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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 178

Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Identifying Success And Abandonment Of Free/Libre And Open Source (Floss) Commons: A Preliminary Classification Of Sourceforge.Net Projects, Charles M. Schweik, Robert English Dec 2007

Identifying Success And Abandonment Of Free/Libre And Open Source (Floss) Commons: A Preliminary Classification Of Sourceforge.Net Projects, Charles M. Schweik, Robert English

Schweik Open Source Project

Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects are a form of commons where individuals work collectively to produce software that is a public, rather than a private, good. The famous phrase “Tragedy of the Commons” describes a situation where a natural resource commons, such as a pasture, or a water supply, gets depleted because of overuse. The tragedy in FLOSS commons is distinctly different -- it occurs when collective action is abandoned before a software product is produced or reaches its full potential. This paper builds on previous work about defining success in FLOSS projects by taking a collective action ...


Semantic Web For Health Care And Biomedical Informatics, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2007

Semantic Web For Health Care And Biomedical Informatics, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.


A General Boosting Method And Its Application To Learning Ranking Functions For Web Search, Zhaohui Zheng, Hongyuan Zha, Tong Zhang, Olivier Chapelle, Keke Chen, Gordon Sun Dec 2007

A General Boosting Method And Its Application To Learning Ranking Functions For Web Search, Zhaohui Zheng, Hongyuan Zha, Tong Zhang, Olivier Chapelle, Keke Chen, Gordon Sun

Kno.e.sis Publications

We present a general boosting method extending functional gradient boosting to optimize complex loss functions that are encountered in many machine learning problems. Our approach is based on optimization of quadratic upper bounds of the loss functions which allows us to present a rigorous convergence analysis of the algorithm. More importantly, this general framework enables us to use a standard regression base learner such as decision trees for fitting any loss function. We illustrate an application of the proposed method in learning ranking functions for Web search by combining both preference data and labeled data for training. We present experimental ...


Video On The Semantic Sensor Web, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth, Prateek Jain, Josh Pschorr, Terry Rapoch Dec 2007

Video On The Semantic Sensor Web, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth, Prateek Jain, Josh Pschorr, Terry Rapoch

Kno.e.sis Publications

Millions of sensors around the globe currently collect avalanches of data about our world. The rapid development and deployment of sensor technology is intensifying the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to alleviating this glut, we propose that sensor data, especially video sensor data, can be annotated with semantic metadata to provide contextual information about videos on the Web. In particular, we present an approach to annotating video sensor data with spatial, temporal, and thematic semantic metadata. This technique builds on current standardization efforts within the W3C and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ...


Towards Tractable Local Closed World Reasoning For The Semantic Web, Matthias Knorr, Jose Julio Alferes, Pascal Hitzler Dec 2007

Towards Tractable Local Closed World Reasoning For The Semantic Web, Matthias Knorr, Jose Julio Alferes, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Recently, the logics of minimal knowledge and negation as failure MKNF [12] was used to introduce hybrid MKNF knowledge bases [14], a powerful formalism for combining open and closed world reasoning for the Semantic Web. We present an extension based on a new three-valued framework including an alternating fixpoint, the well-founded MKNF model. This approach, the well-founded MKNF semantics, derives its name from the very close relation to the corresponding semantics known from logic programming. We show that the well-founded MKNF model is the least model among all (three-valued) MKNF models, thus soundly approximating also the two-valued MKNF models from ...


Topscholar™ Revised Brochure, Cindy Troutman, Connie Foster Nov 2007

Topscholar™ Revised Brochure, Cindy Troutman, Connie Foster

TopSCHOLAR® Presentations and Reports

A revised brochure that gives basic points, contacts, and guidelines for TopSCHOLAR™, the research and creative activity database of Western Kentucky University, launched May 1, 2007.


Leveraging Semantic Web Techniques To Gain Situational Awareness, Amit P. Sheth Nov 2007

Leveraging Semantic Web Techniques To Gain Situational Awareness, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.


R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang Nov 2007

R&D Policy In The United States: The Promotion Of Nanotechnology, Philip Shapira, Jue Wang

Philip Shapira

This case study reviews the evolution of nanotechnology policies and programmes in the United States with a particular focus on three thematic areas: governance, interactions among R&D policies, and interaction between R&D policy and non-R&D policies. Federal R&D policy in nanotechnology has moved through several stages, including initial exploration before the 1980s, the promotion of scientific and technological breakthroughs in the 1980s, policy development in the 1990s and multiagency national initiatives in the 2000s. Since 2001, the major federal R&D policy mechanism in nanotechnology in the US has been the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). NNI ...


