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Monomyth Or Monogamyth? Polyamory’S Conceptual Challenges To The Hero’S Journey, James K. Beggan Jul 2020

Monomyth Or Monogamyth? Polyamory’S Conceptual Challenges To The Hero’S Journey, James K. Beggan

Heroism Science

In the context of polyamorous relationships, a unicorn can be defined as a single, bisexual woman interested in forming a relationship with a heterosexual couple. Heroism scholars have suggested that the hero’s journey (or monomyth) can be used as a framework for understanding everyone’s life. By extension, it would be possible to frame the search for a receptive unicorn as a hero’s quest. Unicorn hunters are stigmatized by the general public for challenging the monogamyth, i.e., the monogamy norm. They are also criticized by the polyamorous community for privileging their own interests ahead of those of ...


Self-Directed Universalists: Social Heroes And Value-Oriented Challenges To Authority, Michael Condren Mar 2020

Self-Directed Universalists: Social Heroes And Value-Oriented Challenges To Authority, Michael Condren

Heroism Science

This study investigates the role of values in the actions of social heroes, which previous research has suggested may play a role in motivating principled challenges to authority. Kelman and Hamilton’s (1989) orientation to authority framework was used to identify when value-oriented challenges to authority – suggestive of later social heroism – first emerged in their lives, and the values associated with those behaviors. Analyses of archival interviews with 15 leaders of a social activist group found that all participants acted on a value orientation to authority, and they considered these actions to be important experiences in their development as social ...


Ethical Concerns Of Heroism Training, Brian R. Riches, Matt Langdon, Ari Kohen Feb 2020

Ethical Concerns Of Heroism Training, Brian R. Riches, Matt Langdon, Ari Kohen

Heroism Science

Heroism training programs originated in the mid-2000s with the goal to “Train everyday heroes” (Heroic Imagination Project, 2017). Most participants of these programs are students between the ages of 10 and 20. Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggests that these programs may create more courageous and prosocial people (Heiner, 2018; Kohen & Sólo, 2019), however there is very little discussion in the emerging academic field of heroism science about the potential ethical concerns of training minors to be heroes (Beggan, 2019; Franco & Zimbardo, 2016; Franco et al., 2017). Heroic action is inherently risky, and while training programs currently discuss mortality and risk assessment, minors have not developed the neural or cognitive capacity to assess risks as adults can. Furthermore, the content and goals of heroism training may go against schools’ and parents’ wishes ...


The Integration Of Transformation: Extending Campbell’S Monomyth, Susan L. Ross Feb 2020

The Integration Of Transformation: Extending Campbell’S Monomyth, Susan L. Ross

Heroism Science

Referring to Campbell’s lectures and the outcomes of one study about the integration of transformation, this paper argues that the hero’s journey (and transformation) is not accomplished unless the life-changing experience is psychospiritually integrated into daily life. Accordingly, Campbell contradicts his theory by suggesting that the monomyth finishes when (and if) the initiate, who has returned home, integrates by successfully finding a way to share the boon. The research clarifies that integrating involves nine phases and in combination, the hero-making process of transformation and integration follow a figure-8 pattern; an upper transformative and masculine-dominated hero’s journey and ...


Gratitude, Resilience And Post-Traumatic Growth Among Kidney Transplant Recipients, Lillie Credle Jan 2020

Gratitude, Resilience And Post-Traumatic Growth Among Kidney Transplant Recipients, Lillie Credle

Honors Theses

Chronic health conditions, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), can produce detrimental physical, psychological, and emotional effects (Schulz & Kroencke, 2015). While transplantation helps to alleviate the physical symptoms, other psychosocial problems can remain. The present study sought to investigate whether organ transplant recipients utilize certain strength-based attributes—gratitude, resilience, and post-traumatic growth—when coping with life post-transplant. This mixed-methods study recruited eight (N=8) kidney transplant recipients, who took part in semi-structured interviews followed by a survey. Though quantitative data was limited due to COVID-19 interruptions, the qualitative data revealed evidence of gratitude, resilience, and post-traumatic growth being used by ...


