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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Human Supremacy As Posthuman Risk, Daniel Estrada Jul 2020

Human Supremacy As Posthuman Risk, Daniel Estrada

The Journal of Sociotechnical Critique

Human supremacy is the widely held view that human interests ought to be privileged over other interests as a matter of ethics and public policy. Posthumanism is the historical situation characterized by a critical reevaluation of anthropocentrist theory and practice. This paper draws on animal studies, critical posthumanism, and the critique of ideal theory in Charles Mills and Serene Khader to address the appeal to human supremacist rhetoric in AI ethics and policy discussions, particularly in the work of Joanna Bryson. This analysis identifies a specific risk posed by human supremacist policy in a posthuman context, namely the classification of ...


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


A Visual Analytics System For Making Sense Of Real-Time Twitter Streams, Amir Haghighatimaleki Jan 2020

A Visual Analytics System For Making Sense Of Real-Time Twitter Streams, Amir Haghighatimaleki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Through social media platforms, massive amounts of data are being produced. Twitter, as one such platform, enables users to post “tweets” on an unprecedented scale. Once analyzed by machine learning (ML) techniques and in aggregate, Twitter data can be an invaluable resource for gaining insight. However, when applied to real-time data streams, due to covariate shifts in the data (i.e., changes in the distributions of the inputs of ML algorithms), existing ML approaches result in different types of biases and provide uncertain outputs. This thesis describes a visual analytics system (i.e., a tool that combines data visualization, human-data ...


Expectations Of Artificial Intelligence And The Performativity Of Ethics: Implications For Communication Governance, Aphra Kerr, Marguerite Barry, John D. Kelleher Jan 2020

Expectations Of Artificial Intelligence And The Performativity Of Ethics: Implications For Communication Governance, Aphra Kerr, Marguerite Barry, John D. Kelleher

Articles

This article draws on the sociology of expectations to examine the construction of expectations of ‘ethical AI’ and considers the implications of these expectations for communication governance. We first analyse a range of public documents to identify the key actors, mechanisms and issues which structure societal expectations around artificial intelligence (AI) and an emerging discourse on ethics. We then explore expectations of AI and ethics through a survey of members of the public. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the role of AI in communication gover- nance. We find that, despite societal expectations that we can design ...


Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy Jan 2020

Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy

All Undergraduate Projects

Renewable energies, and fuels that are not fossil fuel-based, are one of the prolific topics of debate in modern society. With climate change now becoming a primary focus for scientists and innovators of today, one of the areas for the largest amount of potential and growth is that of the capturing and utilization of Solar Energy. This method involves using a mechanical system to track the progression of the sun as it traverses the sky throughout the day. A dual-axis solar tracker such as the one designed and built for this project, can follow the sun both azimuthally and in ...


Special Issue On Multi-Criteria Decision Making (Mcdm) And Neutrosophic Tools, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Abdel-Basset Jan 2020

Special Issue On Multi-Criteria Decision Making (Mcdm) And Neutrosophic Tools, Florentin Smarandache, Mohamed Abdel-Basset

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In the rising trends of information technology, the concepts of uncertainty have started gaining greater importance with time in solving operational research problems in supply chain model, project management, transportation problem, or inventory control problems. Moreover, day-by-day competition is becoming tougher in imprecise environments. For instance, customer demand is often being affected by several varying factors like production price, income level, and the like. In these cases, the demand either remains unfulfilled or is difficult to obtain with certainty in the real-world market. Fuzzy sets are not always able to directly depict such uncertainties because they exhibit numeric only membership ...


A Transformative Concept: From Data Being Passive Objects To Data Being Active Subjects, Hans-Peter Plag, Shelley-Ann Jules-Plag Dec 2019

A Transformative Concept: From Data Being Passive Objects To Data Being Active Subjects, Hans-Peter Plag, Shelley-Ann Jules-Plag

OEAS Faculty Publications

The exploitation of potential societal benefits of Earth observations is hampered by users having to engage in often tedious processes to discover data and extract information and knowledge. A concept is introduced for a transition from the current perception of data as passive objects (DPO) to a new perception of data as active subjects (DAS). This transition would greatly increase data usage and exploitation, and support the extraction of knowledge from data products. Enabling the data subjects to actively reach out to potential users would revolutionize data dissemination and sharing and facilitate collaboration in user communities. The three core elements ...


