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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 280

Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Technology Goes Home Evaluation – Executive Summary, Donna H. Friedman, Michelle Kahan, Tatjana Meschede, Consuela Greene Dec 2011

Technology Goes Home Evaluation – Executive Summary, Donna H. Friedman, Michelle Kahan, Tatjana Meschede, Consuela Greene

Donna Haig Friedman

Technology Goes Home (TGH) is an innovative program designed to bridge the digital divide by bringing technology into low-income families’ homes. This Boston Digital Bridge Foundation (BDBF) program strives to prepare adults for employment opportunities and to help children improve academic performance by offering computer training and equipment to families in Boston neighborhoods and schools. Classes are offered in groups, with parents and children learning together in order to strengthen families and build community as well as skills. Neighborhood programs are operated in six communities through Neighborhood Technology Collaboratives, coalitions of community-based organizations. These coalitions select participating families, and provide ...


2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann Dec 2011

2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

The 2011 Global Go To Think Tank Rankings marks the fifth edition of the annual report. As in previous years, the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the University of Pennsylvania’s International Relations Program has relied on the indexing criteria and process developed by James G. McGann for ranking think tanks around the world. The Program’s Rankings remain the first and most comprehensive ranking of the world’s top think tanks, and are based on an annual global peer and expert survey of close to 1500 scholars, policymakers, journalists, and regional and subject area experts. Given ...


Secondary Markets: The Quiet Economic Value Creator, John Mayo, Scott J. Wallsten Dec 2011

Secondary Markets: The Quiet Economic Value Creator, John Mayo, Scott J. Wallsten

Scott J. Wallsten

No abstract provided.


The Value Of Government Mandated Location-Based Services In Emergencies In Australia, Anas Aloudat, Katina Michael, Roba Abbas, Mutaz M. Al-Debei Dec 2011

The Value Of Government Mandated Location-Based Services In Emergencies In Australia, Anas Aloudat, Katina Michael, Roba Abbas, Mutaz M. Al-Debei

Dr. Mutaz M. Al-Debei

The adoption of mobile technologies for emergency management has the capacity to save lives. In Australia in February 2009, the Victorian Bushfires claimed 173 lives, the worst peace-time disaster in the nation’s history. The Australian government responded swiftly to the tragedy by going to tender for mobile applications that could be used during emergencies, such as mobile alerts and location services. These applications, which are becoming increasingly accurate with the evolution of positioning techniques, have the ability to deliver personalized information direct to the citizen during crises, complementing traditional broadcasting mediums like television and radio. Indeed governments have a ...


Digital Distance And Economic Development In Southeast Asia, Patricia Hornback Dec 2011

Digital Distance And Economic Development In Southeast Asia, Patricia Hornback

Faculty Publications - Department of Professional Studies

In the global financial system the economic strength, competency, and development of national economies and populations is significantly affected by the availability and use of Information Communication Technology (ICT). While the wealthier, industrialized nations enjoy the widest availability and use of these key technologies, the capacity and access to ICT is limited in developing nations and least developed countries (LDCs). Consequently, the lack of technology in many Southeast Asian countries may contribute significantly to their status as underdeveloped nations with impoverished economies and populations. This study explores the extent to which key social, economic, ethnolinguistic and infrastructure indicators outlined in ...


Overview Of Contrast Data Mining As A Field And Preview Of An Upcoming Book, Guozhu Dong, James Bailey Dec 2011

Overview Of Contrast Data Mining As A Field And Preview Of An Upcoming Book, Guozhu Dong, James Bailey

Kno.e.sis Publications

This report provides an overview of the field of contrast data mining and its applications, and offers a preview of an upcoming book on the topic. The importance of contrasting is discussed and a brief survey is given covering the following topics: general definitions and terminology for contrast patterns, representative contrast pattern mining algorithms, applications of contrast mining for fundamental data mining tasks such as classification and clustering, applications of contrast mining in bioinformatics, medicine, blog analysis, image analysis and subgroup mining, results on contrast based dataset similarity measure, and on analyzing item interaction in contrast patterns, and open research ...


Computing Inconsistency Measure Based On Paraconsistent Semantics, Pascal Hitzler, Yue Ma, Guilin Qi Dec 2011

Computing Inconsistency Measure Based On Paraconsistent Semantics, Pascal Hitzler, Yue Ma, Guilin Qi

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Measuring inconsistency in knowledge bases has been recognized as an important problem in several research areas. Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem and a main class of them is based on some kind of paraconsistent semantics. However, existing methods suffer from two limitations: (i) they are mostly restricted to propositional knowledge bases; (ii) very few of them discuss computational aspects of computing inconsistency measures. In this article, we try to solve these two limitations by exploring algorithms for computing an inconsistency measure of first-order knowledge bases. After introducing a four-valued semantics for first-order logic, we define an ...


