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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Not Just A Tool. Taking Context Into Account In The Development Of A Mobile App For Rural Water Supply In Tanzania, Robert Hoppe, Anne Wesselink, Rob Lemmens Jun 2015

Not Just A Tool. Taking Context Into Account In The Development Of A Mobile App For Rural Water Supply In Tanzania, Robert Hoppe, Anne Wesselink, Rob Lemmens

Robert Hoppe

The 'eGovernance' hype around the potential of mobile phone and geoweb technologies for enhancing 'good governance' is soaring. In East Africa, the extensive use of mobile telephony adds to the imagined promises of ICT. We reflect on the assumptions made by the proponents of such tools, using our own action research project as an example. We took great care to consider context in the development of software for enhancing empowerment and accountability in rural water supply in Tanzania. However, we found that the rural water supply context in Tanzania is much more complex than the contexts for which successful mApps ...


Knowledge In Society And The Knowledge Society: Opening The Debate For A New Millennium, Ananya Vajpeyi Jan 2015

Knowledge In Society And The Knowledge Society: Opening The Debate For A New Millennium, Ananya Vajpeyi

Ananya Vajpeyi

No abstract provided.


Reageren Op Problematisch Wetenschappelijk Gedrag Voorbij De Moralisering : Een Ander Wetenschapsbeleid Is Mogelijk !, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens Jan 2015

Reageren Op Problematisch Wetenschappelijk Gedrag Voorbij De Moralisering : Een Ander Wetenschapsbeleid Is Mogelijk !, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens

Serge Gutwirth

In deze bijdrage gaan we in op een aantal vragen die rijzen bij het reageren op wetenschapsfraude. In een eerdere bijdrage -"It's the science policy, stupid ! Over wetenschapsfraude als bliksemafleider"- (http://works.bepress.com/serge_gutwirth/109/) hebben we reeds aandacht besteed aan wetenschapsfraude, en meer bepaald aan de wijze waarop die ten aanzien van de praktijk van de wetenschap en in wisselwerking met haar milieu kan worden begrepen. Omdat nadenken over de reactie(s) op wetenschapsfraude afhankelijk is van hoe wetenschappen worden geconcipieerd vormen onze bevindingen van dit eerdere stuk het vertrekpunt van de huidige bijdrage: in het eerste ...


Les Sciences Et Leurs Problèmes : La Fraude Scientifique, Un Moyen De Diversion ?, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens Jan 2015

Les Sciences Et Leurs Problèmes : La Fraude Scientifique, Un Moyen De Diversion ?, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens

Serge Gutwirth

Pour mieux comprendre la fraude scientifique et l’attention qu’on lui porte, les auteurs l’analysent au départ d’une description de ce qui fait la singularité générique du travail scientifique et de ce qui le caractérise uniquement. Cette approche fait rapidement émerger deux problèmes. D’une part, s’impose le constat de la diversité des sciences, des pratiques scientifiques, de leurs objets d’études et des conséquences de cette pluralité, dès lors que toutes les sciences ne fonctionnent pas de la même façon. De l’autre, il faut rendre compte du fait que la science et la recherche ...


Nanotechnology Research And Innovation In Russia: A Bibliometric Analysis, Maria Karaulova, Oliver Shackleton, Abdullah Gök, Maxim Kotsemir, Philip Shapira Oct 2014

Nanotechnology Research And Innovation In Russia: A Bibliometric Analysis, Maria Karaulova, Oliver Shackleton, Abdullah Gök, Maxim Kotsemir, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This working paper presents findings from analyses of Russian nanotechnology outputs in publications and patents focusing on developments over the period 1990 through to 2012. The investigation draws on bibliometric datasets of scientific journal publications and patents and on available secondary English-language and Russian sources. The document provides both an overview and detailed analyses of nanotechnology research and innovation in Russia. The examination of publications highlights sectoral trends, leading authors and organizations, and acknowledgements to funding sources. The analysis of patents adds further evidence about patterns of invention and ownership of intellectual property emanating from research and development in Russian ...