Using Visual Media To Empower Citizen Scientists: A Case Study Of The Outsmart App, Megan E. Kierstead Oct 2019

Using Visual Media To Empower Citizen Scientists: A Case Study Of The Outsmart App, Megan E. Kierstead

Masters Theses

To be successful citizen science projects need to do two key things: (1) they need to meaningfully engage the public and they must also provide people with the tools, expertise, and/or training needed to participate in rigorous research that can be used by the scientific community. In some ways, these requirements are potentially at odds. Emphasis on rigor and expertise risks excluding members of the public who do not feel qualified to participate in esoteric or technically difficult scientific research. Conversely, projects that eschew rigorous methods in favor of wider participation might lead to bad data that cannot be ...


9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Iamhappy: Towards An Iot Knowledge-Based Cross-Domain Well-Being Recommendation System For Everyday Happiness, Amelia Gyrard, Amit Sheth Jul 2019

Iamhappy: Towards An Iot Knowledge-Based Cross-Domain Well-Being Recommendation System For Everyday Happiness, Amelia Gyrard, Amit Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

Nowadays, healthy lifestyle, fitness, and diet habits have become central applications in our daily life. Positive psychology such as well-being and happiness is the ultimate dream of everyday people’s feelings (even without being aware of it). Wearable devices are being increasingly employed to support well-being and fitness. Those devices produce physiological signals that are analyzed by machines to understand emotions and physical state. The Internetof Things (IoT) technology connects (wearable) devices to the Internet to easily access and process data, even using Web technologies (aka Web of Things).

We design IAMHAPPY, an innovative IoT-based well-being recommendation system to encourage ...


The Challenges Of Digital Legacy Management On The Value Of Digital Objects To Older Australians, Derani Nathasha Dissanayake Jun 2019

The Challenges Of Digital Legacy Management On The Value Of Digital Objects To Older Australians, Derani Nathasha Dissanayake

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

People spend a considerable amount of time and money in collecting digital objects. Nine out of ten Australians have a social media account but 83% of them have not discussed with their family members what should happen to their social media accounts when they die (Steen, D’Alessandro, Graves, Perkins, Genders, Barbera, Shi, McGrath & Davis, 2017). Only 3% of Australians who had a Will included social media accounts in their Wills. People collect digital objects yet little attention is paid to their preservation. 71% of Australians are unaware of what happens to their digital assets when they die (Ibid, 2017 ...


Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller May 2019

Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Autonomous vehicle manufacturers, people inside an autonomous vehicle (occupants), and people outside the vehicle (non-occupants) are among the distinct stakeholders when addressing ethical issues inherent in systems that include autonomous vehicles. As responses to recent tragic cases illustrate, advocates for autonomous vehicles tend to focus on occupant safety, sometimes to the exclusion of non-occupant safety. Thus, we aim to examine ethical issues associated with non-occupant safety, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and riders of motorized scooters. We also explore the ethical implications of technical and policy ideas that some might propose to improve non-occupant safety. In addition, if safety (writ large ...


Difference Between Algorithmic Processing And The Process Of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt), Domenico Schneider May 2019

Difference Between Algorithmic Processing And The Process Of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt), Domenico Schneider

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The following article compares the temporality of the life-world with the digital processing. The temporality of the life-world is determined to be stretched and spontaneous. The temporality of the digital is given by discrete step-by-step points of time. Most ethical issues can be traced back to a mismatch of these two ways of processing. This creates a foundation for the ethics of the digital processing. Methodologically, phenomenological considerations are merged with media-philosophical considerations in the article.


Rethinking Algorithmic Bias Through Phenomenology And Pragmatism, Johnathan C. Flowers May 2019

Rethinking Algorithmic Bias Through Phenomenology And Pragmatism, Johnathan C. Flowers

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

In 2017, Amazon discontinued an attempt at developing a hiring algorithm which would enable the company to streamline its hiring processes due to apparent gender discrimination. Specifically, the algorithm, trained on over a decade’s worth of resumes submitted to Amazon, learned to penalize applications that contained references to women, that indicated graduation from all women’s colleges, or otherwise indicated that an applicant was not male. Amazon’s algorithm took up the history of Amazon’s applicant pool and integrated it into its present “problematic situation,” for the purposes of future action. Consequently, Amazon declared the project a failure ...


