Things the integration of traditional and contemporary intelligent computing techniques continues to play an increasingly vital role in data analysis, real-time control and operation, decision making, and evaluation and forecasting. Many intelligent techniques, such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms, were initially proposed to deal with a certain type of datasets, whose success then led to the generalization of many algorithms that can deal with common types of datasets. With the rapid advancement in pervasive computing and integration with big datasets, digital datasets in different formats have been exponentially collected from ...


Data-Intensive Service Provision Based On Particle Swarm Optimization, Lijuan Wang, Jun Shen Jan 2018

Data-Intensive Service Provision Based On Particle Swarm Optimization, Lijuan Wang, Jun Shen

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

The data-intensive service provision is characterized by the large of scale of services and data and also the high-dimensions of QoS. However, most of the existing works failed to take into account the characteristics of data-intensive services and the effect of the big data sets on the whole performance of service provision. There are many new challenges for service provision, especially in terms of autonomy, scalability, adaptability, and robustness. In this paper, we will propose a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm to resolve the data-intensive service provision problem. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we compared it with an ant colony ...


Constant-Size Ciphertexts In Threshold Attribute-Based Encryption Without Dummy Attributes, Willy Susilo, Guomin Yang, Fuchun Guo, Qiong Huang Jan 2018

Constant-Size Ciphertexts In Threshold Attribute-Based Encryption Without Dummy Attributes, Willy Susilo, Guomin Yang, Fuchun Guo, Qiong Huang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an augmentation of public key encryption that allows users to encrypt and decrypt messages based on users’ attributes. In a ( t, s ) threshold ABE, users who can decrypt a ciphertext must hold at least t attributes among the s attributes specified by the encryptor. At PKC 2010, Herranz, Laguillaumie and Ràfols proposed the first threshold ABE with constant-size ciphertexts. In order to ensure the encryptor can flexibly select the attribute set and a threshold value, they use dummy attributes to satisfy the decryption requirement. The advantage of their scheme is that any addition or removal of ...


Mlaas: A Cloud-Based System For Delivering Adapative Micro Learning In Mobile Mooc Learning, Geng Sun, Tingru Cui, Jianming Yong, Jun Shen, Shiping Chen Jan 2018

Mlaas: A Cloud-Based System For Delivering Adapative Micro Learning In Mobile Mooc Learning, Geng Sun, Tingru Cui, Jianming Yong, Jun Shen, Shiping Chen

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

No abstract provided.


Behaviour Of Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer-Confined Hollow Circular Concrete Columns With Inner Polyvinyl Chloride Tube, Hussamaldeen Goaiz, Tao Yu, Muhammad N. S Hadi Jan 2018

Behaviour Of Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymer-Confined Hollow Circular Concrete Columns With Inner Polyvinyl Chloride Tube, Hussamaldeen Goaiz, Tao Yu, Muhammad N. S Hadi

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part B

Existing studies have shown that the use of an inner tube can significantly enhance the effectiveness of confinement in fibre-reinforced polymer-confined hollow columns. The inner tube used in the existing studies, however, generally had a large stiffness and also served as longitudinal reinforcement. The use of a stiff inner tube is inefficient in resisting bending for hollow columns with a relatively small void and may be unnecessary for constraining the inner surface of concrete. Against this background, this article presents the first experimental study on fibre-reinforced polymer-confined hollow columns with an inner polyvinyl chloride tube. The experimental program included a ...


Reaction To Safety Equipment Technology In The Workplace And Implications: A Study Of The Firefighter’S Hood, Brian W. Ward Dec 2017

Reaction To Safety Equipment Technology In The Workplace And Implications: A Study Of The Firefighter’S Hood, Brian W. Ward

The Qualitative Report

In the 1990s the firefighter’s hood became a standard article of safety equipment worn by municipal firefighters, eliciting a negative reaction among many of these firefighters. I used data from interviews with 42 firefighters to explain why this reaction occurred. Data analysis revealed that negative reactions ultimately stemmed from the hood’s disruption of autonomy, repudiation of the complex mental and physical skill needed to perform tasks required of firefighters, and hindrance in negotiating the life-threatening environment created by a fire. These findings indicate that when introducing new safety equipment technology to emergency response workers, their reaction to this ...


