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2018

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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

A Moratorium On The Presentation Of Dna Evidence, Declan Riley Kunkel Dec 2018

A Moratorium On The Presentation Of Dna Evidence, Declan Riley Kunkel

International Social Science Review

In recent decades, DNA evidence has become something of a pop-culture phenomenon. All too often, DNA evidence is shown as irrefutable fact, a scientific fingerprint that allows for a black-and-white determination of guilt or innocence. Unfortunately, such depictions are inaccurate and dangerous. This paper attempts to address this danger by calling for a temporary moratorium on the presentation of DNA evidence at trial, implemented until federal standards are put in place to regulate the presentation of DNA evidence, and until robust studies indicate the prevalence of DNA transfer.This paper will demonstrate that DNA analysis schemes are dangerously flawed and ...


The Evolution Of Computational Propaganda: Trends, Threats, And Implications Now And In The Future, Holly Schnader Dec 2018

The Evolution Of Computational Propaganda: Trends, Threats, And Implications Now And In The Future, Holly Schnader

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Computational propaganda involves the use of selected narratives, social networks, and complex algorithms in order to develop and conduct influence operations (Woolley and Howard, 2017). In recent years the use of computational propaganda as an arm of cyberwarfare has increased in frequency. I aim to explore this topic to further understand the underlying forces behind the implementation of this tactic and then conduct a futures analysis to best determine how this topic will change over time. Additionally, I hope to gain insights on the implications of the current and potential future trends that computational propaganda has.

My preliminary assessment shows ...


Research Data Sharing: Practices And Attitudes Of Geophysicists, Carol Tenopir, Lisa Christian, Suzie Allard, Josh Borycz Dec 2018

Research Data Sharing: Practices And Attitudes Of Geophysicists, Carol Tenopir, Lisa Christian, Suzie Allard, Josh Borycz

DataONE Sociocultural and Usability & Assessment Working Groups

Open data policies have been introduced by governments, funders, and publishers over the past decade. Previous research showed a growing recognition by scientists of the benefits of data-sharing and reuse, but actual practices lag and are not always compliant with new regulations. The goal of this study is to investigate motives, attitudes, and data practices of the community of Earth and planetary geophysicists, a discipline believed to have accepting attitudes toward data sharing and reuse. A better understanding of the attitudes and current data-sharing practices of this scientific community could enable funders, publishers, data managers, and librarians to design systems ...


Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R. Dec 2018

Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The present study is focused on examining the application of Bradford’s law of scattering on research articles published in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics by Indian scientist during 1988-2017. The bibliographic data was retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) bibliographic data base for different period of time. Total 18,877 journal’s article have been published by Indian scientist in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics during 1988-2017 which was further retrieved and analyzed separately for different blocks of 10 years as well as for 30 years consolidated too. The core journal of the field was identified. The Bradford law ...


Research Incentive Programs For Closures Of Public And Private Grade Crossings, Julius Codjoe Dec 2018

Research Incentive Programs For Closures Of Public And Private Grade Crossings, Julius Codjoe

Publications

Vehicle-train crashes that occur at highway-rail crossings result in injuries, fatalities, and damage to equipment. In order to reduce the number of vehicle-train crashes, Federal Railroad Administration requires states which have challenges with crossing safety, including Louisiana, to develop a State Action Plan to improve grade crossing safety. Consequently, identification of specific solutions for improving safety at crossings was included in the 2015 Louisiana Transportation Plan as one of its objectives. This study seeks to identify and evaluate current and new incentive programs that encourage closure of at-grade railroad crossings to reduce the number of potential vehicle-train collision points, and ...


Identity Theft: Is The U.S. Really Safe In The Police's Hands?, Hoang Vo Dec 2018

Identity Theft: Is The U.S. Really Safe In The Police's Hands?, Hoang Vo

Student Scholarship & Creative Works By Year

The ever-growing popularity of the Internet in recent years has been conducive to the development of cybercrimes. Not only have new types of cybercrimes emerged, but traditional crimes, including identity theft, have also become more complex with the assistance of new technologies. The US, as a financial and technical powerhouse, has been a primary target of this new form of identity theft. According to Javelin Strategy and Research (2018), in 2017 alone, 16.7 million people in the US were victims of identity theft, with an aggravated loss of more than $16.8 billion.

