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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Teacher Perceptions Of Environmental Science In Rural Northwestern New Mexico Public Schools, Marie Quiahuitl Julienne May 2019

Teacher Perceptions Of Environmental Science In Rural Northwestern New Mexico Public Schools, Marie Quiahuitl Julienne

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

In this study, I explored what teachers perceive as the factors that impact their teaching of environmental science in rural secondary level schools in northwestern New Mexico. I adapted Bronfenbrenner’s (1994) ecological systems model, based on four environmental subsystem levels (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem), as the conceptual framework to address the major research question of this study, and developed 18 interview questions to explore teachers’ perceptions of factors that influence their teaching of environmental science. I investigated the perspectives science teachers have about environmental science topics and the influences they perceive that affect how they teach environmental science ...


Adventures In Conference Planning – University Of Maine Ptrc Celebrates 25 Years, Rachel A. Knapp Apr 2019

Adventures In Conference Planning – University Of Maine Ptrc Celebrates 25 Years, Rachel A. Knapp

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

The challenges and rewards of conference planning come into focus when one librarian organizes the 25th anniversary celebrations for the University of Maine's Patent and Trademark Resource Center.


A Few Words And A Brief Recap Of The Jptrca’S Journey, David R. Irvin Apr 2019

A Few Words And A Brief Recap Of The Jptrca’S Journey, David R. Irvin

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

The Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center has transitioned to TigerPrints at Clemson University. Here we offer some insight about why the Publications Committee recommended the move.


Thoughts On Patents And Information Literacy, Dave Zwicky Mar 2019

Thoughts On Patents And Information Literacy, Dave Zwicky

Journal of the Patent and Trademark Resource Center Association

Patents are an under-used information source, in part because of an often-narrow focus by patent librarians on the tools and techniques of patentability searching. This approach can ignore a range of potential applications of patent information, using patents in their contexts as technical, design, historical, legal, and commercial documents. This paper suggests the adoption of a flexible approach, viewing patents and patent information in the greater context of information literacy, including that of the Association of College and Research Libraries’ Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education, more commonly known as the ACRL Framework.


A Moratorium On The Presentation Of Dna Evidence, Declan Riley Kunkel Dec 2018

A Moratorium On The Presentation Of Dna Evidence, Declan Riley Kunkel

International Social Science Review

In recent decades, DNA evidence has become something of a pop-culture phenomenon. All too often, DNA evidence is shown as irrefutable fact, a scientific fingerprint that allows for a black-and-white determination of guilt or innocence. Unfortunately, such depictions are inaccurate and dangerous. This paper attempts to address this danger by calling for a temporary moratorium on the presentation of DNA evidence at trial, implemented until federal standards are put in place to regulate the presentation of DNA evidence, and until robust studies indicate the prevalence of DNA transfer.This paper will demonstrate that DNA analysis schemes are dangerously flawed and ...


Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 4: National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (Ngia), National Intelligence University (Niu), And National Reconnaissance Office (Nro), Bert Chapman Nov 2018

Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 4: National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (Ngia), National Intelligence University (Niu), And National Reconnaissance Office (Nro), Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Webinar presentation on publicly accessible information resources produced by the U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGIA), National Intelligence University (NIU), and National Reconnaissance Office. Places significant emphasis on missions of these agencies, their historical accomplishments, coverage of their educational activity, and information on the technologies they have used and are currently using to fulfill their institutional objectives.


Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels Aug 2018

Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present an analysis of features influencing Yelp's proprietary review filtering algorithm. Classifying or misclassifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended affects average ratings, consumer decisions, and ultimately, business revenue. Our analysis involves systematically sampling and scraping Yelp restaurant reviews. Features are extracted from review metadata and engineered from metrics and scores generated using text classifiers and sentiment analysis. The coefficients of a multivariate logistic regression model were interpreted as quantifications of the relative importance of features in classifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended. The model classified review recommendations with an accuracy of 78%. We found that ...


Common Carriage’S Domain, Christopher S. Yoo Jun 2018

Common Carriage’S Domain, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The judicial decision invalidating the Federal Communications Commission’s first Open Internet Order has led advocates to embrace common carriage as the legal basis for network neutrality. In so doing, network neutrality proponents have overlooked the lessons from the history and the academic literature on common carriage. This Essay distills these learnings into five factors that play a key role in promoting common carriage’s success: (1) commodity products, (2) simple interfaces, (3) stability and uniformity in the transmission technology, (4) deployment of the transmission network, and (5) stable demand and market shares. Applying this framework to the Internet suggests ...


