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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

The Affective Politics Of Twitter, Johnathan C. Flowers May 2019

The Affective Politics Of Twitter, Johnathan C. Flowers

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Given the increasing encroachment of Twitter into offline experience, it has become necessary to look beyond the formation of identity in online spaces to the ways in which identities surface through the formation of affective communities organized through the use of technocultural assemblages, or the platforms, algorithms, and digital networks through which affect circulates in an online space. This essay focuses on the microblogging website Twitter as one such technocultural assemblage whose hashtag functionality allows for the circulation of affect among bodies which “surface” within the affective communities organized on Twitter through their alignment with and orientation by hashtags which ...


Difference Between Algorithmic Processing And The Process Of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt), Domenico Schneider May 2019

Difference Between Algorithmic Processing And The Process Of Lifeworld (Lebenswelt), Domenico Schneider

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The following article compares the temporality of the life-world with the digital processing. The temporality of the life-world is determined to be stretched and spontaneous. The temporality of the digital is given by discrete step-by-step points of time. Most ethical issues can be traced back to a mismatch of these two ways of processing. This creates a foundation for the ethics of the digital processing. Methodologically, phenomenological considerations are merged with media-philosophical considerations in the article.


Rethinking Algorithmic Bias Through Phenomenology And Pragmatism, Johnathan C. Flowers May 2019

Rethinking Algorithmic Bias Through Phenomenology And Pragmatism, Johnathan C. Flowers

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

In 2017, Amazon discontinued an attempt at developing a hiring algorithm which would enable the company to streamline its hiring processes due to apparent gender discrimination. Specifically, the algorithm, trained on over a decade’s worth of resumes submitted to Amazon, learned to penalize applications that contained references to women, that indicated graduation from all women’s colleges, or otherwise indicated that an applicant was not male. Amazon’s algorithm took up the history of Amazon’s applicant pool and integrated it into its present “problematic situation,” for the purposes of future action. Consequently, Amazon declared the project a failure ...


Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller May 2019

Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Autonomous vehicle manufacturers, people inside an autonomous vehicle (occupants), and people outside the vehicle (non-occupants) are among the distinct stakeholders when addressing ethical issues inherent in systems that include autonomous vehicles. As responses to recent tragic cases illustrate, advocates for autonomous vehicles tend to focus on occupant safety, sometimes to the exclusion of non-occupant safety. Thus, we aim to examine ethical issues associated with non-occupant safety, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and riders of motorized scooters. We also explore the ethical implications of technical and policy ideas that some might propose to improve non-occupant safety. In addition, if safety (writ large ...


The Right To Human Intervention: Law, Ethics And Artificial Intelligence, Maria Kanellopoulou - Botti, Fereniki Panagopoulou, Maria Nikita, Anastasia Michailaki May 2019

The Right To Human Intervention: Law, Ethics And Artificial Intelligence, Maria Kanellopoulou - Botti, Fereniki Panagopoulou, Maria Nikita, Anastasia Michailaki

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

The paper analyses the new right of human intervention in use of information technology, automatization processes and advanced algorithms in individual decision-making activities. Art. 22 of the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provides that the data subject has the right not to be subject to a fully automated decision on matters of legal importance to her interests, hence the data subject has a right to human intervention in this kind of decisions.


Security Risk Tolerance In Mobile Payment: A Trade-Off Framework, Yong Chen Jul 2018

Security Risk Tolerance In Mobile Payment: A Trade-Off Framework, Yong Chen

Information Technology & Decision Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Security is identified as a major barrier for consumers in adopting mobile payment. Although existing literature has incorporated security into the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance, and the Use of Technology (UTAUT) and it has investigated the way in which security affects consumers’ acceptance of mobile payment, security is a factor only in diverse research models. Studies of mobile payment that focus on security are not available. Additionally, previous studies of mobile payment are based on Direct Carrier Billing- (DCB)-based mobile payment or Near Field Communication- (NFC)-based mobile payment. The results regarding security might ...