To counter the growing threat of ...


Crude Oil Prices Forecasting: Time Series Vs. Svr Models, Xin James He Dec 2018

Crude Oil Prices Forecasting: Time Series Vs. Svr Models, Xin James He

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

This research explores the weekly crude oil price data from U.S. Energy Information Administration over the time period 2009 - 2017 to test the forecasting accuracy by comparing time series models such as simple exponential smoothing (SES), moving average (MA), and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) against machine learning support vector regression (SVR) models. The main purpose of this research is to determine which model provides the best forecasting results for crude oil prices in light of the importance of crude oil price forecasting and its implications to the economy. While SVR is often considered the best forecasting model in ...


The Relationship Between Organizational Resources And Green It/S Adoption: A Rbv Approach, Lutfus Sayeed, Alberto Onetti Dec 2018

The Relationship Between Organizational Resources And Green It/S Adoption: A Rbv Approach, Lutfus Sayeed, Alberto Onetti

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to empirically explore the impact of the implementation of Green IT/S measures on organizational resources in the US and European firms. The study examined the influence of reconfiguration of resources within a firm while adopting various Green IT/S practices and technologies. Green IT/S implementation requires resource commitment from organizations (Bose and Luo, 2011). What are these resources and how do they affect the extent of Green IT/S measures adopted by businesses? Resource Based View (RBV) of the firm was used as the theoretical framework of the study. The ...


How It Awareness Impacts It Control Weaknesses And Firm Performance, Peiqin Zhang, Ju Long, James Ma Dec 2018

How It Awareness Impacts It Control Weaknesses And Firm Performance, Peiqin Zhang, Ju Long, James Ma

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

With the prevalence of information technology (IT), the value of IT awareness increasingly grows, and IT control becomes a key part of firms’ strategies and objectives. Although leadership plays an important role in IT control governance, limited research has studied whether IT awareness is associated with IT control weaknesses (ITCWs) and firm performance simultaneously. Drawing on the agency and resource dependence theory, this paper proposes an integrative model to examine the impact of IT awareness on ITCWs and firm performance. We empirically validate the model using a data set of 310 firms collected from multiple sources including Audit Analytics, Compustat ...


Table Of Contents Jitim Vol 27 Issue 3, 2018 Dec 2018

Table Of Contents Jitim Vol 27 Issue 3, 2018

Journal of International Technology and Information Management

Table of Contents


A Story Of Data Won, Data Lost And Data Re-Found: The Realities Of Ecological Data Preservation, Alison Specht Nov 2018

A Story Of Data Won, Data Lost And Data Re-Found: The Realities Of Ecological Data Preservation, Alison Specht

DataONE Sociocultural and Usability & Assessment Working Groups

This paper discusses the process of retrieval and updating legacy data to allow on-line discovery and delivery. There are many pitfalls of institutional and non-institutional ecological data conservation over the long term. Interruptions to custodianship, old media, lost knowledge and the continuous evolution of species names makes resurrection of old data challenging. We caution against technological arrogance and emphasise the importance of international standards.

We use a case study of a compiled set of continent-wide vegetation survey data for which, although the analyses had been published, the raw data had not. In the original study, publications containing plot data collected ...


Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 4: National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (Ngia), National Intelligence University (Niu), And National Reconnaissance Office (Nro), Bert Chapman Nov 2018

Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 4: National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (Ngia), National Intelligence University (Niu), And National Reconnaissance Office (Nro), Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Webinar presentation on publicly accessible information resources produced by the U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGIA), National Intelligence University (NIU), and National Reconnaissance Office. Places significant emphasis on missions of these agencies, their historical accomplishments, coverage of their educational activity, and information on the technologies they have used and are currently using to fulfill their institutional objectives.