Development Of A Simulation Tool For Analysis Of Freeway Crashes Due To Cell Phone Usage, Sourabh Sriom Dec 2011

Development Of A Simulation Tool For Analysis Of Freeway Crashes Due To Cell Phone Usage, Sourabh Sriom

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Research shows that drivers are susceptible to numerous distractions while driving which can be held responsible as the reason of a crash. Usage of cell phones, i.e. talking or texting while driving is considered one of the prominent distractions which causes a crash. This dissertation aims to study the number of crashes occurring on the freeways and their relation with the drivers of these cars using cell phones while they are driving. Since crashes occur relatively less frequently, the study of crashes is done using what is called the "rare event" theory. Java based simulations are done to model ...


Extrapolating Strategies For The Scientific And Technological Development Of Underdeveloped Societies From The Examples Of South Korea, Slovenia And Serbia, Vuk Uskoković, Dragan Uskoković Dec 2011

Extrapolating Strategies For The Scientific And Technological Development Of Underdeveloped Societies From The Examples Of South Korea, Slovenia And Serbia, Vuk Uskoković, Dragan Uskoković

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The recent history of scientific excellence of a society could be used as an indicator of its economic, cultural and communal prosperity. In this work, two examples of countries that successfully arose from the remnants of comparative poverty and established themselves as scientifically thriving societies, South Korea and Slovenia, are compared with the case of Serbia, a country that is presumably on the doorsteps of a similarly explosive developmental path. Guidelines for social progress in the direction of greater scientific and social prominence are outlined in the course of the discourse. It is concluded that the ideal model of growth ...


Fashion: Hedonic Vs. Utilitarian: A Study Of Fit Issues Of Women’S Ready To Wear And An Examination Of The Technology Acceptance Model For Consumer Adoption Of 3d Body Scanning For Improved Fit Of Denim, Aimee Rzepka Nov 2011

Fashion: Hedonic Vs. Utilitarian: A Study Of Fit Issues Of Women’S Ready To Wear And An Examination Of The Technology Acceptance Model For Consumer Adoption Of 3d Body Scanning For Improved Fit Of Denim, Aimee Rzepka

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

This study exposes the problems women face in the ready to wear (RTW) apparel sizing system and also investigates the idea that 3D body scanning technology can be used to eliminate ill-fitting apparel for consumers, in this case denim pants (jeans). In order to investigate why consumers have not yet adopted this technology, a survey was conducted using principles from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to understand the motivations of females aged 18-35 towards adopting this new technology. Two hypotheses were formed: non-adoption is caused by hedonic motivation, or non-adoption is caused by utilitarian motivations. It can be concluded from ...


Perceptions Of Medical Professionals Towards Sustainability Orientation And Acceptability Of Eco-Friendly Medical Scrubs, Siddharth S. Alashe Nov 2011

Perceptions Of Medical Professionals Towards Sustainability Orientation And Acceptability Of Eco-Friendly Medical Scrubs, Siddharth S. Alashe

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

This research explores the perceptions of medical professionals towards sustainability orientation and acceptability of eco-friendly medical scrubs. This study examines the correlation between sustainability orientation and scrub properties as a means of finding the perceptions of medical professionals on the mentioned topic. Also, gender, department of medical professional, their age and work experience, and the price of the eco-friendly scrubs were considered as factors affecting the correlation. This study included surveying the medical professionals who used scrubs as uniforms, by distributing questionnaires and analyzing responses using SPSS. Results showed that as sustainability orientation increases, medical professionals give less importance to ...


The Social And Behavioral Implications Of Location-Based Services, Katina Michael, M.G. Michael Nov 2011

The Social And Behavioral Implications Of Location-Based Services, Katina Michael, M.G. Michael

Associate Professor Katina Michael

The social and behavioral implications of location-based services (LBS) are only now beginning to come to light in advanced markets where the services have been adopted by just a little over half the market (Microsoft 2011). Depending on one’s definition of what constitutes location-based services, statistics on the level of adoption differ considerably. While it is helpful to provide as broad a list of applications as possible in what constitutes LBS (e.g. everything from in-vehicle navigation systems to downloading a map using a computer), it can also cloud the real picture forming behind this emerging technology. Emerging not ...