Investigating Application Of The Self-Explanation Learning Strategy During An Instructional Simulation, Paul Michael Macloughlin Apr 2018

Investigating Application Of The Self-Explanation Learning Strategy During An Instructional Simulation, Paul Michael Macloughlin

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Computer-based simulations effectively support the acquisition of scientific knowledge when combined with a guided learning approach. Active learning drives complex cognitive processes that enable the integration of new information with existing knowledge. The iCAP (Interactive, Constructive, Active, Passive) Framework provides a conceptual model to describe different types of active learning. Computer-based simulations fit neatly within this framework. Similarly, self-explanation is a generative learning strategy that fits within this framework. Promoting self-explanation using instructional prompts is an effective method for driving application of the strategy. This study compared three combinations of self-explanation prompt and learner activity (closed prompts – overt activity, open ...


Civilians On The Battlefield: Creating A Realistic Training Aid For The United States Military, Aaron D. Beam Apr 2018

Civilians On The Battlefield: Creating A Realistic Training Aid For The United States Military, Aaron D. Beam

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The United States and our allies and partners have adopted a humane approach to warfare based on established principle of the laws of war centered on the principles of Military Necessity, Humanity, Proportionality, Distinction, and Honor. These principles dictate that US Military forces conduct warfare with a careful consideration of our impact on civilian populations with a special duty to protect and limit harm as much as possible given the accomplishment of a mission. Likewise, the US Military has developed a sound counterinsurgency and unified action military model that recognizes that warfare is not fought simply with kinetic force, but ...


Instructional Designer Awareness And Application Of Strategies To Manage Cognitive Load, Justin A. Sentz Apr 2018

Instructional Designer Awareness And Application Of Strategies To Manage Cognitive Load, Justin A. Sentz

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

This study examined how practicing instructional designers manage cognitive load in a standardized scenario as they select and implement instructional strategies, message design, content sequencing, and delivery media within various domains with learners at different levels of expertise. The study employed a quasi-experimental, mixed methods design to gain insight into how practicing instructional designers perceive their awareness of strategies to manage cognitive load and implement those strategies within a standardized design scenario. The research design involved the collection of quantitative data from the participants during an initial web-based questionnaire and a second collection of both quantitative and qualitative data as ...


Delving Into The Specificity Of Instructional Guidance In Social Media-Supported Learning Environments, Tian Luo Jan 2018

Delving Into The Specificity Of Instructional Guidance In Social Media-Supported Learning Environments, Tian Luo

STEMPS Faculty Publications

Aim/Purpose: This study investigates the variations in student participation patterns across different types of instructional activities, learning modes, and with different instructional guidance approaches. In the current study, different variables, modes of learning (guided versus unguided), and types of guidance (social versus cognitive) were manipulated in a series of microblogging-supported collaborative learning tasks to examine to what extent and in which aspects instructional guidance affects the effectiveness and student perception of microblogging-supported learning.

Background: Despite the overwhelming agreement on the importance of instructional guidance in microblogging-supported learning environments, very few studies have been done to examine the specificity of ...


The Use Of Reflective Questioning As A Peer Coaching Strategy In An Asynchronous Online Cognitive Apprenticeship, Jennifer Ashley Scott Brown Oct 2017

The Use Of Reflective Questioning As A Peer Coaching Strategy In An Asynchronous Online Cognitive Apprenticeship, Jennifer Ashley Scott Brown

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The cognitive apprenticeship framework melds situated, authentic learning with social learning theory. The learning strategies included in a cognitive apprenticeship are modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection, and exploration. Previous research indicates that the most beneficial strategy for the learner is coaching, and is also the most time-consuming strategy for the instructor. However, no previous research has been conducted to determine which coaching strategies can be utilized in order to lessen the burden on the instructor, while being beneficial to the learner.

The purpose of this study was to explore the use of guided reflective questions as a strategy for enhancing ...


