Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Science and Technology Studies Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 90

Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Logical Linked Data Compression, Amit Krishna Joshi, Pascal Hitzler, Guozhu Dong Jan 2013

Logical Linked Data Compression, Amit Krishna Joshi, Pascal Hitzler, Guozhu Dong

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Linked data has experienced accelerated growth in recent years. With the continuing proliferation of structured data, demand for RDF compression is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we introduce a novel lossless compression technique for RDF datasets, called Rule Based Compression (RB Compression) that compresses datasets by generating a set of new logical rules from the dataset and removing triples that can be inferred from these rules. Unlike other compression techniques, our approach not only takes advantage of syntactic verbosity and data redundancy but also utilizes semantic associations present in the RDF graph. Depending on the nature of the dataset ...


Recent Advances In Integrating Owl And Rules, Matthias Knorr, David Carral Martinez, Pascal Hitzler, Adila A. Krisnadhi, Frederick Maier, Cong Wang Sep 2012

Recent Advances In Integrating Owl And Rules, Matthias Knorr, David Carral Martinez, Pascal Hitzler, Adila A. Krisnadhi, Frederick Maier, Cong Wang

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

As part of the quest for a unifying logic for the Semantic Web Technology Stack, a central issue is finding suitable ways of integrating description logics based on the Web Ontology Language (OWL) with rule-based approaches based on logic programming. Such integration is difficult since naive approaches typically result in the violation of one or more desirable design principles. For example, while both OWL 2 DL and RIF Core (a dialect of the Rule Interchange Format RIF) are decidable, their naive union is not, unless carefully chosen syntactic restrictions are applied.

We report on recent advances and ongoing work by ...


A Tableau Algorithm For Description Logics With Nominal Schema, Adila Krisnadhi, Pascal Hitzler Sep 2012

A Tableau Algorithm For Description Logics With Nominal Schema, Adila Krisnadhi, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

We present a tableau algorithm for the description logic ALCOV. This description logic is obtained by extending the description logic ALCO with the expressive nominal schema construct that enables DL-safe datalog with predicates of arbitrary arity to be covered within the description logic framework. The tableau algorithm provides a basis to implement a delayed grounding strategy which was not facilitated by earlier versions of decision procedures for satisfiability in expressive description logics with nominal schemas.


Reconciling Owl And Non-Monotonic Rules For The Semantic Web, Matthias Knorr, Pascal Hitzler, Frederick Maier Aug 2012

Reconciling Owl And Non-Monotonic Rules For The Semantic Web, Matthias Knorr, Pascal Hitzler, Frederick Maier

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

We propose a description logic extending SROIQ (the description logic underlying OWL 2 DL) and at the same time encompassing some of the most prominent monotonic and nonmonotonic rule languages, in particular Datalog extended with the answer set semantics. Our proposal could be considered a substantial contribution towards fulfilling the quest for a unifying logic for the Semantic Web. As a case in point, two non-monotonic extensions of description logics considered to be of distinct expressiveness until now are covered in our proposal. In contrast to earlier such proposals, our language has the 'look and feel' of a description logic ...


Integrating Owl And Rules: A Syntax Proposal For Nominal Schemas, David Carral Martinez, Adila Krisnadhi, Pascal Hitzler May 2012

Integrating Owl And Rules: A Syntax Proposal For Nominal Schemas, David Carral Martinez, Adila Krisnadhi, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper proposes an addition to OWL 2 syntax to incorporate nominal schemas, which is a new description-logic style extension of OWL 2 which was recently proposed, and which makes is possible to express "variable nominal classes" within axioms in an OWL 2 ontology. Nominal schemas make it possible to express DL-safe rules of arbitrary arity within the extended OWL paradigm, hence covering the well-known DL-safe SWRL language. To express this feature, we extend OWL 2 syntax to include necessary and minimal modifications to both Functional and Manchester syntax grammars and mappings from these two syntaxes to Turtle/RDF. We ...