Response To Technology Advancement In Maritime Education And Training: A Case Study Of The South African National Maritime Institutes, Lihle Amanda Ngcobo Nov 2018

Response To Technology Advancement In Maritime Education And Training: A Case Study Of The South African National Maritime Institutes, Lihle Amanda Ngcobo

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Experimental Examination On Techniques To Mitigate The Spread Of Misinformation On Social Media Networks, Thomas Hayes Nov 2018

An Experimental Examination On Techniques To Mitigate The Spread Of Misinformation On Social Media Networks, Thomas Hayes

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Emerging research has focused on finding ways to control the spread of misinformation on SMNs. SMNs have become increasingly weaponized for individual and societal harm. For example, the United States Intelligence Community (USIC) recently released a joint statement with the Department of Homeland Security implicating the Russian government in using major social media networks (SMNs) to influence the 2016 Presidential election with "information warfare" (Clark, 2018). This study focuses on examining SMN features that can potentially reduce the spread of misinformation. Through an experimental survey approach, this study measures the effectiveness of SMN features in influencing misperceptions of SMN users ...


New Cultures Of Care? The Spatio-Temporal Modalities Of Home-Based Smart Eldercare Technologies In Singapore, Orlando Woods, Lily Kong Nov 2018

New Cultures Of Care? The Spatio-Temporal Modalities Of Home-Based Smart Eldercare Technologies In Singapore, Orlando Woods, Lily Kong

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Increasingly, technology-enabled strategies of eldercare are being developed and deployed to minimize the socio-economic costs of ageing. As part of this shift, home-based ‘smart’ technologies have been embraced as a way of enabling ageing-in-place. Smart technologies flatten space and time, and can increase the reach of caregivers. In this sense, they foreground the emergence of new cultures of care. Through an empirical focus on the triallists of smart eldercare technologies living in a public housing estate in Singapore, this paper considers the ways in which new cultures of care are being formed and negotiated in response to the encroachment of ...


A Mixed Method Study Of Prospective Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs And Web Evaluation Strategies Concerning Hoax Websites, Jennifer Coccaro-Pons Oct 2018

A Mixed Method Study Of Prospective Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs And Web Evaluation Strategies Concerning Hoax Websites, Jennifer Coccaro-Pons

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers need to be equipped with the tools necessary to evaluate content on the Internet and determine if it is a credible source, or a hoax website since they are expected to instruct and prepare students on how to evaluate the sites which is now a relevant phenomenon. The purpose of the mixed‑method study was to obtain an understanding of the web evaluation strategies of prospective teachers regarding the evaluation of hoax websites and how their epistemic beliefs may influence their evaluation. Another aspect of this study was to find out what outcomes resulted from providing guidance, or not ...


Poster: Privacy-Preserving Boosting With Random Linear Classifiers, Sagar Sharma, Keke Chen Oct 2018

Poster: Privacy-Preserving Boosting With Random Linear Classifiers, Sagar Sharma, Keke Chen

Kno.e.sis Publications

We propose SecureBoost, a privacy-preserving predictive modeling framework, that allows service providers (SPs) to build powerful boosting models over encrypted or randomly masked user submit- ted data. SecureBoost uses random linear classifiers (RLCs) as the base classifiers. A Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) manages keys and assists the SP’s processing to reduce the complexity of the protocol constructions. The SP learns only the base models (i.e., RLCs) and the CSP learns only the weights of the base models and a limited leakage function. This separated parameter holding avoids any party from abusing the final model or conducting model-based attacks ...


Building Iot Based Applications For Smart Cities: How Can Ontology Catalogs Help?, Amelia Gyrard, Antoine Zimmermann, Amit P. Sheth Oct 2018

Building Iot Based Applications For Smart Cities: How Can Ontology Catalogs Help?, Amelia Gyrard, Antoine Zimmermann, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

The Internet of Things (IoT) plays an ever-increasing role in enabling smart city applications. An ontology-based semantic approach can help improve interoperability between a variety of IoT-generated as well as complementary data needed to drive these applications. While multiple ontology catalogs exist, using them for IoT and smart city applications require significant amount of work. In this paper, we demonstrate how can ontology catalogs be more effectively used to design and develop smart city applications? We consider four ontology catalogs that are relevant for IoT and smart cities: 1) READY4SmartCities; 2) linked open vocabulary (LOV); 3) OpenSensingCity (OSC); and 4 ...


