Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Psychology

University of Richmond

Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 562

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

The State Of The Art (And Science) Of Heroism: Growth, Paradigms, And Future Directions In An Emerging Field, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella Jul 2019

The State Of The Art (And Science) Of Heroism: Growth, Paradigms, And Future Directions In An Emerging Field, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella

Heroism Science

Although less than a decade old, the nascent field of heroism science has enjoyed considerable growth in the form of publication output, a regular conference series, and a flagship journal. We briefly discuss the tradeoffs of heroism science’s paradigmatic multiplicity. Moreover, we offer several observations about the future direction of heroism science, with emphasis on bridging gaps with allied field, embracing cultural diversity, taking a more critical stance, building academic rigor, and developing better measures of heroism. We conclude with a call for the formation of an international professional organization and for the stronger academic legitimation of heroism science.


Cultural Differences In Perception Of Heroes: Greece, India, And The Usa, Smaragda P. Spyrou, Alexa M. Bertrand, Scott T. Allison Jun 2019

Cultural Differences In Perception Of Heroes: Greece, India, And The Usa, Smaragda P. Spyrou, Alexa M. Bertrand, Scott T. Allison

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Abstract:

Hypothesis: The cultural background of an individual will have a significant effect on their perception of heroes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how one’s cultural background may affect one’s perception of heroes. The results of Study 1 revealed significant cultural differences in ratings of heroic traits. Study 2 employed a trait-sorting and hero-sorting task to explore underlying categories of traits and heroes across cultures. The results again revealed substantial cultural differences, suggesting that heroes, heroic traits, and heroism in general are all constructions of one’s culture and nationality.


“It’S Part Of My Responsibility To Help”: Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara A. Cloonan, Kristjen B. Lundberg Jun 2019

“It’S Part Of My Responsibility To Help”: Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara A. Cloonan, Kristjen B. Lundberg

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

A growing field of research has emerged to examine the processes by which people manage their own emotions as well as the emotions of others during social interactions, a set of phenomena broadly known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Within this broad category, extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) refers specifically to the processes by which an individual targets and attempts to regulate the emotions of others (Zaki & Williams, 2013). Recent work by Netzer et al. (2015) has explored the emotion-related goals people have when engaging in EER, suggesting that both hedonic and instrumental goals may motivate these regulation attempts. We ...


Prosocialization: Lessons Learned From The Upbringing Of Holocaust Heroes, Stephanie Fagin-Jones May 2019

Prosocialization: Lessons Learned From The Upbringing Of Holocaust Heroes, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

Research on factors associated with heroic rescue during the Holocaust suggest that the parenting and upbringing of the rescuer was significant (Ganz, 1993; Oliner & Oliner, 1988). The research suggests that heroic altruism during the Holocaust was but a natural extension of the rescuers’ integrated moral identities reflecting deep-seated instincts, predispositions, and habitual patterns established in early upbringing according to moral parenting practices, that when acted upon conferred the deepest feelings of meaning, life satisfaction, and sustained well-being across the life-span. This paper explores the implications of these and other findings from the research on heroism during the Holocaust, specifically, how ...


Beyond The Campus: Heroism As A Case Study For Extending Researchers' Influence Through K-12 Lesson Plans, Ari Kohen, Andre Solo Feb 2019

Beyond The Campus: Heroism As A Case Study For Extending Researchers' Influence Through K-12 Lesson Plans, Ari Kohen, Andre Solo

Heroism Science

As a result of their training, college professors are subject matter experts who have the task of conveying ideas to students and to the public at large. They accomplish this, in large measure, through their research and their teaching. In this article, we consider an important alternative way in which professors can broaden their reach by creating lesson plans for students beyond their own classrooms—at very little time investment. We use as a case study our own lesson plan on heroism, which draws on expertise in political theory and psychology, in order to demonstrate the way in which such ...


Wounded Heroes And Heroic Vocations: Heroism And The Storied Lives Of Therapists, Peter Bray Jan 2019

Wounded Heroes And Heroic Vocations: Heroism And The Storied Lives Of Therapists, Peter Bray

Heroism Science

For many the world can be a dangerous place. Life is random. Survival is conditional, and individuals inevitably sustain physical and psychological wounds along the way. Challenged by change, human beings seek meaning in the making and remaking of personal myths that acknowledge both failure and the heroic achievement to endure and flourish. Revealing the heroic character of their creators, this impulse to make and share stories also elevates prosaic, day-to-day struggles into inspirational tales that can transcend context and speak into others’ lives. The sharing of stories permits others to purposefully consider their own struggles and can inspires them ...