Adapt Or Die! The Social And Economic Dynamics Of Japan’S Animation Industry, You Pan May 2018

Adapt Or Die! The Social And Economic Dynamics Of Japan’S Animation Industry, You Pan

Master's Projects and Capstones

This research explored and discussed about Japanese animation industry, past, present, and possibilities to a better future. While there is existing literature on Japanese animation, this research will focus on a case study that will discover the bright side of Japanese animation market, while addressing the existing problems within the animation industry or potential issues at present times. By illustrating the existing and potential issues as well as the bright side, the objective of this research is to help the Japanese animation industry to survive under the depressive economic environment. My research will identify reasons for low productivity of high ...


The Ethics In Synthetics: Statistics In The Service Of Ethics And Law In Health-Related Research In Big Data From Multiple Sources, Sharon Bassan Ph.D., Ofer Harel Ph.D. May 2018

The Ethics In Synthetics: Statistics In The Service Of Ethics And Law In Health-Related Research In Big Data From Multiple Sources, Sharon Bassan Ph.D., Ofer Harel Ph.D.

Journal of Law and Health

An ethical advancement of scientific knowledge demands a delicate equilibrium between benefits and harms, in particular in health-related research. When applying and advancing scientific knowledge or technologies, Article 4 of UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, ethically justifiable research requires maximizing direct and indirect benefits and minimizing possible harms. The National Institution of Health [NIH] Data Sharing Policy and Implementation Guidance similarly states that data necessary for drawing valid conclusions and advancing medical research should be made as widely and freely available as possible (in order to share the benefits) while safeguarding the privacy of participants from ...


An Analysis Of International Agreements Over Cybersecurity, Lucas Ashbaugh Apr 2018

An Analysis Of International Agreements Over Cybersecurity, Lucas Ashbaugh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research into the international agreements that increase cooperation over cybersecurity challenges is severely lacking. This is a necessary next step for bridging diplomatic challenges over cybersecurity. This work aspires to be push the bounds of research into these agreements and offer a tool that future researchers can rely on. For this research I created, and made publicly available, the International Cybersecurity Cooperation Dataset (ICCD), which contains over 350 international cybersecurity agreements and pertinent metadata. Each agreement is marked per which subtopics within cybersecurity related agreements it covers. These typologies are:

  • Discussion and Dialogue

  • Research

  • Confidence Building Measures

  • Incident Response

  • Crime ...


Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2018

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Cathy O’Neil. 2016. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York, NY: Crown) 272 pp. ISBN 978-0553418811.

Accessible to a wide readership, Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy provides a lucid yet alarming account of the extensive reach of mathematical models in influencing all of our lives. With a particular eye towards social justice, O’Neil not only warns modelers to be cognizant of the effects of their work on real people—especially vulnerable groups who have less power to fight back—but ...


Algorithms And Automation: Fostering Trustworthiness In Artificial Intelligence, Andrew B. Ware Jan 2018

Algorithms And Automation: Fostering Trustworthiness In Artificial Intelligence, Andrew B. Ware

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Engineering Standards In Highway Design Litigation, Michael Lewyn Dec 2017

Engineering Standards In Highway Design Litigation, Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

Highway engineers sometimes believe that if they redesign streets to improve pedestrian safety (for example, by introducing traffic calming techniques) they might be successfully sued for negligent design by motorists. This chapter suggests that in such situations, governments are likely to be protected by discretionary function immunity. In addition, the chapter discusses a variety of technical issues.


Data Protection In Nigeria: Addressing The Multifarious Challenges Of A Deficient Legal System, Roland Akindele Dec 2017

Data Protection In Nigeria: Addressing The Multifarious Challenges Of A Deficient Legal System, Roland Akindele

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

This paper provides an overview of the current state of privacy and data protection policies and regulations in Nigeria. The paper contends that the extant legal regime in Nigeria is patently inadequate to effectively protect individuals against abuse resulting from the processing of their personal data. The view is based on the critical analysis of the current legal regime in Nigeria vis-à-vis the review of some vital data privacy issues. The paper makes some recommendations for the reform of the law.


The Tax Treatment Of Tokens: What Does It Betoken?, David J. Shakow Aug 2017

The Tax Treatment Of Tokens: What Does It Betoken?, David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Digital tokens have been used to raise substantial amounts of money. But little attention has been paid to the tax consequences surrounding their issuance and sale. There are significant potential tax liabilities lurking in the use of digital tokens. But, because of the anonymity inherent in the blockchain structures used for the issuance of tokens and payments for them, there is a significant question as to whether those tax liabilities will ever be collected.