Using Electronic Health Records To Characterize Prescription Patterns: Focus On Antidepressants In Nonpsychiatric Outpatient Settings, Joseph J. Deferio, Tomer T. Levin, Judith Cukor, Samprit Banerjee, Rozan Abdulrahman, Amit P. Sheth, Neel Mehta, Jyotishman Pathak Oct 2018

Using Electronic Health Records To Characterize Prescription Patterns: Focus On Antidepressants In Nonpsychiatric Outpatient Settings, Joseph J. Deferio, Tomer T. Levin, Judith Cukor, Samprit Banerjee, Rozan Abdulrahman, Amit P. Sheth, Neel Mehta, Jyotishman Pathak

Kno.e.sis Publications

Objective

To characterize nonpsychiatric prescription patterns of antidepressants according to drug labels and evidence assessments (on-label, evidence-based, and off-label) using structured outpatient electronic health record (EHR) data. Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted using deidentified EHR data from an outpatient practice at a New York City-based academic medical center. Structured “medication–diagnosis” pairs for antidepressants from 35 325 patients between January 2010 and December 2015 were compared to the latest drug product labels and evidence assessments. Results

Of 140 929 antidepressant prescriptions prescribed by primary care providers (PCPs) and nonpsychiatry specialists, 69% were characterized as “on-label/evidence-based uses.” Depression diagnoses ...


Power Of The Community Of Scholars, Olga Koz Sep 2018

Power Of The Community Of Scholars, Olga Koz

Olga Koz

The primary purpose of this presentation is to use a scholarly reflection approach to share what we (researchers and the librarian who formed the Bagwell College of Education Research Consortium) have learnt about communication between researchers within the community of practice (CoP).
It seems that most academic librarians are concerned mainly with formal channels of scholarly communication by offering alternative publishing, creating institutional repositories, advocating for open access policies, curating open resources and so on. Less attention is placed on the informal channels of communication: supporting the whole research life-cycle, collaboration in research; communities of practice and social networks. The ...


Troping The Enemy: Metaphor, Culture, And The Big Data Black Boxes Of National Security, Robert Albro Sep 2018

Troping The Enemy: Metaphor, Culture, And The Big Data Black Boxes Of National Security, Robert Albro

Secrecy and Society

This article considers how cultural understanding is being brought into the work of the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through an analysis of its Metaphor program. It examines the type of social science underwriting this program, unpacks implications of the agency’s conception of metaphor for understanding so-called cultures of interest, and compares IARPA’s to competing accounts of how metaphor works to create cultural meaning. The article highlights some risks posed by key deficits in the Intelligence Community's (IC) approach to culture, which relies on the cognitive linguistic theories of George Lakoff and colleagues. It also explores ...


Cultural Memory In Danger: Sustainable Information, Preservation, And Technology In The Humanities: A Theoretical Approach, Casey D. Hoeve Sep 2018

Cultural Memory In Danger: Sustainable Information, Preservation, And Technology In The Humanities: A Theoretical Approach, Casey D. Hoeve

Collaborative Librarianship

Abstract

Management of library collections is an inherently collaborative process. Spanning multiple generations, materials are selected that support user communities, striving for the optimization of storage and access at the lowest cost.[i] While established partnerships are crucial for the survival of libraries, within any cooperative network, there exist opportunities for divergent practices. Alternative initiatives may have progressive intentions, but competing systems and groups have the potential to disrupt recognized standards and infrastructure, some of which can prove detrimental to information organizations.

Abrupt format changes and technological advancements have altered the way in which materials are currently acquired, accessed, and ...


Making It Pay To Be A Fan: The Political Economy Of Digital Sports Fandom And The Sports Media Industry, Andrew Mckinney Sep 2018

Making It Pay To Be A Fan: The Political Economy Of Digital Sports Fandom And The Sports Media Industry, Andrew Mckinney

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a series of case studies and sociological examinations of the role that the sports media industry and mediated sport fandom plays in the political economy of the Internet. The Internet has structurally changed the way that sport fans access sport and accelerated the processes through which the capitalist actors in the sports media industry have been able to subsume them. The three case studies examined in this dissertation are examples of how digital media technologies have both helped fans become more active producers and consumers of sports and made the sports media industry an integral and vanguard ...