The Relationship Between Nature, Media Use And Psychosocial Well Being In A College Population, Eve Gilles Jan 2020

The Relationship Between Nature, Media Use And Psychosocial Well Being In A College Population, Eve Gilles

Honors Theses

Time in nature is associated with a variety of mental, physical and emotional health benefits while the effects of media use on psychosocial well being are unclear. Although our society is increasingly urbanized and technology-focused, there is a lack of research examining the relationship between nature, media and psychosocial well-being. The aim of this research was to explore these variables in a college-age population. Method: 82 participants participated in a survey using measures of Psychosocial Well Being, Media Use and Nature Connection and Exposure. Results: Media use partially mediates the relationship between nature relatedness and social anxiety. Conclusions: There is ...


Associations Between Hookup Culture And Social Group, Ross Abrash Jan 2020

Associations Between Hookup Culture And Social Group, Ross Abrash

Honors Theses

Differences in hookup culture and behavior were examined across different social groups at the University of Richmond. Specifically, I examined the difference between Greek life members, varsity athletes, and the general student population. The sample consisted of 174 students (123 females, 51 males) from the University of Richmond. The sample was 33.3% Greek life, 25.9% varsity athletes, and 40.8% general student population. I distributed a web-based survey for participants to complete in a quiet place of their choosing. Fraternity members, sorority members, and male athletes scored higher than the comparison group on a measure of personal attitudes ...


The Crowbar Sabotaged The Machine: Effects Of Verb Intentionality And Syntactic Structure On Fixation Times During Reading, Michael Pittman Jan 2020

The Crowbar Sabotaged The Machine: Effects Of Verb Intentionality And Syntactic Structure On Fixation Times During Reading, Michael Pittman

Honors Theses

Research conducted by linguists has indicated that inanimate entities are incompatible with verbs that connote intentionality because inanimate entities lack the facilities to complete intentional actions. However, there are currently no studies that have analyzed this inappropriate relationship in real-time. To address this gap, the current eye-tracking experiment investigated the infelicitous nature of this relationship, as well as how it may be modulated by different syntactic structures. The experiment implemented a 2 x 2 within-subjects design, in which the independent variables were verb type (neutral versus intentional) and syntactic structure (main clause versus relative clause), and the dependent variables were ...


“Put Your Phone Down, And Say Hi!” Cultivating Positivity Resonance At Ur, Natalie Szumel Jan 2020

“Put Your Phone Down, And Say Hi!” Cultivating Positivity Resonance At Ur, Natalie Szumel

Honors Theses

The goal of this study is to advance our understanding of outcomes related to experiencing positivity resonance and additionally to examine the role of technology as a potential barrier to experiencing positivity resonance (PR). I expect to see positivity resonance associated with physical, psychological, and social well-being, while phone use will predict lower levels of positivity resonance.

This study is unique because it focuses on a college campus population and analyses how their well-being is affected by their social behaviors. This study is especially important for a campus like UR given how segregated and exclusive the student population has become ...


Public Perceptions And Knowledge Of Transplantation, Kimberly Smith Jan 2020

Public Perceptions And Knowledge Of Transplantation, Kimberly Smith

Honors Theses

Objective: Organ transplantation is currently the most preferred treatment method for end-stage organ disease. Despite this fact, the need for transplants is currently higher than the availability of organs, resulting in approximately 20 deaths each day. The objective of this study was to use qualitative research methods to better understand attitudes towards and public knowledge of organ transplantation. Method: Fourteen focus groups with 58 participants were conducted by a research team. Thematic analyses were conducted using a phenomenological framework. Results: Knowledge of the transplant process was found to play a critical role in one’s decision to donate an organ ...


Book Review: No Greater Love: How My Family Survived The Genocide In Rwanda, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann Oct 2019

Book Review: No Greater Love: How My Family Survived The Genocide In Rwanda, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann

Heroism Science

Tharcisse Seminega is an ethnic Tutsi who survived the 1994 Rwandan genocide, along with his wife and all five of his children. His book, No Greater Love: How My Family Survived the Genocide in Rwanda, is his memoir of growing up in Rwanda and surviving the genocide. The book also contains shorter memoirs by his wife and some of his children, some short pieces by some of his rescuers, a selection of documentary evidence, and a timeline of the genocide. The heroes who helped the Seminega family were conditioned to rescue others before the genocide occurred. As the rescuers’ own ...