Yet Another French Exception: The Legal, Cultural, And Political Dimensions Of France’S Support For The Digital Right To Be Forgotten, Zarine Kharazian May 2017

Yet Another French Exception: The Legal, Cultural, And Political Dimensions Of France’S Support For The Digital Right To Be Forgotten, Zarine Kharazian

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2015, the European Court of Justice established an online “right to be forgotten” in Europe. Under this right to be forgotten, individuals may request that search engines delist links that reference their personal information from search results. Search engines need not grant these requests, but they are now obligated to review them.

While the Court's decision to establish the right to be forgotten certainly ignited a debate among Western privacy scholars and policymakers hailing from both sides of the Atlantic, no country has participated in the debate with as much fervor as has France. This thesis addresses the ...


Watkins' "Patent Trolls: Predatory Litigation And The Smothering Of Innovation" (Book Review), Judson L. Strain Apr 2017

Watkins' "Patent Trolls: Predatory Litigation And The Smothering Of Innovation" (Book Review), Judson L. Strain

The Christian Librarian

A review of Watkins, W. J., Jr. (2013). Patent trolls: Predatory litigation and the smothering of innovation. Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute. 96 pp. $17.95. ISBN 9781598131703


After 40 Years Of Regional And Coordinated Ship Safety Inspections: Destination Reached Or New Point Of Departure?, Armando Graziano, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs, Aykut I. Olçer Jan 2017

After 40 Years Of Regional And Coordinated Ship Safety Inspections: Destination Reached Or New Point Of Departure?, Armando Graziano, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs, Aykut I. Olçer

Journal Publications

Port State Control (PSC) is the major global strategy for fighting substandard shipping since the signature of The Hague Memorandum in 1978. In the last years, the increased volume of trade, the enlarged number of main international conventions and the highlighted differences among the various Regimes have posed new challenges to the modern system of PSC, which may need to find its new course.

This paper examines the point of view of key maritime stakeholders with regard to the EU PSC regime. Elite interviews (n = 14) were conducted with subject matter experts ranging from policy makers, to industry and seafarers ...


Emergent Ai, Social Robots And The Law: Security, Privacy And Policy Issues, Ramesh Subramanian Jan 2017

Emergent Ai, Social Robots And The Law: Security, Privacy And Policy Issues, Ramesh Subramanian

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

The rapid growth of AI systems has implications on a wide variety of fields. It can prove to be a boon to disparate fields such as healthcare, education, global logistics and transportation, to name a few. However, these systems will also bring forth far-reaching changes in employment, economy and security. As AI systems gain acceptance and become more commonplace, certain critical questions arise: What are the legal and security ramifications of the use of these new technologies? Who can use them, and under what circumstances? What is the safety of these systems? Should their commercialization be regulated? What are the ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax Jan 2017

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A recent body of work in neuroscience examines the brains of people suffering from social and economic disadvantage. This article assesses claims that this research can help generate more effective strategies for addressing these social conditions and their effects. It concludes that the so-called neuroscience of deprivation has no unique practical payoff, and that scientists, journalists, and policy-makers should stop claiming otherwise. Because this research does not, and generally cannot, distinguish between innate versus environmental causes of brain characteristics, it cannot predict whether neurological and behavioral deficits can be addressed by reducing social deprivation. Also, knowledge of brain mechanisms yields ...


Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin Nov 2016

Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin

Space Traffic Management Conference

Forecasted future demand in space travel is driving the need for the development of space traffic management. Currently, orbital space traffic is mostly unregulated with internationally agreed upon best practices and self-interest driving space operators to avoid collisions with other spacecraft. This paper explores the future of space travel by presenting a concept of creating “airspace in space” or spaceways to manage the ever growing volumes of space traffic. Spaceways are analogous to airspace for aircraft with the goal of increasing levels of safety and reducing probabilities of collision. These goals can be achieved by creating traffic rules, defining valuable ...


Tightening The Ooda Loop: Police Militarization, Race, And Algorithmic Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle Feb 2016

Tightening The Ooda Loop: Police Militarization, Race, And Algorithmic Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article examines the role military automated surveillance and intelligence systems and techniques have supported a self-reinforcing racial bias when used by civilian police departments to enhance predictive policing programs. I will focus on two facets of this problem. First, my research will take an inside-out perspective, studying the role played by advanced military technologies and methods within civilian police departments, and how they have enabled a new focus on deterrence and crime prevention by creating a system of structural surveillance where decision support relies increasingly upon algorithms and automated data analysis tools, and which automates de facto penalization and ...