Evaluating Joseph Campbell's Underexplored Ideas In The Light Of Modern Psychology, Leonard L. Martin, James Conners, Jacqueline A. Newbold Jan 2019

Evaluating Joseph Campbell's Underexplored Ideas In The Light Of Modern Psychology, Leonard L. Martin, James Conners, Jacqueline A. Newbold

Heroism Science

Joseph Campbell was a scholar of mythology and comparative religion who attained great popularity by promoting the value of mythology in people's lives. Interestingly, he attained this status even though there was little scientific evidence for his ideas. In recent years, researchers have begun to evaluate Campbell's ideas in rigorous, empirical ways, with most of this research being focused on the implications of the hero's journey. There are still a number of Campbell's psychology-related ideas, however, that have not been evaluated scientifically. These are the ideas we evaluated in this paper. Because we focused on the ...


"It's Part Of My Responsibility To Help" : Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara Cloonan Jan 2019

"It's Part Of My Responsibility To Help" : Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara Cloonan

Honors Theses

Previous research in the field of emotion regulation has largely focused on the ways in which we regulate our own emotions, but not as much work has been done to examine the processes by which we regulate the emotions of others. The current research aims to develop a measure of motivations for engaging in extrinsic emotion regulation (EER), with a focus on why we attempt to down-regulate negative emotional experiences of those around us. Study 1 used narrative responses to formulate and validate a qualitative coding schema for categorizing motives for engaging in EER. The wide variety of EER motivations ...


The Effects Of Health Literacy On Treatment Adherence And Health Optimism In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Heather Gardiner Jan 2019

The Effects Of Health Literacy On Treatment Adherence And Health Optimism In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Heather Gardiner

Honors Theses

Health literacy is a very critical aspect of a patient's recovery, and low levels of it have been correlated to a large range of negative health outcomes. Health literacy's effects on treatment adherence and health optimism was examined in a sample of 32 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients who were recruited from a transplant center in the southeastern section of the United States. Participants had a mean age of 47.55, with 45.2% (n=14) of the participants being female and 54.8% (n=17) being Caucasian.The participants completed a survey, which incorporated the tools of ...


When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe Jan 2019

When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe

Honors Theses

The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) posits that as their future time perspective shrinks, older adults tend to be more motivated by emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age (Carstensen, 2006). The positivity effect had been studied in both attention biases (Isaacowitz et al., 2006a) and memory biases (Kensinger, 2008), with older adults dwelling longer on and better remembering the positive stimuli over the negative. Yet, few studies have measured emotional biases at both the encoding and retrieval phases, which is why this study uses eye-tracking to determine whether any biases in gaze patterns ...


Driving Anxiety In Young People With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Driving Simulator Pilot Study, Rebecca Pasch Jan 2019

Driving Anxiety In Young People With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Driving Simulator Pilot Study, Rebecca Pasch

Honors Theses

The goal of this project was to investigate how driving anxiety changes overtime in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when using a driving simulator technology. Additional exploratory measures were collected on duration of participation,. stopping distance, and reaction time.


Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As Treatment For Child Physical Abuse : Relation To Internalizing Symptoms, Emily Kaminsky Jan 2019

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As Treatment For Child Physical Abuse : Relation To Internalizing Symptoms, Emily Kaminsky

Honors Theses

This paper explores the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in reducing child internalizing symptoms in physically abused children as compared to the standard community group treatment. The data for this study was taken from a randomized control trial by Chaffinet al. (2004), which found that PCIT significantly reduced re-reports of physical abuse. The participants were 110 parent-child dyads referred by child welfare due to a recent report of child physical abuse. Both PCIT and the standard community group showed significant reductions in child internalizing symptoms over time, however there was no interaction effect between treatment group and time. Additionally ...


The Effect Of Health Literacy On Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Health Outcomes, Mia Castagnero Jan 2019

The Effect Of Health Literacy On Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Health Outcomes, Mia Castagnero

Honors Theses

The current study seeks to enhance knowledge of health literacy among patients diagnosed with CKD. Identifying gaps in kidney-specific health literacy may help direct specific interventions to improve patient education and support. The goal of the current study is to investigate the associations between health literacy (general health literacy and kidney-specific health literacy) and patient health outcomes, such as medication adherence and barriers in access to care.