Extending Description Logic Rules, David Carral Martinez, Pascal Hitzler May 2012

Extending Description Logic Rules, David Carral Martinez, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Description Logics – the logics underpinning the Web Ontology Language OWL – and rules are currently the most prominent paradigms used for modeling knowledge for the Semantic Web. While both of these approaches are based on classical logic, the paradigms also differ significantly, so that naive combinations result in undesirable properties such as undecidability. Recent work has shown that many rules can in fact be expressed in OWL. In this paper we extend this work to include some types of rules previously excluded. We formally define a set of first order logic rules, C-Rules, which can be expressed within OWL extended with ...


Cognitive Approaches For The Semantic Web, Dedre Gentner, Frank Van Harmelen, Pascal Hitzler, Krzysztof Janowicz, Kai-Uwe Kuhnberger Jan 2012

Cognitive Approaches For The Semantic Web, Dedre Gentner, Frank Van Harmelen, Pascal Hitzler, Krzysztof Janowicz, Kai-Uwe Kuhnberger

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

A major focus in the design of Semantic Web ontology languages used to be on finding a suitable balance between the expressivity of the language and the tractability of reasoning services defined over this language. This focus mirrors the original vision of a Web composed of machine readable and understandable data. Similarly to the classical Web a few years ago, the attention is recently shifting towards a user-centric vision of the Semantic Web. Essentially, the information stored on the Web is from and for humans. This new focus is not only reflected in the fast growing Linked Data Web but ...


Open And Transparent: The Review Process Of The Semantic Web Journal, Krzysztof Janowicz, Pascal Hitzler Jan 2012

Open And Transparent: The Review Process Of The Semantic Web Journal, Krzysztof Janowicz, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

While open access is established in the world of academic publishing, open reviews are rare. The Semantic Web journal goes further than just open review by implementing an open and transparent review process in which reviews are publicly available, and the assigned editors and reviewers are known by name, and are published together with accepted manuscripts. In this article we introduce the steps to realize such a process from the conceptual design, over the implementation, a overview of the results so far, and up to lessons learned.


Key Ingredients For Your Next Semantics Elevator Talk, Krzysztof Janowicz, Pascal Hitzler Jan 2012

Key Ingredients For Your Next Semantics Elevator Talk, Krzysztof Janowicz, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

2012 brought a major change to the semantics research community. Discussions on the use and benefits of semantic technologies are shifting away from the why to the how. Surprisingly this more in stakeholder interest is not accompanied by a more detailed understanding of what semantics research is about. Instead of blaming others for their (wrong) expectations, we need to learn how to emphasize the paradigm shift proposed by semantics research while abstracting from technical details and advocate the added value in a way that relates to the immediate needs of individual stakeholders without overselling. This paper highlights some of the ...


Computing Inconsistency Measure Based On Paraconsistent Semantics, Pascal Hitzler, Yue Ma, Guilin Qi Dec 2011

Computing Inconsistency Measure Based On Paraconsistent Semantics, Pascal Hitzler, Yue Ma, Guilin Qi

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Measuring inconsistency in knowledge bases has been recognized as an important problem in several research areas. Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem and a main class of them is based on some kind of paraconsistent semantics. However, existing methods suffer from two limitations: (i) they are mostly restricted to propositional knowledge bases; (ii) very few of them discuss computational aspects of computing inconsistency measures. In this article, we try to solve these two limitations by exploring algorithms for computing an inconsistency measure of first-order knowledge bases. After introducing a four-valued semantics for first-order logic, we define an ...


Local Closed World Semantics: Keep It Simple, Stupid!, Adila Krishnadhi, Kunal Sengupta, Pascal Hitzler Jul 2011

Local Closed World Semantics: Keep It Simple, Stupid!, Adila Krishnadhi, Kunal Sengupta, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

A combination of open and closed-world reasoning (usually called local closed world reasoning) is a desirable capability of knowledge representation formalisms for Semantic Web applications. However, none of the proposals made to date for extending description logics with local closed world capabilities has had any significant impact on applications. We believe that one of the key reasons for this is that current proposals fail to provide approaches which are intuitively accessible for application developers at the same time are applicable, as extensions, to expressive description logics as SROIQ, which underlies the Web Ontology Language OWL.