What Gets Measured Gets Done: Stop Focusing On Irrelevant Broadband Metrics, Scott J. Wallsten Nov 2011

What Gets Measured Gets Done: Stop Focusing On Irrelevant Broadband Metrics, Scott J. Wallsten

Scott J. Wallsten

Concerns regarding the state of U.S. broadband arises from a combination of focusing on the wrong metrics, a misguided interpretation of consumer preferences, and a popular obsession with rankings. These misperceptions translate into misdirected, if well-intentioned, public policies that waste scarce resources and distract from real issues like a large income-based digital divide.


The Knowledge-Driven Exploration Of Integrated Biomedical Knowledge Sources Facilitates The Generation Of New Hypotheses, Vinh Nguyen, Olivier Bodenreider, Todd Minning, Amit P. Sheth Oct 2011

The Knowledge-Driven Exploration Of Integrated Biomedical Knowledge Sources Facilitates The Generation Of New Hypotheses, Vinh Nguyen, Olivier Bodenreider, Todd Minning, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

Knowledge gained from the scientific literature can complement newly obtained experimental data in helping researchers understand the pathological processes underlying diseases. However, unless the scientific literature and experimental data are semantically integrated, it is generally difficult for scientists to exploit the two sources effectively. We argue that, in addition to the semantic integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources, the usability of the integrated resource by scientists is dependent upon the availability of knowledge visualization and exploration tools. Moreover, the integration techniques must be scalable and the exploration interfaces must be easy to use by bench scientists. The end goal of such ...


Demonstration: Real-Time Semantic Analysis Of Sensor Streams, Harshal Patni, Cory Andrew Henson, Michael Cooney, Amit P. Sheth, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan Oct 2011

Demonstration: Real-Time Semantic Analysis Of Sensor Streams, Harshal Patni, Cory Andrew Henson, Michael Cooney, Amit P. Sheth, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

Kno.e.sis Publications

The emergence of dynamic information sources – including sensor networks – has led to large streams of real-time data on the Web. Research studies suggest, these dynamic networks have created more data in the last three years than in the entire history of civilization, and this trend will only increase in the coming years [1]. With this coming data explosion, real-time analytics software must either adapt or die [2]. This paper focuses on the task of integrating and analyzing multiple heterogeneous streams of sensor data with the goal of creating meaningful abstractions, or features. These features are then temporally aggregated into feature ...


Demonstration: Secure - Semantics Empowered Rescue Environment, Pratikkumar Desai, Cory Andrew Henson, Pramod Anantharam, Amit P. Sheth Oct 2011

Demonstration: Secure - Semantics Empowered Rescue Environment, Pratikkumar Desai, Cory Andrew Henson, Pramod Anantharam, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

This paper demonstrates a Semantic Web enabled system for collecting and processing sensor data within a rescue environment. The real-time system collects heterogeneous raw sensor data from rescue robots through a wireless sensor network. The raw sensor data is converted to RDF using the Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology and further processed to generate abstractions used for event detection in emergency scenarios.


Brassinosteroid-Mediated Stress Tolerance In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tawhidur Rahman Oct 2011

Brassinosteroid-Mediated Stress Tolerance In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tawhidur Rahman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroidal plant hormones that are essential for proper plant development and also promote stress tolerance. Without BRs, plants are dwarfs and infertile. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying BR-mediated stress tolerance, global gene expression analysis of untreated and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR)-treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under non-stress and heat stress (HS) conditions was carried out. Microarray data analysis indicated that stress-related genes were predominant within the EBR up-regulated gene data set. Furthermore, several of these genes were abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) related. Measurements of endogenous hormones showed significant increases in the levels ...


A Ratiometric Fluorescent Metal Ion Indicator Based On Dansyl Labeled Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Responds To A Quenching Metal Ion, Shawn Burdette, Jie Du, Shaojun Yao, W. Seitz, Nicholas Bencivenga, Justin Massing, Roy Planalp, Randy Jackson, Daniel Kennedy Oct 2011

A Ratiometric Fluorescent Metal Ion Indicator Based On Dansyl Labeled Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Responds To A Quenching Metal Ion, Shawn Burdette, Jie Du, Shaojun Yao, W. Seitz, Nicholas Bencivenga, Justin Massing, Roy Planalp, Randy Jackson, Daniel Kennedy

Shawn C. Burdette

The fluorescence emission of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) covalently tagged with a 5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl (dansyl) fluorophore and an iminodiacetic acid (IDA) chelator changes with temperature and with Cu(II) complexation. Increasing the temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) causes the polymer to collapse from a coil to a compact globule. This changes the environment experienced by the fluorophore causing a shift in maximum emission wavelength from 546 to 508 nm and an increase in the ratio of emission intensity at 508 nm to emission intensity at 546 nm from 0.70 to almost 1.40. Metal ions can ...