A Problem Of Play For Democratic Education? Abstraction, Realism, And Exploration In Learning Games. A Response To "The Challenges Of Gaming For Democratic Education: The Case Of Icivics", Benjamin Devane Dec 2017

A Problem Of Play For Democratic Education? Abstraction, Realism, And Exploration In Learning Games. A Response To "The Challenges Of Gaming For Democratic Education: The Case Of Icivics", Benjamin Devane

Democracy and Education

In this review article, I argue that games are complementary, not self-supporting, learning tools for democratic education because they can: (a) offer simplified, but often not simple, outlines (later called “models”) of complex social systems that generate further inquiry; (b) provide practice spaces for exploring systems that do not have the often serious consequences of taking direct and immediate social, civic, and legal action; and (c) use rules to allow players to explore this aforementioned outline or model by making decisions and seeing an outcome. To make these arguments, I perform a close reading of three examples of participatory and ...


Digitally Segregated Understanding Technology Readiness In Preparation For Higher Education Success, Gloria D. Mullons Dec 2017

Digitally Segregated Understanding Technology Readiness In Preparation For Higher Education Success, Gloria D. Mullons

Dissertations

The Digital Divide is the gulf between those that have access and use of technology and those that do not. The Digital Divide is a multilayered issue impacting low-income persons, low literacy persons, seniors, and persons with disabilities. The new emphasis is on whether people know how to use technological devices and the Internet for multiple purposes, especially to function and progress in daily society. This dissertation study focuses on technology readiness in preparation for higher education, specifically examining: 1) experiences students had prior to attending the HP3 program, 2) factors that influenced student preparedness for engaging in college-level technology ...


Enhancing The Epistemological Project In The Rhetoric Of Science: Information Infrastructure As Tool For Identifying Epistemological Commitments In Scientific And Technical Communities., Nathan Johnson Nov 2017

Enhancing The Epistemological Project In The Rhetoric Of Science: Information Infrastructure As Tool For Identifying Epistemological Commitments In Scientific And Technical Communities., Nathan Johnson

Nathan R. Johnson

Enhancing the Epistemological Project in the Rhetoric of Science: Information Infrastructure as Tool for Identifying Epistemological Commitments in Scientific and Technical Communities. Article discusses how the STS concept of infrastructural provides a mesolayer approach to understand global issues in science with rhetorical methodology.


Developing A Technological Garment To Aid Those With Anxiety Disorder, Katherine N. Boedecker Nov 2017

Developing A Technological Garment To Aid Those With Anxiety Disorder, Katherine N. Boedecker

ASA Multidisciplinary Research Symposium

The purpose of this research was to develop a technological garment for patients in behavioral health hospitals with anxiety disorder.


Researching Serendipity In Digital Information Environments, Lori Mccay-Peet, Elaine G. Toms Oct 2017

Researching Serendipity In Digital Information Environments, Lori Mccay-Peet, Elaine G. Toms

Quan-Hoang Vuong

Chance, luck, and good fortune are the usual go-to descriptors of serendipity, a phenomenon aptly often coupled with famous anecdotes of accidental discoveries in engineering and science in modern history such as penicillin, Teflon, and Post-it notes. Serendipity, however, is evident in many fields of research, in organizations, in everyday life—and there is more to it than luck implies. While the phenomenon is strongly associated with in-person interactions with people, places, and things, most attention of late has focused on its preservation and facilitation within digital information environments. Serendipity’s association with unexpected, positive user experiences and outcomes has ...


Digital Reformation.Pdf, Michael Paulus, Bruce Baker Oct 2017

Digital Reformation.Pdf, Michael Paulus, Bruce Baker

SPU Works

Digital information and communication technologies are rapidly changing how we understand our identities and institutions. Five hundred years ago, new printing technologies created conditions that enabled the Protestant reformation and profoundly changed the world. Today, we are in the midst of a digital revolution. But what is being reformed, and what are we reforming? This session will explore the nature of our present information age and the theological questions it raises, touching on theological principles, cultural critiques, and spiritual practices that can help us reflect on digital reformation and transformation.