In this paper, we propose ...


Local Closed-World Reasoning With Description Logics Under The Well-Founded Semantics, Matthias Knorr, Jose Julio Alferes, Pascal Hitzler Jun 2011

Local Closed-World Reasoning With Description Logics Under The Well-Founded Semantics, Matthias Knorr, Jose Julio Alferes, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

An important question for the upcoming Semantic Web is how to best combine open world ontology languages, such as the OWL-based ones, with closed world rule-based languages. One of the most mature proposals for this combination is known as hybrid MKNF knowledge bases (Motik and Rosati, 2010 [52]), and it is based on an adaptation of the Stable Model Semantics to knowledge bases consisting of ontology axioms and rules. In this paper we propose a well-founded semantics for nondisjunctive hybrid MKNF knowledge bases that promises to provide better efficiency of reasoning, and that is compatible with both the OWL-based semantics ...


What's Happening In Semantic Web ... And What Fca Could Have To Do With It, Pascal Hitzler May 2011

What's Happening In Semantic Web ... And What Fca Could Have To Do With It, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The Semantic Web is gaining momentum. Driven by over 10 years of focused project funding in the US and the EU, Semantic Web Technologies are now entering application areas in industry, academia, government, and the open Web.

The Semantic Web is based on the idea of describing the meaning - or semantics - of data on the Web using metadata - data that describes other data - in the form of ontologies, which are represented using logic-based knowledge representation languages. Central to the transfer of Semantic Web into practice is the Linked Open Data effort, which has already resulted in the publication, on the ...


Reconciling Owl And Rules, David Carral Martinez, Adila A. Krisnadhi, Frederick Maier, Kunal Sengupta, Pascal Hitzler Jan 2011

Reconciling Owl And Rules, David Carral Martinez, Adila A. Krisnadhi, Frederick Maier, Kunal Sengupta, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

We report on a recent advance in integrating Rules and OWL. We discuss a recent proposal, known as nominal schemas, which realizes a seamless integration of Datalog rules into the description logic SROIQ which underlies OWL 2 DL. We present extensions of the standardized OWL syntaxes to incorporate nominal schemas, reasoning algorithms, and a first naive implementation. And we argue why this approach goes a long way towards overcoming the present paradigm split.


10302 Summary - Learning Paradigms In Dynamic Environments, Barbara Hammer, Pascal Hitzler Jul 2010

10302 Summary - Learning Paradigms In Dynamic Environments, Barbara Hammer, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The seminar centered around problems which arise in the context of machine learning in dynamic environments. Particular emphasis was put on a couple of specific questions in this context: how to represent and abstract knowledge appropriately to shape the problem of learning in a partially unknown and complex environment and how to combine statistical inference and abstract symbolic representations; how to infer from few data and how to deal with non i.i.d. data, model revision and life-long learning; how to come up with efficient strategies to control realistic environments for which exploration is costly, the dimensionality is high ...


Distance-Based Measures Of Inconsistency And Incoherency For Description Logics, Yue Ma, Pascal Hitzler May 2010

Distance-Based Measures Of Inconsistency And Incoherency For Description Logics, Yue Ma, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Inconsistency and incoherency are two sorts of erroneous information in a DL ontology which have been widely discussed in ontology-based applications. For example, they have been used to detect modeling errors during ontology construction. To provide more informative metrics which can tell the differences between inconsistent ontologies and between incoherent terminologies, there has been some work on measuring inconsistency of an ontology and on measuring incoherency of a terminology. However, most of them merely focus either on measuring inconsistency or on measuring incoherency and no clear ideas of how to extend them to allow for the other. In this paper ...


Nominal Schemas For Integrating Rules And Ontologies, Frederick Maier, Adila A. Krisnadhi, Pascal Hitzler Jan 2010

Nominal Schemas For Integrating Rules And Ontologies, Frederick Maier, Adila A. Krisnadhi, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

We propose a description-logic style extension of OWL DL, which includes DL-safe variable SWRL and seamlessly integrates datalog rules. Our language also sports a tractable fragment, which we call ELP 2, covering OWL EL, OWL RL, most of OWL QL, and variable restricted datalog.