Design Of A Virtual Laboratory For Automation Control, Zelin Zhu Jul 2017

Design Of A Virtual Laboratory For Automation Control, Zelin Zhu

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In the past, only students who studied on campus were able to access laboratory equipment in traditional lab courses; distance learning students, enrolled in online courses, were at a disadvantage for they could learn basic lab experiment principles but could never experience hands-on learning. Modeling and simulation can be a powerful tool for generating virtual laboratories for distance learning students. This thesis describes the design and development of a virtual laboratory for automation control using mechanical, electrical, and pneumatic components for an automation and control course at Old Dominion University. This virtual laboratory application was implemented for two platforms — Windows ...


Reconceptualizing The Work Of A Content Provider For An Online Audience: A Case Study For How Pedagogical Strategies Can Provide Models Of Engagement For Producers Of Entertainment, Diane Cooke Jul 2017

Reconceptualizing The Work Of A Content Provider For An Online Audience: A Case Study For How Pedagogical Strategies Can Provide Models Of Engagement For Producers Of Entertainment, Diane Cooke

English Theses & Dissertations

With the interconnectivity of the Internet, and the availability of affordable media compositional tools, the proliferation of online media continues to grow exponentially. However, each day is still comprised of a fixed 24 hours, with far fewer hours spent in active media consumption. Considering the global potential for content to be found (Moreville), discovered (Cormier) or spread (Jenkins), content providers are looking for ways to attract, cultivate and hopefully expand their audiences amid all this digital clutter. In the field of entertainment, this challenge is complicated when small content providers are not aligned with an online, curated network such as ...


Effects Of Light Intensity On Spatial Visualization Ability, Petros J. Katsioloudis ., Mildred Jones Apr 2017

Effects Of Light Intensity On Spatial Visualization Ability, Petros J. Katsioloudis ., Mildred Jones

STEMPS Faculty Publications

A plethora of technological advances have happened since artificial illumination was developed by Thomas Edison. Like technology has had an effect in many areas in the modern civilization it also made a difference in the classroom. Nowadays, students can have instruction in classrooms with no external windows, even during gloomy winter or rainy days, and virtually during any hour of the day. Several lightning devices are being used, ranging from energy efficient LEDs to fluorescent lighting. Some forms of lighting methods have been found to be inappropriate for prolonged exposure to the human eye such as various gas-discharge lamps that ...


An Eye Tracking Study To Investigate The Influence Of Language And Text Direction On Multimedia, Arwa Adulwahab Mashat Apr 2017

An Eye Tracking Study To Investigate The Influence Of Language And Text Direction On Multimedia, Arwa Adulwahab Mashat

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

This study investigated how native language orientation influences spatial bias, first visual fixation on screen, first visual fixation on pictures, learning outcomes, and mental effort of learners. Previous studies supported the effect of native language writing or reading direction on spatial bias, examining written text and images created by the participants (Barrett et al., 2002; Boroditsky, 2001; Chatterjee, Southwood & Basiko, 1999; Spalek & Hammad, 2005). However, no study investigated writing direction in multimedia presentations using eye tracking. This study addresses this gap.

A total of 84 participants completed the study forming four groups. The first group (NativeLeft_InstrEng) consisted of individuals whose native language is written from left to right and who have never experienced a right to left language. They received the material in English. The second group (NativeRight_InstrAra), whose native language is written from right to left, received the material in Arabic. The third group (NativeLeft_LrnRight_InstrEng) consists of individuals whose native language is written from left to right and who are learning or have learned a language written from right to left. They received the material in English. The fourth group (NativeRight_InstrEng), whose native language is written from right to left, received the material in English. Participants were asked to complete a survey that consisted of eight sections: demographic questions, self-estimate prior knowledge test, the instructional unit, mental effort rating, sentence forming questions, recalling questions, sequence question and finally, post-test questions. Eye tracking was used to detect first fixation on screen and pictures, and results were compared with participants’ written responses. Eye movements can be considered the blueprint for how students process the visual information (Underwood & Radach, 1998).