Personalized Filtering Of The Twitter Stream, Pavan Kapanipathi, Fabrizio Orlandi, Amit P. Sheth, Alexandre Passant Oct 2011

Personalized Filtering Of The Twitter Stream, Pavan Kapanipathi, Fabrizio Orlandi, Amit P. Sheth, Alexandre Passant

Kno.e.sis Publications

With the rapid growth in users on social networks, there is a corresponding increase in user-generated content, in turn resulting in information overload. On Twitter, for example, users tend to receive uninterested information due to their non-overlapping interests from the people whom they follow. In this paper we present a Semantic Web approach to filter public tweets matching interests from personalized user profiles. Our approach includes automatic generation of multi-domain and personalized user profiles, filtering Twitter stream based on the generated profiles and delivering them in real-time. Given that users interests and personalization needs change with time, we also discuss ...


Sempush: Privacy-Aware And Scalable Broadcasting For Semantic Microblogging, Pavan Kapanipathi, Julia Anaya, Alexandre Passant Oct 2011

Sempush: Privacy-Aware And Scalable Broadcasting For Semantic Microblogging, Pavan Kapanipathi, Julia Anaya, Alexandre Passant

Kno.e.sis Publications

Users of traditional microblogging platforms such as Twitter face drawbacks in terms of (1) Privacy of status updates as a followee - reaching undesired people (2) Information overload as a follower - receiving uninteresting microposts from followees. In this paper we demonstrate distributed and user-controlled dissemination of microposts using SMOB (semantic microblogging framework) and Semantic Hub (privacy-aware implementation of PuSH3 protocol) . The approach leverages users' Social Graph to dynamically create group of followers who are eligible to receive micropost. The restrictions to create the groups are provided by the followee based on the hastags in the micropost. Both SMOB and Semantic Hub ...


Semantic Annotation And Search For Resources In The Next Generation Web With Sa-Rest, Ajith H. Ranabahu, Amit P. Sheth, Maryam Panahiazar, Sanjaya Wijeratne Oct 2011

Semantic Annotation And Search For Resources In The Next Generation Web With Sa-Rest, Ajith H. Ranabahu, Amit P. Sheth, Maryam Panahiazar, Sanjaya Wijeratne

Kno.e.sis Publications

SA-REST, the W3C member submission, can be used for supporting a wide variety of Plain Old Semantic HTML (POSH) annotation capabilities on any type of Web resource. Kino framework and tools provide support of capabilities to realize SA-RESTs promised value. These tools include (a) a browser-plugin to support annotation of a Web resource (including services) with respect to an ontology, domain model or vocabulary, (b) an annotation aware indexing engine and (c) faceted search and selection of the Web resources. At one end of the spectrum, we present KinoE (aka Kino for Enterprise) which uses NCBO formal ontologies and ...


A Domain Specific Language For Enterprise Grade Cloud-Mobile Hybrid Applications, Ajith H. Ranabahu, E. Michael Maximilien, Amit P. Sheth, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan Oct 2011

A Domain Specific Language For Enterprise Grade Cloud-Mobile Hybrid Applications, Ajith H. Ranabahu, E. Michael Maximilien, Amit P. Sheth, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

Kno.e.sis Publications

Cloud computing has changed the technology landscape by offering flexible and economical computing resources to the masses. However, vendor lock-in makes the migration of applications and data across clouds an expensive proposition. The lock-in is especially serious when considering the new technology trend of combining cloud with mobile devices.

In this paper, we present a domain specific language (DSL) that is purposely created for generating hybrid applications spanning across mobile devices as well as computing clouds. We propose a model-driven development process that makes use of a DSL to provide sufficient programming abstractions over both cloud and mobile features. We ...