Heroic Consciousness, Scott T. Allison Sep 2019

Heroic Consciousness, Scott T. Allison

Heroism Science

This article describes heroic consciousness – how heroes perceive, experience, and think about the world. I describe the transformation of consciousness from its pre-heroic state to its heroic state. Pre-heroic consciousness is characterized by nescient and maladaptive thinking, dualism, separation, mono-rationality, and a naïve sense of empowerment. Heroic consciousness is exemplified by nondualism, unity, transrationality, and the wisdom of tempered empowerment. Heroic consciousness is achieved via three routes: (1) traversing the hero’s journey, (2) effective use of specific spiritual practices, and/or (3) participation in hero training programs. I discuss the implications of heroic consciousness for individual and global well-being.


Reviewing The Heroic Experience: A Humanistic And Existential Counselling Perspective, Peter Bray, Peter James Aug 2019

Reviewing The Heroic Experience: A Humanistic And Existential Counselling Perspective, Peter Bray, Peter James

Heroism Science

Taking a humanistic and existential counselling stance, this brief review of heroism and the heroic experience begins by discussing the utility and structure of Joseph Campbell’s (1949) monomythic narrative of the hero’s journey, whilst considering the Jungian conceptualisation of the archetype and the collective unconscious. With their shared assumptions about transformation and growth, modern psychology and the therapeutic practice of counselling and psychotherapy are reviewed in terms of their utilisation of the hero-journey as a developmental metaphor for clients, particularly in trauma recovery. It is also suggested that, as a metaphor for transformation, Campbell’s hero-narrative may also ...


For Whose Greater Good? The Case Of Hero-Making: Girch And Darius, Gražina Kristina Sviderskyte Aug 2019

For Whose Greater Good? The Case Of Hero-Making: Girch And Darius, Gražina Kristina Sviderskyte

Heroism Science

This article reviews an investigation into the case of Stanley Girch (aka Girėnas) and Stephen William Darius as (multi)transfigured and transforming heroes and seeks to examine a two-fold assumption that has emerged in heroism science, namely that people create heroes mostly for the better and that learning from the past can help assess which heroes are needed. We argue that it may be beneficial to shift the focus of the analysis and follow the reverse course of a hero’s journey, tracing the impact, evolution and origin of the heroic status ascribed to the historical figures, whether individual or ...


On The Downside Of Heroism: Grey Zone Limitations On The Value Of Social And Physical Risk Heroism, James K. Beggan Jul 2019

On The Downside Of Heroism: Grey Zone Limitations On The Value Of Social And Physical Risk Heroism, James K. Beggan

Heroism Science

Implicit lay views of heroes are overwhelmingly positive and do not focus on the potential problems that may result from heroic behavior. Similarly, a rarely challenged assumption of heroism research is that heroic behavior represents a social good that should be rewarded, encouraged, and even taught. Yet it is not difficult to demonstrate empirically that heroic behavior, regardless of how well intended, can backfire and hurt, rather than help, the would-be helper, the target of helping, and third parties in the background. By extension, training programs that promote heroism can be of questionable value to the extent that they encourage ...


The State Of The Art (And Science) Of Heroism: Growth, Paradigms, And Future Directions In An Emerging Field, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella Jul 2019

The State Of The Art (And Science) Of Heroism: Growth, Paradigms, And Future Directions In An Emerging Field, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella

Heroism Science

Although less than a decade old, the nascent field of heroism science has enjoyed considerable growth in the form of publication output, a regular conference series, and a flagship journal. We briefly discuss the tradeoffs of heroism science’s paradigmatic multiplicity. Moreover, we offer several observations about the future direction of heroism science, with emphasis on bridging gaps with allied field, embracing cultural diversity, taking a more critical stance, building academic rigor, and developing better measures of heroism. We conclude with a call for the formation of an international professional organization and for the stronger academic legitimation of heroism science.


Embracing Relapse: For College Students, Consider It A Gift, Charlynn Small Jul 2019

Embracing Relapse: For College Students, Consider It A Gift, Charlynn Small

University Staff Publications

The transition from high school to college can be an awesome experience. In addition to establishing independence from parents, students need to learn how to negotiate the norms of new social groups, set healthy boundaries, and make decisions about finances, academics and career planning. Other more personal decisions include whether to engage in sex or substance use. Faced with these kinds of decisions, many of which have serious consequences, students can easily become overwhelmed.