Significant results for learning and spatial bias confirmed that spatial bias is associated with native language orientation such that the left-oriented learners were more likely to demonstrate left bias on the screen, while participants who were right-oriented demonstrated right bias. However, exposure to other languages, culture, or beliefs; or living for some time in a country which uses a language with a different orientation can influence learner’s spatial bias, as seen with group NativeRight_InstrEng. Finally, differences in visual fixations on screen and pictures were not significant perhaps ...


Use Of Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays For Engineering Technology Students And Implications On Spatial Visualization, Petros Katsioloudis, Mildred Jones, Vukica Jovanovic Jan 2017

Use Of Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays For Engineering Technology Students And Implications On Spatial Visualization, Petros Katsioloudis, Mildred Jones, Vukica Jovanovic

STEMPS Faculty Publications

Results from a number of studies indicate that the use of head-mounted displays can influence spatial visualization ability; however, research provides inconsistent results. Considering this, a quasi-experimental study was conducted to identify the existence of statistically significant effects on rotational view drawing ability due to the impacts of the displays. In particular, the study compared the use of three different types of displays; head-mounted, pc dynamic and 3D printed and whether a significant difference exists towards rotational view drawing ability, among engineering technology students. According to the results of this study it is suggested that the impact of the display ...


Use Of Dynamic Visualizations For Engineering Technology, Industrial Technology, And Science Education Students: Implications On Ability To Correctly Create A Sectional View Sketch, Petros J. Katsioloudis, Daniel Dickerson, Vukica Jovanovic, Mildred V. Jones Jan 2016

Use Of Dynamic Visualizations For Engineering Technology, Industrial Technology, And Science Education Students: Implications On Ability To Correctly Create A Sectional View Sketch, Petros J. Katsioloudis, Daniel Dickerson, Vukica Jovanovic, Mildred V. Jones

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

Spatial abilities, specifically visualization, play a significant role in the achievement in a wide array of professions including, but not limited to, engineering, technical, mathematical, and scientific professions. However, there is little correlation between the advantages of spatial ability as measured through the creation of a sectional-view sketch between engineering technology, industrial technology, and science education students. A causal-comparative study was selected as a means to perform the comparative analysis of spatial visualization ability. This study was done to determine the existence of statistically significant difference between engineering technology, industrial technology, and science education students’ ability to correctly create a ...


Application Of Visual Cues On 3d Dynamic Visualizations For Engineering Technology Students And Effects On Spatial Visualization Ability: A Quasi-Experimental Study, Petros Katsioloudis, Vukica Jovanovic, Mildred Jones Jan 2016

Application Of Visual Cues On 3d Dynamic Visualizations For Engineering Technology Students And Effects On Spatial Visualization Ability: A Quasi-Experimental Study, Petros Katsioloudis, Vukica Jovanovic, Mildred Jones

STEMPS Faculty Publications

Several theorists believe that different types of visual cues influence cognition and behavior through learned associations; however, research provides inconsistent results. Considering this, a quasi-experimental study was done to determine if there are significant positive effects of visual cues (color blue) and to identify if a positive increase in spatial visualization ability for students in engineering technology courses is observed. According to the results of this study it is suggested that the use of the specific visual cue (color blue) provides no statistically significant higher scores versus the treatment that did not utilize any visual cues.


Impacts Of Music On Sectional View Drawing Ability For Engineering Technology Students As Measured Through Technical Drawings, Petros J. Katsioloudis, Mildred Jones, Vukica Jovanovic Jan 2016

Impacts Of Music On Sectional View Drawing Ability For Engineering Technology Students As Measured Through Technical Drawings, Petros J. Katsioloudis, Mildred Jones, Vukica Jovanovic

STEMPS Faculty Publications

Results from a number of studies indicate that the use of different types of music can influence cognition and behavior; however, research provides inconsistent results. Considering this, a quasi-experimental study was conducted to identify the existence of statistically significant effects on sectional view drawing ability due to the impacts of music. In particular, the study compared the use of three different types of music; classical, rock, heavy metal and whether a significant difference exists towards sectional view drawing ability, among engineering technology students. According to the results of this study it is suggested that the impact of music provides no ...