The Right To Human Intervention: Law, Ethics And Artificial Intelligence, Maria Kanellopoulou - Botti, Fereniki Panagopoulou, Maria Nikita, Anastasia Michailaki May 2019

The Right To Human Intervention: Law, Ethics And Artificial Intelligence, Maria Kanellopoulou - Botti, Fereniki Panagopoulou, Maria Nikita, Anastasia Michailaki

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The paper analyses the new right of human intervention in use of information technology, automatization processes and advanced algorithms in individual decision-making activities. Art. 22 of the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides that the data subject has the right not to be subject to a fully automated decision on matters of legal importance to her interests, hence the data subject has a right to human intervention in this kind of decisions.


Shayna T. Blum: Design Research, Shayna Blum May 2019

Shayna T. Blum: Design Research, Shayna Blum

Shayna Blum

No abstract provided.


Teacher Perceptions Of Environmental Science In Rural Northwestern New Mexico Public Schools, Marie Quiahuitl Julienne May 2019

Teacher Perceptions Of Environmental Science In Rural Northwestern New Mexico Public Schools, Marie Quiahuitl Julienne

Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

In this study, I explored what teachers perceive as the factors that impact their teaching of environmental science in rural secondary level schools in northwestern New Mexico. I adapted Bronfenbrenner’s (1994) ecological systems model, based on four environmental subsystem levels (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem), as the conceptual framework to address the major research question of this study, and developed 18 interview questions to explore teachers’ perceptions of factors that influence their teaching of environmental science. I investigated the perspectives science teachers have about environmental science topics and the influences they perceive that affect how they teach environmental science ...


Every Data Point Counts: Political Elections In The Age Of Digital Analytics, Julian Kehle, Samir Naimi May 2019

Every Data Point Counts: Political Elections In The Age Of Digital Analytics, Julian Kehle, Samir Naimi

Honors Thesis

Synthesizing the investigative research and cautionary messages from experts in the fields of technology, political science, and behavioral science, this project explores the ways in which digital analytics has begun to influence the American political arena. Historically, political parties have constructed systems to target voters and win elections. However, rapid changes in the field of technology (such as big data, artificial intelligence, and the prevalence of social media) threaten to undermine the integrity of elections themselves. Future political campaigns will utilize profiling to micro-target individuals in order to manipulate and persuade them with hyper-personalized political content. Most dangerously, the average ...


What Can We Do? Puzzling Over The Interpretation Of Heredity And Variation From Galton To Genetic Engineering, Peter J. Taylor May 2019

What Can We Do? Puzzling Over The Interpretation Of Heredity And Variation From Galton To Genetic Engineering, Peter J. Taylor

Working Papers on Science in a Changing World

First six chapters of a book motivated as follows: When I had mentioned to colleagues that I was exploring some significant issues overlooked by both sides in nature-nurture debates, the typical response was “we know, of course, that nature and nurture are intertwined”; they never asked “which nature-nurture science are you referring to?” It occurred to me that, in the long history of nature-nurture debates, opposing sides had always assumed or implied that these different scientific approaches were speaking to the same issues. If that were the case, then the challenge—something I was already puzzling over—was how best ...


Ethical Problems With Plastic In The Ocean, Brennan Cotter May 2019

Ethical Problems With Plastic In The Ocean, Brennan Cotter

Senior Theses

In the year 2018 this paper argues that plastic use and waste is destroying our oceans and that we should address the problem by fully adopting the principle and practices of sustainability. The first section outlines the advent of our plastic disposable culture. The second section gives evidence of how plastic waste is negatively affecting marine life. The third section draws from literature in environmental philosophy to develop the concept of sustainability, and the concluding section outlines several steps we can take as individuals and nations to practice sustainability.


Empathi: An Ontology For Emergency Managing And Planning About Hazard Crisis, Manas Gaur, Kaeedeh Shekarpour, Amelia Gyrard, Amit P. Sheth Mar 2019

Empathi: An Ontology For Emergency Managing And Planning About Hazard Crisis, Manas Gaur, Kaeedeh Shekarpour, Amelia Gyrard, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

In the domain of emergency management during hazard crises, having sufficient situational awareness information is critical. It requires capturing and integrating information from sources such as satellite images, local sensors and social media content generated by local people.
A bold obstacle to capturing, representing and integrating such heterogeneous and diverse information is lack of a proper ontology which properly conceptualizes this domain, aggregates and unifies datasets. Thus, in this paper, we introduce empathi ontology which conceptualizes the core concepts describing the domain of emergency managing and planning of hazard crises.
Although empathi has a coarse-grained view, it considers the necessary ...