Can Semantic Web Techniques Empower Comprehension And Projection In Cyber Situational Awareness?, Amit P. Sheth Nov 2007

Can Semantic Web Techniques Empower Comprehension And Projection In Cyber Situational Awareness?, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.


Supporting Complex Thematic, Spatial And Temporal Queries Over Semantic Web Data, Matthew Perry, Amit P. Sheth, Farshad Hakimpour, Prateek Jain Nov 2007

Supporting Complex Thematic, Spatial And Temporal Queries Over Semantic Web Data, Matthew Perry, Amit P. Sheth, Farshad Hakimpour, Prateek Jain

Kno.e.sis Publications

Spatial and temporal data are critical components in many applications. This is especially true in analytical domains such as national security and criminal investigation. Often, the analytical process requires uncovering and analyzing complex thematic relationships between disparate people, places and events. Fundamentally new query operators based on the graph structure of Semantic Web data models, such as semantic associations, are proving useful for this purpose. However, these analysis mechanisms are primarily intended for thematic relationships. In this paper, we describe a framework built around the RDF metadata model for analysis of thematic, spatial and temporal relationships between named entities. We ...


Semantic Convergence Of Wikipedia Articles, Christopher J. Thomas, Amit P. Sheth Nov 2007

Semantic Convergence Of Wikipedia Articles, Christopher J. Thomas, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

Social networking, distributed problem solving and human computation have gained high visibility. Wikipedia is a well established service that incorporates aspects of these three fields of research. For this reason it is a good object of study for determining quality of solutions in a social setting that is open, completely distributed, bottom up and not peer reviewed by certified experts. In particular, this paper aims at identifying semantic convergence of Wikipedia articles; the notion that the content of an article stays stable regardless of continuing edits. This could lead to an automatic recommendation of good article tags but also add ...


Conjunctive Queries For A Tractable Fragment Of Owl 1.1, Markus Krotzsch, Sebastian Rudolph, Pascal Hitzler Nov 2007

Conjunctive Queries For A Tractable Fragment Of Owl 1.1, Markus Krotzsch, Sebastian Rudolph, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Despite the success of the Web Ontology Language OWL, the development of expressive means for querying OWL knowledge bases is still an open issue. In this paper, we investigate how a very natural and desirable form of queries-namely conjunctive ones-can be used in conjunction with OWL such that one of the major design criteria of the latter-namely decidability-can be retained. More precisely, we show that querying the tractable fragment EL++ of OWL 1.1 is decidable. We also provide a complexity analysis and show that querying unrestricted EL++ is undecidable.


Brooks' Versus Linus' Law: An Empirical Test Of Open Source Projects, Charles M. Schweik, Robert English Oct 2007

Brooks' Versus Linus' Law: An Empirical Test Of Open Source Projects, Charles M. Schweik, Robert English

National Center for Digital Government

Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FOSS) projects are Internet-based collaborations consisting of volunteers and paid professionals who come together to create computer software...


The Economic Contribution Of Marine Science And Education Institutions In The Monterey Bay Crescent, Judith T. Kildow Dr, Nathaniel Miller Oct 2007

The Economic Contribution Of Marine Science And Education Institutions In The Monterey Bay Crescent, Judith T. Kildow Dr, Nathaniel Miller

Publications

Ocean and coastal areas of the United States contribute significantly to our nation’s overall economy. The extent to which our economy benefits from the wide range of marine and coastal activities is not completely understood. The National Ocean Economics Program (NOEP) has attempted to track and value the ocean and coastal- related economic activities in the United States. To date six sectors are included in its information system (www.oceaneconomics.org). The economic contribution of marine research and education institutions is a sector of activity that lies outside of the normal federal government datasets, but one which seemed to ...


Reflections Of An Online Geographic Information Systems Course Based On Open Source Software, Charles M. Schweik, Maria Fernandez, Michael P. Hamel, Prakash Kashwan, Quentin Lewis, Alexander Stepanov Oct 2007

Reflections Of An Online Geographic Information Systems Course Based On Open Source Software, Charles M. Schweik, Maria Fernandez, Michael P. Hamel, Prakash Kashwan, Quentin Lewis, Alexander Stepanov

National Center for Digital Government

This SSCORE report summarizes our experience offering an online introductory course on Geographic Information Systems that utilizes available free/libre and open source software (FOSS). Two primary objectives were to (1) reach students in developing countries, and (2) to help move forward the development of an “open content” GIS curriculum as part of the “Open Source Geospatial Foundation” (OSGeo.org) educational effort. Course design, key software (QGIS, GRASS, PostGresql/PostGIS) and online delivery methods are described. Results and factors leading to a low course completion rate and discussed. Contributing factors include: (1) a for-credit versus no-credit decision; and (2) technical ...