Assessing The Fit Between Child Welfare Information Systems And Frontline Workers: Development Of A Task-Technology Fit Instrument, Kurt William Heisler Jul 2014

Assessing The Fit Between Child Welfare Information Systems And Frontline Workers: Development Of A Task-Technology Fit Instrument, Kurt William Heisler

Health Services Research Dissertations

States and the federal government continue to invest heavily in child welfare information systems (CWIS) to improve caseworkers' performance, but the extent to which these systems meet caseworkers' needs is unclear. In the field of child welfare there are no reliable user-evaluation measures states can use to assess the degree to which a CWIS meets caseworkers' needs, and identify which specific features of the CWIS most need improvement. The study developed such a measure based on the task-technology fit (TTF) framework, which posits that users will evaluate the usefulness of a technology based on how well it meets their tasks ...


Designing Playful Games And Applications To Support Science Centers Learning Activities, Michail N. Giannakos, David Jones, Helen Crompton, Nikos Chrisochoides Jun 2014

Designing Playful Games And Applications To Support Science Centers Learning Activities, Michail N. Giannakos, David Jones, Helen Crompton, Nikos Chrisochoides

Teaching & Learning Faculty Publications

In recent years there has been a renewed interest on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Following this interest, science centers' staff started providing technology enhanced informal STEM education experiences. The use of well-designed mobile and ubiquitous forms of technology to enrich informal STEM education activities is an essential success factor. The goal of our research is to investigate how technology applications can be better used and developed for taking full advantage of the opportunities and challenges they provide for students learning about STEM concepts. In our approach, we have conducted a series of interviews with experts from science ...


Transparent Spectrum Co-Access In Cognitive Radio Networks, Jonathan Daniel Backens Apr 2014

Transparent Spectrum Co-Access In Cognitive Radio Networks, Jonathan Daniel Backens

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

The licensed wireless spectrum is currently under-utilized by as much as 85%. Cognitive radio networks have been proposed to employ dynamic spectrum access to share this under-utilized spectrum between licensed primary user transmissions and unlicensed secondary user transmissions. Current secondary user opportunistic spectrum access methods, however, remain limited in their ability to provide enough incentive to convince primary users to share the licensed spectrum, and they rely on primary user absence to guarantee secondary user performance. These challenges are addressed by developing a Dynamic Spectrum Co-Access Architecture (DSCA) that allows secondary user transmissions to co-access transparently and concurrently with primary ...


Toward A Formalism Of Modeling And Simulation Using Model Theory, Saikou Y. Diallo, Jose Padilla, Ross Gore, Heber Herencia-Zapana, Andreas Tolk Jan 2014

Toward A Formalism Of Modeling And Simulation Using Model Theory, Saikou Y. Diallo, Jose Padilla, Ross Gore, Heber Herencia-Zapana, Andreas Tolk

VMASC Publications

This article proposes a Modeling and Simulation (M&S) formalism using Model Theory. The article departs from the premise that M&S is the science that studies the nature of truth using models and simulations. Truth in models and simulations is relative as they seek to answer specific modeling questions. Consequently, truth in M&S is relative because every model is a purposeful abstraction of reality. We use Model Theory to express the proposed formalism because it is built from the premise that truth is relative. The proposed formalism allows us to: (1) deduce formal definitions and explanations of areas ...


Mobile Cloud Learning For Higher Education: A Case Study Of Moodle In The Cloud, Minjuan Wang, Yong Chen, Muhammad Jahanzaib Khan Jan 2014

Mobile Cloud Learning For Higher Education: A Case Study Of Moodle In The Cloud, Minjuan Wang, Yong Chen, Muhammad Jahanzaib Khan

Information Technology & Decision Sciences Faculty Publications

Mobile cloud learning, a combination of mobile learning and cloud computing, is a relatively new concept that holds considerable promise for future development and delivery in the education sectors. Cloud computing helps mobile learning overcome obstacles related to mobile computing. The main focus of this paper is to explore how cloud computing changes traditional mobile learning. A case study of the usage of Moodle in the cloud via mobile learning in Khalifa University was conducted.