Towards Practical Privacy-Preserving Analytics For Iot And Cloud Based Healthcare Systems, Sagar Sharma, Keke Chen, Amit P. Sheth Mar 2019

Towards Practical Privacy-Preserving Analytics For Iot And Cloud Based Healthcare Systems, Sagar Sharma, Keke Chen, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Modern healthcare systems now rely on advanced computing methods and technologies, such as IoT devices and clouds, to collect and analyze personal health data at unprecedented scale and depth. Patients, doctors, healthcare providers, and researchers depend on analytical models derived from such data sources to remotely monitor patients, early-diagnose diseases, and find personalized treatments and medications. However, without appropriate privacy protection, conducting data analytics becomes a source of privacy nightmare. In this paper, we present the research challenges in developing practical privacy-preserving analytics in healthcare information systems. The study is based on kHealth - a personalized digital healthcare information system that ...


Question Answering For Suicide Risk Assessment Using Reddit, Amanuel Alambo, Usha Lokala, Ugur Kursuncu, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amelia Gyrard, Randon S. Welton, Jyotishman Pathak, Amit P. Sheth Mar 2019

Question Answering For Suicide Risk Assessment Using Reddit, Amanuel Alambo, Usha Lokala, Ugur Kursuncu, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amelia Gyrard, Randon S. Welton, Jyotishman Pathak, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Mental Health America designed ten questionnaires that are used to determine the risk of mental disorders. They are also commonly used by Mental Health Professionals (MHPs) to assess suicidality. Specifically, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), a widely used suicide assessment questionnaire, helps MHPs determine the severity of suicide risk and offer an appropriate treatment. A major challenge in suicide treatment is the social stigma wherein the patient feels reluctance in discussing his/her conditions with an MHP, which leads to inaccurate assessment and treatment of patients. On the other hand, the same patient is comfortable freely discussing his ...


Using Electronic Health Records To Characterize Prescription Patterns: Focus On Antidepressants In Nonpsychiatric Outpatient Settings, Joseph J. Deferio, Tomer T. Levin, Judith Cukor, Samprit Banerjee, Rozan Abdulrahman, Amit P. Sheth, Neel Mehta, Jyotishman Pathak Mar 2019

Using Electronic Health Records To Characterize Prescription Patterns: Focus On Antidepressants In Nonpsychiatric Outpatient Settings, Joseph J. Deferio, Tomer T. Levin, Judith Cukor, Samprit Banerjee, Rozan Abdulrahman, Amit P. Sheth, Neel Mehta, Jyotishman Pathak

Amit P. Sheth

Objective

To characterize nonpsychiatric prescription patterns of antidepressants according to drug labels and evidence assessments (on-label, evidence-based, and off-label) using structured outpatient electronic health record (EHR) data. Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted using deidentified EHR data from an outpatient practice at a New York City-based academic medical center. Structured “medication–diagnosis” pairs for antidepressants from 35 325 patients between January 2010 and December 2015 were compared to the latest drug product labels and evidence assessments. Results

Of 140 929 antidepressant prescriptions prescribed by primary care providers (PCPs) and nonpsychiatry specialists, 69% were characterized as “on-label/evidence-based uses.” Depression diagnoses ...


Iot-Enhanced Human Experience, Amit P. Sheth, Biplav Srivastava, Florian Michahelles Mar 2019

Iot-Enhanced Human Experience, Amit P. Sheth, Biplav Srivastava, Florian Michahelles

Amit P. Sheth

The two articles in this special section represent ongoing Internet of Things applications in the context of Europe trying to make solutions usable to people in daily times.