Cultural Differences In Perception Of Heroes: Greece, India, And The Usa, Smaragda P. Spyrou, Alexa M. Bertrand, Scott T. Allison Jun 2019

Cultural Differences In Perception Of Heroes: Greece, India, And The Usa, Smaragda P. Spyrou, Alexa M. Bertrand, Scott T. Allison

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Abstract:

Hypothesis: The cultural background of an individual will have a significant effect on their perception of heroes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how one’s cultural background may affect one’s perception of heroes. The results of Study 1 revealed significant cultural differences in ratings of heroic traits. Study 2 employed a trait-sorting and hero-sorting task to explore underlying categories of traits and heroes across cultures. The results again revealed substantial cultural differences, suggesting that heroes, heroic traits, and heroism in general are all constructions of one’s culture and nationality.


“It’S Part Of My Responsibility To Help”: Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara A. Cloonan, Kristjen B. Lundberg Jun 2019

“It’S Part Of My Responsibility To Help”: Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara A. Cloonan, Kristjen B. Lundberg

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

A growing field of research has emerged to examine the processes by which people manage their own emotions as well as the emotions of others during social interactions, a set of phenomena broadly known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Within this broad category, extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) refers specifically to the processes by which an individual targets and attempts to regulate the emotions of others (Zaki & Williams, 2013). Recent work by Netzer et al. (2015) has explored the emotion-related goals people have when engaging in EER, suggesting that both hedonic and instrumental goals may motivate these regulation attempts. We ...


Prosocialization: Lessons Learned From The Upbringing Of Holocaust Heroes, Stephanie Fagin-Jones May 2019

Prosocialization: Lessons Learned From The Upbringing Of Holocaust Heroes, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

Research on factors associated with heroic rescue during the Holocaust suggest that the parenting and upbringing of the rescuer was significant (Ganz, 1993; Oliner & Oliner, 1988). The research suggests that heroic altruism during the Holocaust was but a natural extension of the rescuers’ integrated moral identities reflecting deep-seated instincts, predispositions, and habitual patterns established in early upbringing according to moral parenting practices, that when acted upon conferred the deepest feelings of meaning, life satisfaction, and sustained well-being across the life-span. This paper explores the implications of these and other findings from the research on heroism during the Holocaust, specifically, how ...


Beyond The Campus: Heroism As A Case Study For Extending Researchers' Influence Through K-12 Lesson Plans, Ari Kohen, Andre Solo Feb 2019

Beyond The Campus: Heroism As A Case Study For Extending Researchers' Influence Through K-12 Lesson Plans, Ari Kohen, Andre Solo

Heroism Science

As a result of their training, college professors are subject matter experts who have the task of conveying ideas to students and to the public at large. They accomplish this, in large measure, through their research and their teaching. In this article, we consider an important alternative way in which professors can broaden their reach by creating lesson plans for students beyond their own classrooms—at very little time investment. We use as a case study our own lesson plan on heroism, which draws on expertise in political theory and psychology, in order to demonstrate the way in which such ...


Wounded Heroes And Heroic Vocations: Heroism And The Storied Lives Of Therapists, Peter Bray Jan 2019

Wounded Heroes And Heroic Vocations: Heroism And The Storied Lives Of Therapists, Peter Bray

Heroism Science

For many the world can be a dangerous place. Life is random. Survival is conditional, and individuals inevitably sustain physical and psychological wounds along the way. Challenged by change, human beings seek meaning in the making and remaking of personal myths that acknowledge both failure and the heroic achievement to endure and flourish. Revealing the heroic character of their creators, this impulse to make and share stories also elevates prosaic, day-to-day struggles into inspirational tales that can transcend context and speak into others’ lives. The sharing of stories permits others to purposefully consider their own struggles and can inspires them ...


Evaluating Joseph Campbell's Underexplored Ideas In The Light Of Modern Psychology, Leonard L. Martin, James Conners, Jacqueline A. Newbold Jan 2019

Evaluating Joseph Campbell's Underexplored Ideas In The Light Of Modern Psychology, Leonard L. Martin, James Conners, Jacqueline A. Newbold

Heroism Science

Joseph Campbell was a scholar of mythology and comparative religion who attained great popularity by promoting the value of mythology in people's lives. Interestingly, he attained this status even though there was little scientific evidence for his ideas. In recent years, researchers have begun to evaluate Campbell's ideas in rigorous, empirical ways, with most of this research being focused on the implications of the hero's journey. There are still a number of Campbell's psychology-related ideas, however, that have not been evaluated scientifically. These are the ideas we evaluated in this paper. Because we focused on the ...