Using Data Mining For Predicting Relationships Between Online Question Theme And Final Grade, M'Hammed Abdous, Wu He, Cherng-Jyh Yen Jan 2012

Using Data Mining For Predicting Relationships Between Online Question Theme And Final Grade, M'Hammed Abdous, Wu He, Cherng-Jyh Yen

Information Technology & Decision Sciences Faculty Publications

As higher education diversifies its delivery modes, our ability to use the predictive and analytical power of educational data mining (EDM) to understand students' learning experiences is a critical step forward. The adoption of EDM by higher education as an analytical and decision making tool is offering new opportunities to exploit the untapped data generated by various student information systems (SIS) and learning management systems (LMS). This paper describes a hybrid approach which uses EDM and regression analysis to analyse live video streaming (LVS) students' online learning behaviours and their performance in their courses. Students' participation and login frequency, as ...


Maturing International Cooperation To Address The Cyberspace Attack Attribution Problem, Jeff J. Mcneil Apr 2010

Maturing International Cooperation To Address The Cyberspace Attack Attribution Problem, Jeff J. Mcneil

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

One of the most significant challenges to deterring attacks in cyberspace is the difficulty of identifying and attributing attacks to specific state or non-state actors. The lack of technical detection capability moves the problem into the legal realm; however, the lack of domestic and international cyberspace legislation makes the problem one of international cooperation. Past assessments have led to collective paralysis pending improved technical and legal advancements. This paper demonstrates, however, that any plausible path to meaningful defense in cyberspace must include a significant element of international cooperation and regime formation.

The analytical approach diverges from past utilitarian-based assessments to ...


Telecommunications Technology And Sovereignty: Effects On States As Information Transfer Increased From The Speed Of Oxcart To The Speed Of Light, James H. Radford Jan 2005

Telecommunications Technology And Sovereignty: Effects On States As Information Transfer Increased From The Speed Of Oxcart To The Speed Of Light, James H. Radford

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Sovereignty---the absolute and unlimited power of the state---provides independence of action. Information about actions or intentions of competitors, enemies, or even friends, arriving after extended periods of time, resulted in responses to fait accompli. When information travels nearly instantaneously, states must consider potentially rapid international reactions before the fact. This suggests that since a state's freedom of action has been abridged, the nature of their sovereignty has altered.

This study pursues the research question: In what ways does telecommunications technology affect state sovereignty? The evolution of sovereignty is compared to development of telecommunications technology over four distinct eras, each ...


Ivr Test & Survey: A Computer Program To Collect Data Via Computerized Telephonic Applications, Louis H. Janda, Michael Janda, Eric Tedford Jan 2001

Ivr Test & Survey: A Computer Program To Collect Data Via Computerized Telephonic Applications, Louis H. Janda, Michael Janda, Eric Tedford

Psychology Faculty Publications

Several studies have demonstrated the advantages of using interactive voice response (IVR) technology to collect self-report data from research participants and recipients of psychological/medical services. IVR allows participants to phone a computer and respond to recorded questions by pressing the appropriate touch-tone keys on their telephone. Because this technology offers substantial benefits in terms of cost and efficiency, it is surprising that it has not been more widely utilized by researchers and practitioners. Along with the automation of the administration and scoring of tests or surveys, IVR provides for questioning to be adapted to the participants' responses. One possible ...


Information Technology And Wealth: Cybernetics, History And Economics, Elin Whitney-Smith Jan 1991

Information Technology And Wealth: Cybernetics, History And Economics, Elin Whitney-Smith

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Capitalism developed where and when it did because there was high information access. There was high information access because of a major advance in information technology--the press. Where the technology was not controlled by the "powers that be" there was economic growth and a shift in the entire social structure. Where it was controlled there was no structural change and there was economic ruin. The development of capitalism is a major step change in economic growth. It is also a major change in the way people organize themselves into groups.

Major step changes in the growth and in the organization ...