It's Written All Over Your Face : Examining The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Empathic Accuracy, Megan Roherbeck Wirtz Jan 2019

It's Written All Over Your Face : Examining The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Empathic Accuracy, Megan Roherbeck Wirtz

Honors Theses

What, exactly, is the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and emotional intelligence? Is it possible that emotional intelligence can explain the well-established positive relationship between SES and wellbeing? The purpose of this study was to investigate a) a potential mediational pathwaybetween SES, emotional intelligence, and wellbeing and b) conflicting research in the relationship between SES and emotional intelligence. This study was conducted using avariety of measures of socioeconomic status and wellbeing, as well as a performance-based measure of empathic accuracy.


Group Dynamics: Seventh Edition, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2019

Group Dynamics: Seventh Edition, Donelson R. Forsyth

Bookshelf

Learn how group dynamics theory applies in the real world with the help of this best seller. Group Dynamics, 7th Edition, covers all major theories and topics pertaining to group and team processes. Focus on what's most important with clearly organized chapters and highlighted key points, and see how to apply concepts to actual groups through extended case studies -- one in every chapter. The author draws on examples from a range of disciplines including psychology, management, law, education, sociology, and political science to help you develop a deeper understanding of each topic that you'll take with you beyond ...


On The Bravery And Courage Of Heroes: Considering Gender, Elaine L. Kinsella, Timothy D. Ritchie, Eric R. Igou Jul 2018

On The Bravery And Courage Of Heroes: Considering Gender, Elaine L. Kinsella, Timothy D. Ritchie, Eric R. Igou

Heroism Science

Heroes are frequently described as both brave and courageous. Each adjective is often used interchangeably in public and academic discourse, despite historical and philosophical differences in their meaning. While research about heroes and heroism is burgeoning, little work has yet to provide a detailed analysis of specific hero features; indeed, there is a need for greater precision in our terminology and conceptual analyses of heroism. In the present article, we focus on two features of heroism, bravery and courage, and critically parse these terms and the pervasive gender stereotypes that are associated with each. We aim to spark critical discussions ...


A Theological Perspective On Heroic Leadership In The Context Of Followership And Servant Leadership, Deborah Robertson Jul 2018

A Theological Perspective On Heroic Leadership In The Context Of Followership And Servant Leadership, Deborah Robertson

Heroism Science

This article aims to bring a theological perspective to the concept of heroic leadership, specifically from a theology of leadership grounded in Christian social teaching, and with a focus on leadership in the workplace. A rationale for bringing a theological perspective to the exploration of heroic leadership within heroism science is provided, and there is discussion on the importance of followership in any dialogue about leadership, as well as the significance of servant leadership. It is argued that a Christian theology of leadership aligns closely with much of what is portrayed by a renewed heroic leadership in the areas of ...


The Underdog Narrative In Movies: When Our Memories Fail Us, Nadav Goldschmied, Jessica Ruiz, Sydney Olagaray Jul 2018

The Underdog Narrative In Movies: When Our Memories Fail Us, Nadav Goldschmied, Jessica Ruiz, Sydney Olagaray

Heroism Science

Heroes who win are adulated. Underdogs are a special class of heroes who are facing especially daunting odds. Why do people extend support to underdog entities in light of their bleak odds for triumph? The current study explored the idea that the underdog narrative is one of ultimate success and that this schema is strong enough to elicit false memories. We surveyed participants’ recollections of two boxing movies. As predicted, participants accurately remembered James Braddock beating the world champion in the end of Cinderella Man (underdog consistent plot) but failed to recall Apollo Creed beating Rocky Balboa in Rocky I ...


Book Review: Ordinary People Change The World, Stephanie Fagin-Jones Jul 2018

Book Review: Ordinary People Change The World, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

This paper reviews Ordinary People Change the World picture biography series, by New York Times Best-Selling author Brad Meltzer and award-winning illustrator Christopher Eliopoulos. The series offers children, parents, and teachers an indispensible resource toward cultivating the character traits and behaviors associated with heroism and heroic leadership. The extensively-researched, historically accurate series is comprised of eight books, each respectively entitled: I Am…Martin Luther King, Jr.; Albert Einstein; Amelia Earhart; Helen Keller; Rosa Parks; Jackie Robinson; Lucille Ball; and Abraham Lincoln. A major contribution of this book series lies in its ‘parallel process’: parents who share this series on the ...