A Reasonable Semantic Web, Pascal Hitzler, Frank Van Harmelen Jan 2010

A Reasonable Semantic Web, Pascal Hitzler, Frank Van Harmelen

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The realization of Semantic Web reasoning is central to substantiating the Semantic Web vision. However, current mainstream research on this topic faces serious challenges, which forces us to question established lines of research and to rethink the underlying approaches. We argue that reasoning for the Semantic Web should be understood as "shared inference," which is not necessarily based on deductive methods. Model-theoretic semantics (and sound and complete reasoning based on it) functions as a gold standard, but applications dealing with large-scale and noisy data usually cannot afford the required runtimes. Approximate methods, including deductive ones, but also approaches based on ...


Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, Pascal Hitzler, Krzysztof Janowicz Jan 2010

Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, Pascal Hitzler, Krzysztof Janowicz

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Approximate Instance Retrieval On Ontologies, Tuvshintur Tserendorj, Stephan Grimm, Pascal Hitzler Jan 2010

Approximate Instance Retrieval On Ontologies, Tuvshintur Tserendorj, Stephan Grimm, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

With the development of more expressive description logics (DLs) for the Web Ontology Language OWL the question arises how we can properly deal with the high computational complexity for efficient reasoning. In application cases that require scalable reasoning with expressive ontologies, non-standard reasoning solutions such as approximate reasoning are necessary to tackle the intractability of reasoning in expressive DLs. In this paper, we are concerned with the approximation of the reasoning task of instance retrieval on DL knowledge bases, trading correctness of retrieval results for gain of speed. We introduce our notion of an approximate concept extension and we provide ...


Towards Reasoning Pragmatics, Pascal Hitzler Dec 2009

Towards Reasoning Pragmatics, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The realization of Semantic Web reasoning is central to substantiating the Semantic Web vision. However, current mainstream research on this topic faces serious challenges, which force us to question established lines of research and to rethink the underlying approaches.


An Anytime Algorithm For Computing Inconsistency Measurement, Yue Ma, Guilin Qi, Guohui Xiao, Pascal Hitzler, Zuoquan Lin Nov 2009

An Anytime Algorithm For Computing Inconsistency Measurement, Yue Ma, Guilin Qi, Guohui Xiao, Pascal Hitzler, Zuoquan Lin

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Measuring inconsistency degrees of inconsistent knowledge bases is an important problem as it provides context information for facilitating inconsistency handling. Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem and a main class of them is based on some kind of paraconsistent semantics. In this paper, we consider the computational aspects of inconsistency degrees of propositional knowledge bases under 4-valued semantics. We first analyze its computational complexity. As it turns out that computing the exact inconsistency degree is intractable, we then propose an anytime algorithm that provides tractable approximation of the inconsistency degree from above and below. We show that ...


Paraconsistent Reasoning For Owl 2, Yue Ma, Pascal Hitzler Oct 2009

Paraconsistent Reasoning For Owl 2, Yue Ma, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

A four-valued description logic has been proposed to reason with description logic based inconsistent knowledge bases. This approach has a distinct advantage that it can be implemented by invoking classical reasoners to keep the same complexity as under the classical semantics. However, this approach has so far only been studied for the basid description logic ALC. In this paper, we further study how to extend the four-valued semantics to the more expressive description logic SROIQ which underlies the forthcoming revision of the Web Ontology Language, OWL 2, and also investigate how it fares when adapated to tractable description logics including ...


Suggestions For Owl 3, Pascal Hitzler Oct 2009

Suggestions For Owl 3, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

With OWL 2 about to be completed, it is the right time to start discussions on possible future modifications of OWL. We present here a number of suggestions in order to discuss them with the OWL user community. They encompass expressive extensions on polynomial OWL 2 profiles, a suggestion for an OWL Rules language, and expressive extensions for OWL DL.