Topscholar®, Creating Opportunities [Brochure], Connie Foster, Jennifer Wilson Feb 2016

Topscholar®, Creating Opportunities [Brochure], Connie Foster, Jennifer Wilson

Jennifer Wilson

No abstract provided.


The Minefield: Designing And Implementing Human Resource Policies In The Age Of Social Media, Christopher R. Mcmillan Jan 2016

The Minefield: Designing And Implementing Human Resource Policies In The Age Of Social Media, Christopher R. Mcmillan

The Graduate Review

Human resource managers have had to navigate a minefield of laws and regulations while continuing to manage the traditional business functions of the employer. Now, human resource departments across the nation are tasked with managing the traditional employee-employer relationship in light of an ever-changing technological and legal landscape. Businesses across the nation have had to adjust to a rise in the use of social-media and have suffered the consequences of instantaneous communication between employees and the media. These same businesses must reconcile the need to protect its goodwill and livelihood, while incorporating the safeguards provided by legislation and regulations in ...


The Digital Dionysus: Nietzsche & The Network-Centric Condition Dec 2015

The Digital Dionysus: Nietzsche & The Network-Centric Condition

Dan Mellamphy

No abstract provided.


Keeping Pace: The U.S. Supreme Court And Evolving Technology, Brian Thomas Jul 2015

Keeping Pace: The U.S. Supreme Court And Evolving Technology, Brian Thomas

Politics Summer Fellows

Contemporary mainstream discussions of the Supreme Court are often qualified with the warning that the nine justices are out of touch with everyday American life, especially when it comes to the newest and most popular technologies. For instance, during oral argument for City of Ontario v. Quon, a 2010 case that dealt with sexting on government-issued devices, Chief Justice John Roberts famously asked what the difference was “between email and a pager,” and Justice Antonin Scalia wondered if the “spicy little conversations” held via text message could be printed and distributed. While these comments have garnered a great deal of ...


Games Are Not Coffee Mugs: Games And The Right Of Publicity, 29 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 1 (2012), William K. Ford, Raizel Liebler Jul 2015

Games Are Not Coffee Mugs: Games And The Right Of Publicity, 29 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 1 (2012), William K. Ford, Raizel Liebler

William K. Ford

Are games more like coffee mugs, posters, and T-shirts, or are they more like books, magazines, and films? For purposes of the right of publicity, the answer matters. The critical question is whether games should be treated as merchandise or as expression. Three classic judicial decisions, decided in 1967, 1970, and 1973, held that the defendants needed permission to use the plaintiffs' names in their board games. These decisions judicially confirmed that games are merchandise, not something equivalent to more traditional media of expression. As merchandise, games are not like books; instead, they are akin to celebrity-embossed coffee mugs. To ...


The Spectrum Of Control: A Social Theory Of The Smart City, Jathan Sadowski, Frank A. Pasquale Jul 2015

The Spectrum Of Control: A Social Theory Of The Smart City, Jathan Sadowski, Frank A. Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

There is a certain allure to the idea that cities allow a person to both feel at home and like a stranger in the same place. That one can know the streets and shops, avenues and alleys, while also going days without being recognized. But as elites fill cities with “smart” technologies—turning them into platforms for the “Internet of Things” (IoT): sensors and computation embedded within physical objects that then connect, communicate, and/or transmit information with or between each other through the Internet—there is little escape from a seamless web of surveillance and power. This paper will ...


Ieee Istas13- People As Sensors: The Social Implications Of Living In A Smart World, Alexander Hayes, Katina Michael, Nick Rheinberger Jun 2015

Ieee Istas13- People As Sensors: The Social Implications Of Living In A Smart World, Alexander Hayes, Katina Michael, Nick Rheinberger

Alexander Hayes Mr.

What is the technological trajectory of people wearing sensors? What are the benefits, risks and costs? What is the vibe going to be like at ISTAS13 with people like Marvin Minsky and Ray Kurzweil attending? What do you hope to gain from the meeting? Can we foresee a time that all glasses will be embedded with sensors? What are the implications? E.g. in the higher education sector? What about the gathering of evidence by law enforcement? What is point of eye?