ÜBerschussdaten In Retinabildern: Ein Beitrag Zum Datenschutzfreundlichen Entwurf Biometrischer Systeme, Michael Friedewald, Sebastian Wawrzyniak, Frank Pallas Jul 2014

ÜBerschussdaten In Retinabildern: Ein Beitrag Zum Datenschutzfreundlichen Entwurf Biometrischer Systeme, Michael Friedewald, Sebastian Wawrzyniak, Frank Pallas

Michael Friedewald

Die Retina ist wegen ihrer Unterscheidungskraft ein vielversprechendes biometrisches Merkmal, das vor allem für sicherheitsrelevante Systeme genutzt wird. Allerdings manifestieren sich auch zahlreiche Erkrankungen durch entsprechende Veränderungen der Retina. Die Nutzung solcher gesundheitsbezogener und für Zwecke der Authentifizierung unnötiger Daten ist daher unbedingt zu vermeiden. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Frage, welche gesundheitsrelevanten Informationen aus Retinabildern gewonnen werden können und welche Konsequenzen dies für den Entwurf biometrischer Systeme hat.


Usos E Significados Da Tecnologia Na Academia, João Monteiro Matos Jan 2014

Usos E Significados Da Tecnologia Na Academia, João Monteiro Matos

João Monteiro Matos

This study seeks to understand how the academic population – professors and researchers perceives, uses, and interacts with new information and communication technologies (ICT) in their everyday working practices. The main goal is to understand whether these new technologies can be an indicator of different scientific cultures, using the metaphor of the “two cultures” introduced by Charles Snow (1963).

I make use of this metaphor to examine differences and specificities of two scientific communities: the natural sciences and the social sciences community at two institutions of the University of Lisbon.

This research follows a mixed methods strategy, combining the application of ...


Trumping Communitarianism: Crime Control And Forensic Dna Typing And Databasing In Singapore, Victor Toom Jan 2014

Trumping Communitarianism: Crime Control And Forensic Dna Typing And Databasing In Singapore, Victor Toom

victor toom

Liberalism and communitarianism have figured prominently in discussions of how to govern forensic DNA practices (forensic DNA typing and databasing). Despite the prominence of these two political philosophies and their underlying values, no studies have looked at the governance of forensic DNA practices in a nondemocratic country governed by a communitarian logic. To fill this lacuna in the literature, this article considers Singapore as an authoritarian state governed by a communitarian philosophy. The article highlights basic innovations and technologies of forensic DNA practices and articulates a liberal democratic version of “biolegality” as described by Michael Lynch and Ruth McNally. It ...


Hidden In Full Sight: Kinship, Science And The Law In The Aftermath Of The Srebrenica Genocide, Erica Haimes, Victor Toom Jan 2014

Hidden In Full Sight: Kinship, Science And The Law In The Aftermath Of The Srebrenica Genocide, Erica Haimes, Victor Toom

victor toom

Terms such as “relationship testing,” “familial searching” and “kinship analysis” figure prominently in professional practices of disaster victim identification (DVI). However, despite the dependence of those identification technologies on DNA samples from people who might be related to the dead and despite also the prominence of the notion of “relatedness” as a device for identifying the dead, the concepts of “relatedness” and “kinship” remain elusive both in practice and in analyses of the social and ethical aspects of DVI by DNA; they are hidden in full sight. In this article, we wish to bring kinship more to the fore. We ...


The Security Culture Of A Global And Multileveled Cyber Security, Zenonas Tziarras Jan 2014

The Security Culture Of A Global And Multileveled Cyber Security, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

This paper seeks to argue for the development of a global and multileveled management of cybersecurity. To do so we first define cybersecurity by situating it within the broader framework of the changing concept of security. To this end we look at the evolution of the security concept, mainly since the end of the Cold War, and its relationship to cybersecurity in today’s global affairs. Then we identify the referent object of security, the importance of cyberthreats, and the need for a multileveled management of cybersecurity and cyberthreats. For such a management to be possible and effective, this paper ...