A Preferential Tableaux Calculus For Circumscriptive Alco, Stephan Grimm, Pascal Hitzler Oct 2009

A Preferential Tableaux Calculus For Circumscriptive Alco, Stephan Grimm, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Nonmonotonic extensions of description logics (DLs) allow for default and local closed-world reasoning and are an acknowledged desired feature for applications, e.g. in the Semantic Web. A recent approach to such an extension is based on McCarthy's circumscription, which rests on the principle of minimising the extension of selected predicates to close off dedicated parts of a domain model. While decidability and complexity results have been established in the literature, no practical algorithmisation for circumscriptive DLs has been proposed so far. In this paper, we present a tableaux calculus that can be used as a decision procedure for ...


Ontologies And Rules, Pascal Hitzler, Bijan Parsia Jan 2009

Ontologies And Rules, Pascal Hitzler, Bijan Parsia

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Ontologies and rules are two established paradigms in knowledge modelling, and play an important role for the Semantic Web. In this chapter, we present an introduction to common approaches for combining OWL ontologies and rules. In particular, we cover the Semantic Web Rules Language SWRL and Description Logic Programs DLP, and give pointers to the literature.


Connectionist Model Generation: A First-Order Approach, Sebastian Bader, Pascal Hitzler, Steffen Holldobler Aug 2008

Connectionist Model Generation: A First-Order Approach, Sebastian Bader, Pascal Hitzler, Steffen Holldobler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Knowledge-based artificial neural networks have been applied quite successfully to propositional knowledge representation and reasoning tasks. However, as soon as these tasks are extended to structured objects and structure-sensitive processes as expressed e.g., by means of first-order predicate logic, it is not obvious at all what neural-symbolic systems would look like such that they are truly connectionist, are able to learn, and allow for a declarative reading and logical reasoning at the same time. The core method aims at such an integration. It is a method for connectionist model generation using recurrent networks with feed-forward core. We show in ...


Description Logic Rules, Markus Krotzsch, Sebastian Rudolph, Pascal Hitzler Jul 2008

Description Logic Rules, Markus Krotzsch, Sebastian Rudolph, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

We introduce description logic (DL) rules as a new rule-based formalism for knowledge representation in DLs. As a fragment of the Semantic Web Rule Language SWRL, DL rules allow for a tight integration with DL knowledge bases. In contrast to SWRL, however, the combination of DL rules with expressive description logics remains decidable, and we show that the DL SROIQ – the basis for the ongoing standardisation of OWL 2 – can completely internalise DL rules. On the other hand, DL rules capture many expressive features of SROIQ that are not available in simpler DLs yet. While reasoning in SROIQ is highly ...


A Forgetting-Based Approach For Reasoning With Inconsistent Distributed Ontologies, Guilin Qi, Yimin Wang, Peter Haase, Pascal Hitzler Jun 2008

A Forgetting-Based Approach For Reasoning With Inconsistent Distributed Ontologies, Guilin Qi, Yimin Wang, Peter Haase, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

In the context of multiple distributed ontologies, we are often confronted with the problem of dealing with inconsistency. In this paper, we propose an approach for reasoning with inconsistent distributed ontologies based on concept forgetting. We firstly define concept forgetting in description logics. We then adapt the notions of recoveries and preferred recoveries in propositional logic to description logics. Two consequence relations are then defined based on the preferred recoveries.


Defeasible Inference With Circumscriptive Owl Ontologies, Stephan Grimm, Pascal Hitzler Jun 2008

Defeasible Inference With Circumscriptive Owl Ontologies, Stephan Grimm, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) adheres to the openworld assumption and can thus not be used for forms of nonmonotonic reasoning or defeasible inference, an acknowledged desirable feature in open Semantic Web environments. We investigate the use of the formalism of circumscriptive description logics (DLs) to realise defeasible inference within the OWL framework. By example, we demonstrate how reasoning with (restricted) circumscribed OWL ontologies facilitates various forms of defeasible inference, also in comparison to alternative approaches. Moreover, we sketch an extension to DL tableaux for handling the circumscriptive case and report on a preliminary implementation.