Do Libraries Still Need Book Vendors And Subscription Agents?, Stephen Bosch, Christopher Sugnet, J. Cory Tucker, Lauren Corbett Oct 2011

Do Libraries Still Need Book Vendors And Subscription Agents?, Stephen Bosch, Christopher Sugnet, J. Cory Tucker, Lauren Corbett

Library Faculty Publications

Digital content blurs the lines of traditional library acquisition workflows and organization. For example: link resolvers and the loading of order confirmation record files may be handled by systems staff in one organization and by technical services staff in another. Lines are being crossed between acquisitions and interlibrary loan functions, notably with electronic versions of theses and dissertations. Regardless of this blurring of lines, library staff use vendors still in acquiring content for the library collection. The reasons for using vendors have stood for decades, but are changes in the information industry having an impact? In the current environment, what ...


Primitive Accumulation And Enclosure Of The Commons: Genetically Engineered Seeds And Canadian Jurisprudence, Wilhelm Peekhaus Oct 2011

Primitive Accumulation And Enclosure Of The Commons: Genetically Engineered Seeds And Canadian Jurisprudence, Wilhelm Peekhaus

Wilhelm Peekhaus

This paper juxtaposes the legal decisions made in the case of Percy Schmeiser, who was sued by Monsanto for patent infringement, against the attempt by the Organic Agriculture Protection Fund to obtain class certification in its efforts to sue Monsanto and Bayer for genetic contamination of organic canola. Together these two cases establish an unacceptable incongruity at common law between the rights enjoyed by intellectual property owners and any corresponding duties that might attach to their inventions. I suggest that Marx’s concept of primitive accumulation offers a suitable theoretical register for apprehending contemporary erosions of the commons through the ...


Acm Chapter Volume I Issue I, Touro College Student Chapter Of The Association Of Computing Machinery Oct 2011

Acm Chapter Volume I Issue I, Touro College Student Chapter Of The Association Of Computing Machinery

Yearbooks and Newsletters

"Social Media" issue.


The Myth Of Progress In Science: Dialectics, Distortion And Lysenkoism In The Soviet Union, Mark A. Ferguson Jr. Sep 2011

The Myth Of Progress In Science: Dialectics, Distortion And Lysenkoism In The Soviet Union, Mark A. Ferguson Jr.

The Hilltop Review

The scientific controversy surrounding Lysenkoism is both unparalleled and well known amongst historians and philosophers of science (Joravsky 1970, McMullin 1987, Pollock 2009, Wolfe 2010). Yet, while this may be true for scholars and students a generation ago, I argue that the controversy of Lysenkoism is not widely known today. Particularly in political science, this historical period and phenomenon in the Soviet Union remains irrelevant or at least, inconsequential to the scientific study of politics.


Geospatial Data Accessibility In Web 2.0 Environments, Sara Mcnamee Sep 2011

Geospatial Data Accessibility In Web 2.0 Environments, Sara Mcnamee

Sara McNamee

Geographically referenced data is becoming a robust source of information because the use of place-based relevance searching is being employed as a popular form of information access and dispersal. To address this trend, the researcher conducted a study on the usability of the USA National Phenology Network (http://www.usanpn.org/), engaging 6 volunteer participants structured usability test of the USANPN mapping application. The participants were asked to complete two tasks, and data was collected both during (in the form of a think aloud exercise) and after the test (in the form of an exit interview). From the data collected ...


Recommendations For Australia’S Implementation Of The National Emergency Warning System Using Location-Based Services, Anas Aloudat, Katina Michael, Roba Abbas Sep 2011

Recommendations For Australia’S Implementation Of The National Emergency Warning System Using Location-Based Services, Anas Aloudat, Katina Michael, Roba Abbas

Professor Katina Michael

Mobile alerts, notifications and location-based emergency warning systems are now an established part of mobile government strategies in an increasing number of countries worldwide. In Australia the national emergency warning system (NEWS) was instituted after the tragic Black Saturday Victorian Bushfires of February 2009. In the first phase, NEWS has enabled the provision of public information from the government to the citizen during emergencies anywhere and any time. Moving on from traditional short message service (SMS) notifications and cell broadcasting to more advanced location-based services, this paper provides executive-level recommendations about the viability of location-based mobile phone services in NEWS ...


Testimony On The Role Of Government In Promoting R&D, Scott J. Wallsten Sep 2011

Testimony On The Role Of Government In Promoting R&D, Scott J. Wallsten

Scott J. Wallsten

No abstract provided.


Semantic Computing In Real-World: Vertical And Horizontal Application Within Enterprise And On The Web, Amit P. Sheth Sep 2011

Semantic Computing In Real-World: Vertical And Horizontal Application Within Enterprise And On The Web, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.