Music For Ai Reports: Dual Prospects In Music Production, Achim Koh Sep 2018

Music For Ai Reports: Dual Prospects In Music Production, Achim Koh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) technology have led to industrial attempts at applying AI to music making, namely AI music. In the context of the history of music technology, AI music raises the prospect of a new phase that extends digital technology’s role as central mode of music production. The computer has become an essential metamedium in contemporary cultural production, leading in the field of music to the digitization of tools and content and the digitalization of social institutions and relationships. This technological change had the dual effect of decentralizing music production while reinforcing capitalist logic in it ...


Assessing The Use Of Information And Communication Technology In Teaching And Learning In Secondary Schools, De-Graft Johnson Dei Aug 2018

Assessing The Use Of Information And Communication Technology In Teaching And Learning In Secondary Schools, De-Graft Johnson Dei

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a force that has changed many aspects of the way we live and every aspect of human endeavor such as education, medicine, business, law and engineering. Education is a socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated with teachers having high degrees of personal and face-to-face contact with students. But with the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important. However, indicators on technology uptake and use in education in the secondary schools in Ghana are missing and most ...


Enhancing Trust In The Cryptocurrency Marketplace: A Reputation Scoring Approach, Dan Freeman, Tim Mcwilliams, Sudip Bhattacharyya, Craig Hall, Pablo Peillard Aug 2018

Enhancing Trust In The Cryptocurrency Marketplace: A Reputation Scoring Approach, Dan Freeman, Tim Mcwilliams, Sudip Bhattacharyya, Craig Hall, Pablo Peillard

SMU Data Science Review

Trust is paramount for the effective operation of any monetary system. While the distributed architecture of blockchain technology on which cryptocurrencies operate has many benefits, the anonymity of users on the blockchain has provided criminal users an opportunity to hide both their identities and illicit activities. In this paper, we present a scoring mechanism for cryptocurrency users where the scores represent users’ trustworthiness as safe or risky transactors in the cryptocurrency community. In order to distinguish law-abiding users from potential threats in the Bitcoin marketplace, we analyze historical thefts to profile transactions, classify them into risky and non-risky categories using ...


Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels Aug 2018

Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present an analysis of features influencing Yelp's proprietary review filtering algorithm. Classifying or misclassifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended affects average ratings, consumer decisions, and ultimately, business revenue. Our analysis involves systematically sampling and scraping Yelp restaurant reviews. Features are extracted from review metadata and engineered from metrics and scores generated using text classifiers and sentiment analysis. The coefficients of a multivariate logistic regression model were interpreted as quantifications of the relative importance of features in classifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended. The model classified review recommendations with an accuracy of 78%. We found that ...


Identifying Depressive Disorder In The Twitter Population, Goonmeet Bajaj, Amir Hossein Yazdavar, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit Sheth Aug 2018

Identifying Depressive Disorder In The Twitter Population, Goonmeet Bajaj, Amir Hossein Yazdavar, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Depression is a highly prevalent public health challenge and a major cause of disability across the globe.

  • Annually 6.7% of Americans (that is, more than 16 million).
  • Traditional approaches to curb depression involve survey·based methods via phone or online questionnaires.
  • Large temporal gaps and cognitive bias.

Social media provides a method for learning users' feelings, emotions, behaviors, and decisions in real-time.


No Pass Zone: Preventing Patient Falls, Rheea Fe Bustos Aug 2018

No Pass Zone: Preventing Patient Falls, Rheea Fe Bustos

Master's Projects and Capstones

Problem: According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), an estimated 700,000 to 1,000,000 inpatient falls occur in the United States every year. Context: In an August 2017 observation of bed alarm activations in patients’ rooms, it was noted that there was no designated staff member to answer alarms. This causes a delayed response time, which can result in patient falls. The root cause involved unclear expectations regarding what staff members are responsible for answering alarms. Interventions: Standard work was created to have the closest available person respond to the patient’s bed alarm. Initial ...


Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen Aug 2018

Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Daniel Coleman's Yardwork: A Biography of an Urban Place.