Connecting Research On Social Issues In Nanotechnology: The Center For Nanotechnology In Society At Arizona State University, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira Jan 2014

Connecting Research On Social Issues In Nanotechnology: The Center For Nanotechnology In Society At Arizona State University, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

Central to the emergence of new research topics is the creation of a research network. This paper looks at the creation of a network of researchers of social issues in nanotechnology and the role of the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University (CNS-ASU) in the creation of this network. While there has been US investment in societal research on nanotechnology, a debate exists about the extent to which a research community has been created through these investments. This paper uses three approaches to examine the extent to which CNS-ASU is associated with the development of a research ...


L’Investimento Nelle Reti Nga A Larga Banda: La 'Questione Settentrionale', Nicola Matteucci Jan 2014

L’Investimento Nelle Reti Nga A Larga Banda: La 'Questione Settentrionale', Nicola Matteucci

Nicola Matteucci

Current developments of DAE (digital agenda for Europe) emphasize investments in NGA broadband networks as a main step to promote public and private eServices and transform public administrations. We focus on Northern Italy, where fast diffusion of NGAN is currently perceived as a fundamental ingredient for increasing competitiveness and curb the economy’s decline. In particular, this work investigates the widespread market failures characterizing Italian NGAN roll-out, the possible solutions and the technical and financial feasibility of the proposed plans – both private and public. Together, it connects the issue of NGAN financing with the current debate on the efficient and ...


Residential And Business Broadband Prices Part 1: An Empirical Analysis Of Metering And Other Price Determinants, Scott J. Wallsten, James Riso Jan 2014

Residential And Business Broadband Prices Part 1: An Empirical Analysis Of Metering And Other Price Determinants, Scott J. Wallsten, James Riso

Scott J. Wallsten

For this project, we assemble a new dataset consisting of more than 25,000 residential and business broadband plans from all OECD countries from 2007–2009. We explore three issues: the relationship between plan components—such as metering—and consumer prices, price changes over time, and how broadband prices vary across countries.

This paper, part 1 of the project, discusses pricing for broadband plans and, specifically, the relationship between plan components and pricing. We find that residential broadband plans with data caps—plans in which consumers pay a base price for a set amount of data—cost less than plans ...


Book Review: Nanotechnology And Development: What’S In It For Emerging Countries? (Preprint), Thomas Woodson Jan 2014

Book Review: Nanotechnology And Development: What’S In It For Emerging Countries? (Preprint), Thomas Woodson

Thomas Woodson

No abstract provided.


Export, R&D And New Products. A Model And A Test On European Industries, Dario Guarascio, Mario Pianta, Francesco Bogliacino Jan 2014

Export, R&D And New Products. A Model And A Test On European Industries, Dario Guarascio, Mario Pianta, Francesco Bogliacino

Mario Pianta

In this article we extend the model developed by Bogliacino and Pianta (2013a, 2013b) on the link between R&D, innovation and economic performance, considering the impact of innovation of export success. We develop a simultaneous three equation model in order to investigate the existence of a ‘virtuous circle’ between industries’ R&D, share of product innovators and export market shares. We investigate empirically – at the industry level – three key relationships affecting the dynamics of innovation and export performance: first, the capacity of firms to translate their R&D efforts in new products; second, the role of innovation as a determinant of export market shares; third, the export success as a driver of new R&D efforts. The model is tested for 38 manufacturing and service sectors of six European countries over three time periods from 1995 to 2010. The model effectively accounts for the dynamics of R&D efforts, innovation and international performances of European industries. Moreover, important differences across countries emerge when we split our sample in a Northern group – Germany, the ...


Technostress: Theoretical Foundation And Empirical Evidence, Christian Maier Jan 2014

Technostress: Theoretical Foundation And Empirical Evidence, Christian Maier

Christian Maier

The main objective of this dissertation is to provide theoretical explanations and empirical evidence for the causes and consequences of technostress. The results of this dissertation posit that the IT usage context matters. This means that users perceive technostress when using IT for work and for private purposes; but the causes and consequences differ for both contexts. In the case of using IT for work, technological characteristics and techno-stressors cause employees to feel exhausted at the end of their work day, feel dissatisfied with their job, and develop intentions to quit their job. In the case of IT usage for ...