Augmented Personalized Health: Using Semantically Integrated Multimodal Data For Patient Empowered Health Management Strategies, Amit P. Sheth, Hong Y. Yip, Utkarshani Jaimini, Dipesh Kadariya, Vaikunth Sridharan, R. Venkataramanan, Tanvi Banerjee, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Maninder Kalra Mar 2019

Augmented Personalized Health: Using Semantically Integrated Multimodal Data For Patient Empowered Health Management Strategies, Amit P. Sheth, Hong Y. Yip, Utkarshani Jaimini, Dipesh Kadariya, Vaikunth Sridharan, R. Venkataramanan, Tanvi Banerjee, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Maninder Kalra

Amit P. Sheth

Healthcare as we know it is in the process of going through a massive change from:

1. Episodic to continuous

2. Disease-focused to wellness and quality of life focused

3. Clinic-centric to anywhere a patient is

4. Clinician controlled to patient empowered

5. Being driven by limited data to 360-degree, multimodal personal-public-population physical-cyber-social big data-driven URL: https://mhealth.md2k.org/2018-tech-showcase-home


Metrics For Evaluating Quality Of Embeddings For Ontological Concepts, Faisal Alshargi, Saeedeh Shekarpour, Tommaso Soru, Amit P. Sheth Mar 2019

Metrics For Evaluating Quality Of Embeddings For Ontological Concepts, Faisal Alshargi, Saeedeh Shekarpour, Tommaso Soru, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Although there is an emerging trend towards generating embeddings for primarily unstructured data and, recently, for structured data, no systematic suite for measuring the quality of embeddings has been proposed yet. This deficiency is further sensed with respect to embeddings generated for structured data because there are no concrete evaluation metrics measuring the quality of the encoded structure as well as semantic patterns in the embedding space. In this paper, we introduce a framework containing three distinct tasks concerned with the individual aspects of ontological concepts: (i) the categorization aspect, (ii) the hierarchical aspect, and (iii) the relational aspect. Then ...


Building Iot Based Applications For Smart Cities: How Can Ontology Catalogs Help?, Amelia Gyrard, Antoine Zimmermann, Amit P. Sheth Mar 2019

Building Iot Based Applications For Smart Cities: How Can Ontology Catalogs Help?, Amelia Gyrard, Antoine Zimmermann, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

The Internet of Things (IoT) plays an ever-increasing role in enabling smart city applications. An ontology-based semantic approach can help improve interoperability between a variety of IoT-generated as well as complementary data needed to drive these applications. While multiple ontology catalogs exist, using them for IoT and smart city applications require significant amount of work. In this paper, we demonstrate how can ontology catalogs be more effectively used to design and develop smart city applications? We consider four ontology catalogs that are relevant for IoT and smart cities: 1) READY4SmartCities; 2) linked open vocabulary (LOV); 3) OpenSensingCity (OSC); and 4 ...


Personalized Prediction Of Suicide Risk For Web-Based Intervention, Amanuel Alambo, Manas Gaur, Ugur Kursuncu, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Jeremiah Schumm, Jyotishman Pathak, Amit P. Sheth Mar 2019

Personalized Prediction Of Suicide Risk For Web-Based Intervention, Amanuel Alambo, Manas Gaur, Ugur Kursuncu, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Jeremiah Schumm, Jyotishman Pathak, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Across the United States, suicide is the second leading cause of death for people aged between 15 and 34, and younger people are more prone to mental health problems, suicidal thoughts, and behaviors. For instance, 80% of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder have suicide-related behaviors, and between 4-9% of them commit suicide. Moreover, the social stigma associated with mental health issues and suicide deter patients from sharing their experiences directly with others. In such a situation, social media that provides a free and open forum for voluntary expression can provide insights into suicide ideation and self-destructive behavior.

Reddit is a ...


"What's Ur Type?" Contextualized Classification Of User Types In Marijuana-Related Communications Using Compositional Multiview Embedding, Ugur Kursuncu, Manas Gaur, Usha Lokala, Anurag Illendula, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Raminta Daniulaityte, Amit P. Sheth, Budak Arpinar Mar 2019

"What's Ur Type?" Contextualized Classification Of User Types In Marijuana-Related Communications Using Compositional Multiview Embedding, Ugur Kursuncu, Manas Gaur, Usha Lokala, Anurag Illendula, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Raminta Daniulaityte, Amit P. Sheth, Budak Arpinar

Amit P. Sheth

With 93% of pro-marijuana population in US favoring legalization of medical marijuana, high expectations of a greater return for Marijuana stocks, and public actively sharing information about medical, recreational and business aspects related to marijuana, it is no surprise that marijuana culture is thriving on Twitter. After the legalization of marijuana for recreational and medical purposes in 29 states, there has been a dramatic increase in the volume of drug-related communication on Twitter. Specifically, Twitter accounts have been established for promotional and informational purposes, some prominent among them being American Ganja, Medical Marijuana Exchange, and Cannabis Now. Identification and characterization ...