Monomyth, Transformation And Inspiration: The Hero’S Journey In The Extreme Fitness Exercise Infomercial, James K. Beggan Jul 2018

Monomyth, Transformation And Inspiration: The Hero’S Journey In The Extreme Fitness Exercise Infomercial, James K. Beggan

Heroism Science

The monomyth or hero’s journey is often described as containing the stages of journey, transformation and return. Less attention has focused on a fourth stage, called inspiration, which discusses how the hero can then motivate and mentor a new generation of heroes. The present paper describes how the success stories of people profiled in extreme fitness infomercials can be understood as conforming to the structure of the monomyth. The way in which the infomercials document how the success stories can also be used to motivate and mentor future heroes illustrates the role of inspiration as the final component of ...


The Initiation Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison Jul 2018

The Initiation Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison

Heroism Science

In this article I describe the nascent field of heroism science, as part of a broader movement for the promotion of heroism in 21st century societies. I identify several markers of its emergence and offer reasons why the science is now coalescing into an established and autonomous field of inquiry. Moreover, I discuss the importance of maintaining a dynamic symbiotic relationship between the research and activist wings of the heroism movement. The aims and scope of heroism science are discussed, and reasons are offered for producing a science that is inclusive, transdisciplinary, and risk-taking. I examine all these issues within ...


Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson Feb 2018

Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson

Psychology Faculty Publications

What are the effects of word‐by‐word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large‐scale cumulative cloze task to collect word‐by‐word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal and entropy reduction values in a theory‐neutral manner. A separate group of participants ...


"Stitching Life Together” A Capstone Project, Jane M. Berry, Alex Bruno, Elizabeth Cooper, Stephanie Elmaleh, Olivia Lavin, Mallory Haskins, Peter Kade, Adrian Matthews, Gibran Merchant, Rachel Morris, Pascaline Munezero, Henna Ragoowansi, Alexandra Serek, William Tague, Ben Weinstein, Emily Wu Jan 2018

"Stitching Life Together” A Capstone Project, Jane M. Berry, Alex Bruno, Elizabeth Cooper, Stephanie Elmaleh, Olivia Lavin, Mallory Haskins, Peter Kade, Adrian Matthews, Gibran Merchant, Rachel Morris, Pascaline Munezero, Henna Ragoowansi, Alexandra Serek, William Tague, Ben Weinstein, Emily Wu

SSIR Presentations 2018

Our Sophomore Scholars in Residence class, Longevity and Happiness, made a quilt for its capstone project. Each member of the class (15 students, 1 faculty) designed and then sewed together a 12 x 12 inch square, based on a particular person or theme from the course. Most of the squares depict the lives of individuals we met and interviewed over the year, including several from Canada, where we traveled for fall break to interview the exceptionally long-lived individuals in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. We also interviewed several individuals from Richmond, VA. Throughout the spring semester, we learned and practiced our sewing ...


Improving Teacher Job Satisfaction: The Roles Of Social Capital, Teacher Efficacy, And Support, Suzanne K. Edinger, Matthew J. Edinger Jan 2018

Improving Teacher Job Satisfaction: The Roles Of Social Capital, Teacher Efficacy, And Support, Suzanne K. Edinger, Matthew J. Edinger

School of Professional and Continuing Studies Faculty Publications

In this study, we examine how social capital, teacher efficacy, and organizational support increase teacher job satisfaction. Research suggests that teachers worldwide are exceedingly dissatisfied with their jobs and have significantly higher levels of turnover than their counterparts in other professions. We investigate this phenomenon using a sample of 122 elementary school teachers. We found that teachers’ centrality position, or each teacher’s relationship with every other teacher, in their school’s trust network and the density of a teacher’s academic advice ego-network predicted the development of teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, we found that teacher efficacy mediated the relationship ...


Realignment, Region And Race: Presidential Leadership And Social Identity, George R. Goethals Jan 2018

Realignment, Region And Race: Presidential Leadership And Social Identity, George R. Goethals

Bookshelf

The Trump presidency may well be the first phase of a new American political alignment deeply rooted in identity politics. Now more than ever, it seems especially important to understand how leaders compete to engage different human motivations—how presidents, presidential candidates, and other political leaders appeal to potential followers' needs for economic well-being, safety, self-esteem, and a sense of significance. It is time to come to terms with the roles of race and region in US political history.