Information Visualization For Learning Words In The Qur’An, Raja Jamilah Raja Yusof Dr Dec 2013

Information Visualization For Learning Words In The Qur’An, Raja Jamilah Raja Yusof Dr

Raja Jamilah Raja Yusof Dr

Qur’an is a source of guidance to Muslims around the world. Although the language of the Qur’an is Arabic, many Muslims with different native languages attempt to learn the language to understand the message of the Qur’an. Qur’an contains many repeated words. Even though there are approximately 77 430 words in the Qur’an, there are only 5155 words used repeatedly or at least once to make up those words. This means that in theory for non-native Arabic speakers, these words can be added to their vocabulary to understand the literal meaning of the message of ...


Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-5), Umakant Mishra Nov 2013

Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-5), Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

As the “inventive standards” are really complicated, Generich Altshuller and other creators of “inventive standards” created a set of standards (grouped under class-5) to help using the standards. There are totally 17 standards in class-5. This article will try to simplify all these 17 standards under class-5.

While writing these articles the author realized that although the grouping and ordering of the 76 standards don’t appear to be systematic there is no easy method of regrouping or reorganizing the standards. The author tried regrouping and reordering the standards in various different ways but nothing really came out satisfactory. Much ...


Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-3), Umakant Mishra Nov 2013

Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-3), Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

According to TRIZ most problems are “standard” problems. The standard problems are those which are known to have occurred many times in many places. Besides these problems have been solved by different people in different places (may be in different contexts) at different times. As there are many known solutions to such problems it is possible to abstract the rules of solution from the group of individual solutions. TRIZ provides a set of 76 rules to solve such standard problems.

Although “Inventive Standards” (or standard solutions) is one of the most powerful techniques of TRIZ it is hardly used by ...


Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-4), Umakant Mishra Nov 2013

Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-4), Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

Although “Inventive Standards” (or standard solutions) is one of the most powerful techniques of TRIZ it is hardly used by any TRIZ practitioner because of its complexity. The objective of this series of articles is to explain the rules in simple language. In this article we will discuss all the solutions in class-4. There are 17 solutions in class-4 all of which deal with the problems relating to measurement and detection. For example some objects may be extremely large (e.g. earth) or extremely small (e.g., atoms) and cannot be easily measured. Some items like germs and viruses are ...


The Killer Idea: How Some Gunslinging Anarchists Held Freedom Of Speech At Gunpoint, Gert A. Van Vugt Msc Nov 2013

The Killer Idea: How Some Gunslinging Anarchists Held Freedom Of Speech At Gunpoint, Gert A. Van Vugt Msc

Gert A van Vugt MSc

In May 2013, the first all-plastic, 3D printed gun was fired. This paper offers a detailed description of the origins and development of the printable gun. It elucidates the transformation of the principal narrative in the increasing media coverage from circumventing arms regulation to defending free speech, highlighting the role of Defense Distributed and their strategic framing of the printable gun. Finally, the uptake of the latter narrative by early popular and scholarly contributions is discussed. The paper highlights the political impact of narrative formation in debates about regulating 3D printing and the communication of printable designs, and suggests an ...


Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-2), Umakant Mishra Oct 2013

Simplifying Inventive Standards (Part-2), Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

In the previous article we discussed all the standard solutions in class-1. In this article we will discuss all the standard solutions in class-2. The standards of class 2 intend to improve the system without inserting too much changes to the system and without increasing the complexity of the system. These standards guide how to use chain SFields, Double SFields and complex S-Field Models.


Science And Non-Science, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan Oct 2013

Science And Non-Science, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan

Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan

No abstract provided.


Technology And Privacy (Editorial), Michael Friedewald, Ronald J. Pohoryles Apr 2013

Technology And Privacy (Editorial), Michael Friedewald, Ronald J. Pohoryles

Michael Friedewald

No abstract provided.