Digital Reformation.Pdf, Michael J. Paulus Jr., Bruce D. Baker, Mike Langford Oct 2017

Digital Reformation.Pdf, Michael J. Paulus Jr., Bruce D. Baker, Mike Langford

Michael J. Paulus, Jr.

Digital information and communication technologies are rapidly changing how we understand our identities and institutions. Five hundred years ago, new printing technologies created conditions that enabled the Protestant reformation and profoundly changed the world. Today, we are in the midst of a digital revolution. But what is being reformed, and what are we reforming? This session will explore the nature of our present information age and the theological questions it raises, touching on theological principles, cultural critiques, and spiritual practices that can help us reflect on digital reformation and transformation.


Mobile Banking As A Mechanism To Increase Access To Financial Services, Luisa Blanco, C. Andrew Bosque, Xizhu Wang Oct 2017

Mobile Banking As A Mechanism To Increase Access To Financial Services, Luisa Blanco, C. Andrew Bosque, Xizhu Wang

School of Public Policy Working Papers

We study the determinants of mobile banking adoption, with a special interest on how mobile banking can increase access to financial services among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. In our analysis, we use survey data from two different sources: 1) Survey of Consumers' Use of Mobile Financial Services (SCUMFS) We conduct a regression analysis and Oaxaca Decomposition to determine the explanatory factors of racial and ethnic gaps in bank account ownership. We find that minorities are less likely to use mobile banking than Whites in the NSUUH, but more likely to adopt mobile banking according to SCUMFS ...


The Importance Of Transportation, Broadband, And Intellectual Infrastructure For Entrepreneurship, James E. Prieger, Heng Lu, Habi Zhang Oct 2017

The Importance Of Transportation, Broadband, And Intellectual Infrastructure For Entrepreneurship, James E. Prieger, Heng Lu, Habi Zhang

School of Public Policy Working Papers

This empirical study uses a unique panel dataset to investigate the link between regional entrepreneurship and infrastructure. This topic is vital for understanding the factors that facilitate entrepreneurship, yet it receives scant scholarly attention. It is of particular value to policy makers because entrepreneurship is crucial for economic growth. We therefore examine how broadband infrastructure (internet connectivity), intellectual infrastructure (human capital), and transportation infrastructure (roads, bridges, and intermodal facilities) affect the establishment of new businesses in the United States. We primarily focus on broadband infrastructure, which is the least explored of these factors in the literature. We find that all ...


Mobile Data Roaming And Incentives For Investment In Rural Broadband Infrastructure, James Prieger Oct 2017

Mobile Data Roaming And Incentives For Investment In Rural Broadband Infrastructure, James Prieger

School of Public Policy Working Papers

Mobile broadband Internet access is highly important to the American economy and millions of users. There were almost 200 million mobile broadband connections by the end of 2013 in the United States, far more than the number of fixed broadband connections (FCC, 2014a, Table 1). The economic activity created by the provision and usage of mobile broadband is sizeable, and has been documented at the national level (Gruber and Koutroumpis, 2011; Thompson and Garbacz, 2011; Katz, 2012) and specifically for rural areas (Whitacre, Gallardo, and Strover, 2014). The benefits of mobile broadband—and indeed the entire broadband ecosystem—depend on ...


Discovering Explanatory Models To Identify Relevant Tweets On Zika, Roopteja Muppalla, Michele Miller, Tanvi Banerjee, William L. Romine Oct 2017

Discovering Explanatory Models To Identify Relevant Tweets On Zika, Roopteja Muppalla, Michele Miller, Tanvi Banerjee, William L. Romine

Tanvi Banerjee

Zika virus has caught the worlds attention, and has led people to share their opinions and concerns on social media like Twitter. Using text-based features, extracted with the help of Parts of Speech (POS) taggers and N-gram, a classifier was built to detect Zika related tweets from Twitter. With a simple logistic classifier, the system was successful in detecting Zika related tweets from Twitter with a 92% accuracy. Moreover, key features were identified that provide deeper insights on the content of tweets relevant to Zika. This system can be leveraged by domain experts to perform sentiment analysis, and understand the ...