In Realignment, Region, and Race, George R. Goethals addresses this challenge head-on, exploring the place of racial dynamics in American politics ...


Attitude Change Intervention For Victim Blaming Of Sexual Assault, Catharine Sciolla Jan 2018

Attitude Change Intervention For Victim Blaming Of Sexual Assault, Catharine Sciolla

Honors Theses

This research explores the possibility of an Attitude Change based intervention for victim blaming following and surrounding incidents of sexual assault and sexual violence. The study aimed at creating an intervention to successfully decrease and minimize victim blaming attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and tendencies through a combination of internalization strategies, self-reference effects, and empirically supported attitude change methods. There were 149 participants who completed the study. Participants were tasked to complete a series questionnaires measuring Hostile sexism, Benevolent sexism, Just World Bias, Robbery Victim Blame, then complete the intervention, a brief educational reading and a self-generated response to a fictional rape ...


Family Composition And Outcomes Following Parental Bereavement In Childhood, Ari M. Kagan Jan 2018

Family Composition And Outcomes Following Parental Bereavement In Childhood, Ari M. Kagan

Honors Theses

The primary aim of this study is to compare the grief and stress related growth of individuals who have siblings and those who do not have siblings in the context of parental loss that occurred during childhood (before the age of 16). Adult participants provided self-report for the Traumatic Grief Inventory, Stress Related Growth Scale, and other related measures. We hypothesized only children who were bereaved during childhood would report higher levels of grief and lower levels of stress related growth compared to those with siblings who were bereaved during childhood. Multivariate analyses focus on grief and stress related growth ...


Preferring Positivity : Age Differences In Judgments Of Learning And Memory For Emotionally-Valenced Words, Edie Sanders Jan 2018

Preferring Positivity : Age Differences In Judgments Of Learning And Memory For Emotionally-Valenced Words, Edie Sanders

Honors Theses

Many changes occur with age, including changes in emotion regulation and memory. The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (Carstensen, 2006) posits that older adults tend to be more concerned with emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age. The positivity effect results in a bias in attention and memory towards positive stimuli over neutral and negative stimuli. Age-related changes also arise in memory monitoring, specifically in Judgments of Learning (JOLs), when individuals learn emotional words. We examined the presence of the positivity effect in memory and JOLs for positive, negative, and neutral words. Younger and older ...


The Performance Implication Of Obsessive Work Passion: Unpacking The Moderating And Mediating Mechanisms From A Conservation Of Resources Perspective, Dejun Tony Kong, Violet T. Ho Jan 2018

The Performance Implication Of Obsessive Work Passion: Unpacking The Moderating And Mediating Mechanisms From A Conservation Of Resources Perspective, Dejun Tony Kong, Violet T. Ho

Management Faculty Publications

Work passion is an important determinant of work performance. While harmonious work passion (HWP) shows its consistent predictive value, obsessive work passion (OWP) appears to have a mixed relationship with work performance. To address this puzzle, we integrate research on OWP and emotional exhaustion with conservation of resources (COR) theory. Specifically, we argue that OWP determines emotional exhaustion, whose relationship with work performance is attenuated by leader-member exchange (LMX). By conducting a field study with a sample of 262 U.S. employees, we found supportive evidence, even when controlling for psychological detachment from work. The findings somewhat reconcile the inconsistent ...


Promoting Harmonious Work Passion Among Unmotivated Employees: A Two-Nation Investigation Of The Compensatory Function Of Cooperative Psychological Climate, Violet T. Ho, Dejun Tony Kong, Chay-Hoon Lee, Phillippe Dubreuil, Jacques Forest Jan 2018

Promoting Harmonious Work Passion Among Unmotivated Employees: A Two-Nation Investigation Of The Compensatory Function Of Cooperative Psychological Climate, Violet T. Ho, Dejun Tony Kong, Chay-Hoon Lee, Phillippe Dubreuil, Jacques Forest

Management Faculty Publications

This research draws on self-determination theory to investigate (a) the role of cooperative psychological climate in promoting harmonious work passion among employees with low intrinsic motivation; and (b) the mediating role of harmonious passion in linking cooperative psychological climate to behavioral outcomes. We propose that cooperative psychological climate facilitates harmonious passion and, in particular, plays a compensatory role among employees with low intrinsic motivation. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to facilitate both task performance and interpersonal helping, thereby linking cooperative psychological climate to these employee behaviors. We test the model using data from employees and their supervisors across two ...