Better Public Services For Growth And Jobs, Jane E. Fountain Oct 2007

Better Public Services For Growth And Jobs, Jane E. Fountain

National Center for Digital Government

No abstract provided.


Defining A Research Domain In An Emerging Technology: Vaccine Research In The State Of Georgia, Shannon Barker, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Oct 2007

Defining A Research Domain In An Emerging Technology: Vaccine Research In The State Of Georgia, Shannon Barker, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This paper presents an approach for measuring emerging technologies in the context of mature industries. In particular, this article focuses on vaccine-related research. Although vaccines comprise an established industry, new developments in biotechnology have led to emerging area in vaccine R&D, including therapeutic vaccines; subunit and DNA-based vaccines; advances in vaccine delivery; and new methodologies for vaccine design, manufacturing, and testing. Defining this field is challenging because it spans multiple disciplines, including biotechnology, public health, and epidemiology. To gain an understanding of the field as it is related to biomedical research, we focused our study parameters to concentrate on these aspects of vaccine ...


Practicing Librarianship Around The World, Deana Groves Oct 2007

Practicing Librarianship Around The World, Deana Groves

DLTS Faculty Publications

More and more librarians are sharing their knowledge with colleagues around the world. This paper examines several examples of the type of international work conducted by librarians and also explores the various opportunities available worldwide. A general list of suggested travel tips is also included.


Ored Quarterly Newsletter, Sadiq Shah Oct 2007

Ored Quarterly Newsletter, Sadiq Shah

ORED Quarterly Newsletter

Connecting Knowledge with Businesses and Society to Promote Economic Growth and to Enhance the Quality of Life


Swashup: Situational Web Applications Mashups, E. Michael Maximilien, Ajith Harshana Ranabahu, Stefan Tai Oct 2007

Swashup: Situational Web Applications Mashups, E. Michael Maximilien, Ajith Harshana Ranabahu, Stefan Tai

Kno.e.sis Publications

Distributed programming has shifted from private networks to the Internet using heterogeneous Web APIs. This enables the creation of situational applications of composed services exposing user interfaces, i.e., mashups. However, this programmable Web lacks unified models that can facilitate mashup creation, reuse, and deployments. This poster demonstrates a platform to facilitate Web 2.0 mashups.


A Proposed Statistical Protocol For The Analysis Of Metabolic Toxicological Data Derived From Nmr Spectroscopy, Benjamin J. Kelly, Paul E. Anderson, Nicholas V. Reo, Nicholas J. Delraso, Travis E. Doom, Michael L. Raymer Oct 2007

A Proposed Statistical Protocol For The Analysis Of Metabolic Toxicological Data Derived From Nmr Spectroscopy, Benjamin J. Kelly, Paul E. Anderson, Nicholas V. Reo, Nicholas J. Delraso, Travis E. Doom, Michael L. Raymer

Kno.e.sis Publications

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a non-invasive method of acquiring a metabolic profile from biofluids. This metabolic information may provide keys to the early detection of exposure to a toxin. A typical NMR toxicology data set has low sample size and high dimensionality. Thus, traditional pattern recognition techniques are not always feasible. In this paper, we evaluate several common alternatives for isolating these biomarkers. The fold test, unpaired t-test, and paired t-test were performed on an NMR-derived toxicological data set and results were compared. The paired t-test method was preferred, due to its ability to attribute statistical significance, to ...


A Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm That Employs A Hybrid Approach For Isolating Codon Usage Bias Indicative Of Translational Efficiency, Douglas W. Raiford, Dan E. Krane, Travis E. Doom, Michael L. Raymer Oct 2007

A Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm That Employs A Hybrid Approach For Isolating Codon Usage Bias Indicative Of Translational Efficiency, Douglas W. Raiford, Dan E. Krane, Travis E. Doom, Michael L. Raymer

Kno.e.sis Publications

Isolation of translational efficiency bias can have important applications in gene expression prediction and heterologous protein production. In some genomes the presence of a high GC(AT)-content bias can confound the isolation of translational efficiency bias. In other organisms translational efficiency bias is weak making it difficult to isolate. Described here is a multi-objective genetic algorithm that improves the isolation of translational efficiency bias in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, two organisms shown to have high GC-content and weak translational efficiency bias.


Realizing The Relationship Web: Morphing Information Access On The Web From Today's Document- And Entity-Centric Paradigm To A Relationship-Centric Paradigm, Amit P. Sheth Sep 2007

Realizing The Relationship Web: Morphing Information Access On The Web From Today's Document- And Entity-Centric Paradigm To A Relationship-Centric Paradigm, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.