Reconciling Privacy And Security, Marc Van Lieshout, Michael Friedewald, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth Apr 2013

Reconciling Privacy And Security, Marc Van Lieshout, Michael Friedewald, David Wright, Serge Gutwirth

Michael Friedewald

This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional ‘‘trade-off’’ paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental right of privacy? Our political masters justify their intrusions upon our privacy with proclamations of the need to protect the citizenry against further terrorist attacks like those that have already marred the early twenty-first century. The surveillance industry has been quick to exploit this new market opportunity, supported as it is by inexorable technological ‘‘progress’’ in devising new ...


Relation Between Medieval Renaissance And Today's Open Knowledge Dissemination, Subhajit Kumar Ganguly Jan 2013

Relation Between Medieval Renaissance And Today's Open Knowledge Dissemination, Subhajit Kumar Ganguly

Subhajit Kumar Ganguly

Time has shown us how zero control by a handful of individuals over the society and complete control of the community, as a whole, over itself brings about positive changes. Less the control by individuals or groups and more the control of the complete set of individuals, more is the positive change. The history of the printing press is a case in point. While history made a mockery of the control-freaks, it proved right the few individuals, who believed in the intellectual capacity of the masses. Intellectual Nazism should be a thing of the past and we should move away ...


Performing The Union: The Prüm Decision And The European Dream, Barbara Prainsack, Victor Toom Jan 2013

Performing The Union: The Prüm Decision And The European Dream, Barbara Prainsack, Victor Toom

victor toom

In 2005, seven European countries signed the so-called Prüm Treaty to increase transnational collaboration in combating international crime, terrorism and illegal immigration. Three years later, the Treaty was adopted into EU law. EU member countries were now obliged to have systems in place to allow authorities of other member states access to nationally held data on DNA, fingerprints, and vehicles by August 2011. In this paper, we discuss the conditions of possibility for the Prüm network to emerge, and argue that rather than a linear ascent towards technological and political convergence and harmonisation, the (hi)story of Prüm is heterogeneous ...


Forecasting Innovation Pathways For New And Emerging Science & Technologies, Douglas Kr Robinson, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter Jan 2013

Forecasting Innovation Pathways For New And Emerging Science & Technologies, Douglas Kr Robinson, Lu Huang, Ying Guo, Alan L. Porter

alan l porter

New & Emerging Science & Technologies (“NESTs”) promise tremendous innovation potential, but this is coupled with enormous uncertainties and often many unknowns. This paper offers a framework to analyze NESTs to help ascertain likely innovation pathways. We have devised a 10-step framework based on extensive Future-oriented Technology Analyses (“FTA”) experience, enriched by in-depth case analyses. In the paper, we describe our analytical activities in two case studies. The nanobiosensors experience is contrasted with that of deep brain stimulation in relative quantitative and qualitative emphases. We close the paper by reflecting on this systematic FTA framework for emerging science and technologies, for its ...


Validating Indicators Of Interdisciplinarity: Linking Bibliometric Measures To Studies Of Engineering Research Labs, David Roessner, Alan L. Porter, Nancy J. Nersessian, Stephen J. Carley Jan 2013

Validating Indicators Of Interdisciplinarity: Linking Bibliometric Measures To Studies Of Engineering Research Labs, David Roessner, Alan L. Porter, Nancy J. Nersessian, Stephen J. Carley

alan l porter

This article examines the extent to which specific features of interdisciplinary research are accurately reflected in selected bibliometric measures of scholarly publications over time. To test the validity of these measures, we compare knowledge of research processes and impact based on ethnographic studies of a well-established researcher’s laboratory, together with personal interview data, against bibliometric indicators of cognitive integration, diffusion, and impact represented in the entire portfolio of papers produced by this researcher over time.


Critical Thinking About Political Problems, Robert Hoppe, Margarita Jeliazkova Jan 2013

Critical Thinking About Political Problems, Robert Hoppe, Margarita Jeliazkova

Robert Hoppe

No abstract provided.