"It's Part Of My Responsibility To Help" : Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara Cloonan Jan 2019

"It's Part Of My Responsibility To Help" : Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara Cloonan

Honors Theses

Previous research in the field of emotion regulation has largely focused on the ways in which we regulate our own emotions, but not as much work has been done to examine the processes by which we regulate the emotions of others. The current research aims to develop a measure of motivations for engaging in extrinsic emotion regulation (EER), with a focus on why we attempt to down-regulate negative emotional experiences of those around us. Study 1 used narrative responses to formulate and validate a qualitative coding schema for categorizing motives for engaging in EER. The wide variety of EER motivations ...


When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe Jan 2019

When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe

Honors Theses

The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) posits that as their future time perspective shrinks, older adults tend to be more motivated by emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age (Carstensen, 2006). The positivity effect had been studied in both attention biases (Isaacowitz et al., 2006a) and memory biases (Kensinger, 2008), with older adults dwelling longer on and better remembering the positive stimuli over the negative. Yet, few studies have measured emotional biases at both the encoding and retrieval phases, which is why this study uses eye-tracking to determine whether any biases in gaze patterns ...


Driving Anxiety In Young People With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Driving Simulator Pilot Study, Rebecca Pasch Jan 2019

Driving Anxiety In Young People With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Driving Simulator Pilot Study, Rebecca Pasch

Honors Theses

The goal of this project was to investigate how driving anxiety changes overtime in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when using a driving simulator technology. Additional exploratory measures were collected on duration of participation,. stopping distance, and reaction time.


Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As Treatment For Child Physical Abuse : Relation To Internalizing Symptoms, Emily Kaminsky Jan 2019

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As Treatment For Child Physical Abuse : Relation To Internalizing Symptoms, Emily Kaminsky

Honors Theses

This paper explores the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in reducing child internalizing symptoms in physically abused children as compared to the standard community group treatment. The data for this study was taken from a randomized control trial by Chaffinet al. (2004), which found that PCIT significantly reduced re-reports of physical abuse. The participants were 110 parent-child dyads referred by child welfare due to a recent report of child physical abuse. Both PCIT and the standard community group showed significant reductions in child internalizing symptoms over time, however there was no interaction effect between treatment group and time. Additionally ...


The Effects Of Health Literacy On Treatment Adherence And Health Optimism In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Heather Gardiner Jan 2019

The Effects Of Health Literacy On Treatment Adherence And Health Optimism In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Heather Gardiner

Honors Theses

Health literacy is a very critical aspect of a patient's recovery, and low levels of it have been correlated to a large range of negative health outcomes. Health literacy's effects on treatment adherence and health optimism was examined in a sample of 32 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients who were recruited from a transplant center in the southeastern section of the United States. Participants had a mean age of 47.55, with 45.2% (n=14) of the participants being female and 54.8% (n=17) being Caucasian.The participants completed a survey, which incorporated the tools of ...


The Effect Of Health Literacy On Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Health Outcomes, Mia Castagnero Jan 2019

The Effect Of Health Literacy On Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Health Outcomes, Mia Castagnero

Honors Theses

The current study seeks to enhance knowledge of health literacy among patients diagnosed with CKD. Identifying gaps in kidney-specific health literacy may help direct specific interventions to improve patient education and support. The goal of the current study is to investigate the associations between health literacy (general health literacy and kidney-specific health literacy) and patient health outcomes, such as medication adherence and barriers in access to care.


It's Written All Over Your Face : Examining The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Empathic Accuracy, Megan Roherbeck Wirtz Jan 2019

It's Written All Over Your Face : Examining The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Empathic Accuracy, Megan Roherbeck Wirtz

Honors Theses

What, exactly, is the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and emotional intelligence? Is it possible that emotional intelligence can explain the well-established positive relationship between SES and wellbeing? The purpose of this study was to investigate a) a potential mediational pathwaybetween SES, emotional intelligence, and wellbeing and b) conflicting research in the relationship between SES and emotional intelligence. This study was conducted using avariety of measures of socioeconomic status and wellbeing, as well as a performance-based measure of empathic accuracy.