What Are People Tweeting About Zika? An Exploratory Study Concerning Its Symptoms, Treatment, Transmission, And Prevention, Michele Miller, Tanvi Banerjee, Roopteja Muppalla, William L. Romine, Amit Sheth Oct 2017

What Are People Tweeting About Zika? An Exploratory Study Concerning Its Symptoms, Treatment, Transmission, And Prevention, Michele Miller, Tanvi Banerjee, Roopteja Muppalla, William L. Romine, Amit Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Background: In order to harness what people are tweeting about Zika, there needs to be a computational framework that leverages machine learning techniques to recognize relevant Zika tweets and, further, categorize these into disease-specific categories to address specific societal concerns related to the prevention, transmission, symptoms, and treatment of Zika virus. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relevancy of the tweets and what people were tweeting about the 4 disease characteristics of Zika: symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment. Methods: A combination of natural language processing and machine learning techniques was used to determine what people were ...


A Semantics-Based Measure Of Emoji Similarity, Sanjaya Wijeratne, Lakshika Balasuriya, Amit Sheth, Derek Doran Oct 2017

A Semantics-Based Measure Of Emoji Similarity, Sanjaya Wijeratne, Lakshika Balasuriya, Amit Sheth, Derek Doran

Amit P. Sheth

Emoji have grown to become one of the most important forms of communication on the web. With its widespread use, measuring the similarity of emoji has become an important problem for contemporary text processing since it lies at the heart of sentiment analysis, search, and interface design tasks. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the semantic similarity of emoji through embedding models that are learned over machine-readable emoji meanings in the EmojiNet knowledge base. Using emoji descriptions, emoji sense labels and emoji sense definitions, and with different training corpora obtained from Twitter and Google News, we develop and test ...


Hermeneutic Philosophies Of Social Science: Introduction, Babette Babich Oct 2017

Hermeneutic Philosophies Of Social Science: Introduction, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

No abstract provided.


Picture This: Using Photo-Research Exhibits As Science Outreach, Eden J.V. Hennessey, Mindi D. Foster, Shohini Ghose Oct 2017

Picture This: Using Photo-Research Exhibits As Science Outreach, Eden J.V. Hennessey, Mindi D. Foster, Shohini Ghose

Psychology Faculty Publications

Is a picture worth a thousand words? This paper discusses a unique science outreach initiative–provocative photo-research exhibits on sexism in science.

Gender imbalance in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) is not only a concern from a social justice perspective, but also has negative consequences for scientific innovation and the economy, given that lack of workplace gender diversity is associated with lower revenue and returns. Science outreach (i.e., public outreach by scientists) could be particularly impactful in Waterloo, Ontario – a region known as ‘Canada’s Silicon Valley’ that contributes over $30-billion annually to the global economy. Portraying complex ...


Bias Against Novelty In Science: A Cautionary Tale For Users Of Bibliometric Indicators, Jian Wang, Reinhilde Veugelers, Paula Stephan Sep 2017

Bias Against Novelty In Science: A Cautionary Tale For Users Of Bibliometric Indicators, Jian Wang, Reinhilde Veugelers, Paula Stephan

Jian Wang

Research which explores unchartered waters has a high potential for major impact but also carries a higher uncertainty of having impact.  Such explorative research is often described as taking a novel approach.  This study examines the complex relationship between pursuing a novel approach and impact.  Viewing scientific research as a combinatorial process, we measure novelty in science by examining whether a published paper makes first-time-ever combinations of referenced journals, taking into account the difficulty of making such combinations.  We apply this newly developed measure of novelty to all Web of Science research articles published in 2001 across all scientific disciplines ...


Technology And The Biblical Story, Derek Schuurman Sep 2017

Technology And The Biblical Story, Derek Schuurman

Pro Rege

Editor's Note: This article is based on Derek Schuurman's chapel talk, given at Bethel University in St. Paul, Minnesota, on February 22, 2017. A video of the talk is available online at: https://vimeo.com/channels/bethelchapel/205900409