Testimony On Broadband To Senate Committee On Small Business And Entrepreneurship, Scott J. Wallsten Sep 2007

Testimony On Broadband To Senate Committee On Small Business And Entrepreneurship, Scott J. Wallsten

Scott J. Wallsten

No abstract provided.


Description Logic Programs: Normal Forms, Pascal Hitzler, Andreas Eberhart Sep 2007

Description Logic Programs: Normal Forms, Pascal Hitzler, Andreas Eberhart

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The relationship and possible interplay between different knowledge representation and reasoning paradigms is a fundamental topic in artificial intelligence. For expressive knowledge representation for the Semantic Web, two different paradigms - namely Description Logics (DLs) and Logic Programming - are the two most successful approaches. A study of their exact relationships is thus paramount. An intersection of OWL with (function-free non-disjunctive) Datalog, called DLP (for Description Logic Programs), has been described in [1,2]. We provide normal forms for DLP in Description Logic syntax and in Datalog syntax, thus providing a bridge for the researcher and user who is familiar with either ...


Comparing Disjunctive Well-Founded Semantics, Matthias Knorr, Pascal Hitzler Sep 2007

Comparing Disjunctive Well-Founded Semantics, Matthias Knorr, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

While the stable model semantics, in the form of Answer Set Programming, has become a successful semantics for disjunctive logic programs, a corresponding satisfactory extension of the well-founded semantics to disjunctive programs remains to be found. The many current proposals for such an extension are so diverse, that even a systematic comparison between them is a challenging task. In order to aid the quest for suitable disjunctive well-founded semantics, we present a systematic approach to a comparison based on level mappings, a recently introduced framework for characterizing logic programming semantics, which was quite successfully used for comparing the major semantics ...


Any-World Access To Owl From Prolog, Tobias Matzner, Pascal Hitzler Sep 2007

Any-World Access To Owl From Prolog, Tobias Matzner, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The W3C standard OWL provides a decidable language for representing ontologies. While its use is rapidly spreading, efforts are being made by researchers worldwide to augment OWL with additional expressive features or by interlacing it with other forms of knowledge representation, in order to make it applicable for even further purposes. In this paper, we integrate OWL with one of the most successful and most widely used forms of knowledge representation, namely Prolog, and present a hybrid approach which layers Prolog on top of OWL in such a way that the open-world semantics of OWL becomes directly accessible within the ...


The Programmable Web: Agile, Social, And Grassroots Computing, E. Michael Maximilien, Ajith Harshana Ranabahu Sep 2007

The Programmable Web: Agile, Social, And Grassroots Computing, E. Michael Maximilien, Ajith Harshana Ranabahu

Kno.e.sis Publications

Web services, the semantic Web, and Web 2.0 are three somewhat separate movements trying to make the Web a programmable substrate. While each has achieved some level of success on their own right, it is becoming apparent that the grassroots approach of the Web 2.0 is gaining greater success than the other two. In this paper we analyze each movement, briefly describing its main traits, and outlining its primary assumptions. We then frame the common problem of achieving a programmable Web within the context of distributed computing and software engineering and then attempt to show why Web 2 ...


Sa-Rest And (S)Mashups: Adding Semantics To Restful Services, Jonathan Lathem, Karthik Gomadam, Amit P. Sheth Sep 2007

Sa-Rest And (S)Mashups: Adding Semantics To Restful Services, Jonathan Lathem, Karthik Gomadam, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

The evolution of the Web 2.0 phenomenon has led to the increased adoption of the RESTful services paradigm. RESTful services often take the form of RSS/Atom feeds and AJAX based light weight services. The XML based messaging paradigm of RESTful services has made it possible to compose various services together. Such compositions of RESTful services is widely referred to as Mashups. In this paper, we outline the limitations in current approaches to creating mashups. We address these limitations by proposing a framework called as SA-REST. SA-REST adds semantics to RESTful services. Our proposed framework builds upon the original ...


The Political Economy Of Aids Treatment: Intellectual Property And The Transformation Of Generic Supply, Kenneth C. Shadlen Aug 2007

The Political Economy Of Aids Treatment: Intellectual Property And The Transformation Of Generic Supply, Kenneth C. Shadlen

Ken Shadlen

This article examines the relationship between intellectual property (IP) and public health, with a focus on the extension of AIDS treatment in the developing world. While most of the literature on IP and health examines the conditions affecting poor countries’ capacities to acquire essential medicines, I show the distinct – and more complicated – political economy of production and supply. IP regulations alter the structure of generic pharmaceutical sectors in the countries capable of supplying essential medicines, and changes in market structure affect actors’ economic and political interests and capacities. These new constellations of interests and capacities have profound implications for the ...