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On Being Better But Not Smarter Than Others: The Muhammad Ali Effect, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, David M. Messick Sep 1989

On Being Better But Not Smarter Than Others: The Muhammad Ali Effect, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, David M. Messick

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Past research suggests that people believe that they perform socially desirable behaviors more frequently and socially undesirable behaviors less frequently than others (Goethals, 1986; Messick, Bloom, Boldizar, & Samuelson, 1985). The present research examined whether this perception also characterizes people's thinking about intelligent and unintelligent behaviors. In Study 1, subjects wrote lists of behaviors that they or others did. Subjects indicated that they performed more good and intelligent behaviors and fewer bad and unintelligent behaviors than others, although the magnitude of these differences was greater for good and bad acts than for intelligent and unintelligent ones. In Study 2, a ...


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator : Consistency As A Result Of Genuine And Discrepant Personality Type Feedback, Stephanie Ann Falk Aug 1989

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator : Consistency As A Result Of Genuine And Discrepant Personality Type Feedback, Stephanie Ann Falk

Master's Theses

Because of the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1988), psychological practitioners, consultants and researchers need to address implications of personality type feedbeck for clients, employees, and research subjects. This study investigated consistency of the MBTI as a result of genuine and discrepant personality type feedback. True and false feedback was expected to influence subjects in the directton of feedback given. Subjects were selected based on their Sensing-Intuitive (S-N) preference scores. Each of the forty subjects was given either true personality type feedback (TFG) or false personality type feedback (FFG), and then retested. Results showed that the ...


Facial And Pictorial Recognition As A Function Of Massed Versus Distributed Presentation And Imaging Instructions, John Allyn Cayard Aug 1989

Facial And Pictorial Recognition As A Function Of Massed Versus Distributed Presentation And Imaging Instructions, John Allyn Cayard

Master's Theses

Beneficial effects of distributed practice and rehearsal on recognition has been demonstrated in numerous memory studies for verbal stimuli and manual skills. However, no research has been reported using non-verbal, pictorial stimuli. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of pictorial rehearsal. The present research examines the effects of massed versus distributed practice and post-exposure imaging on pictorial memory. The first and third experiments used faces while the second used plant stimuli. In general, the results showed beneficial effects for post-presentation imaging. Presentation mode produced complex effects, but generally supported the superiority of distributed presentation. The results of Experiment ...


Training Potential Witnesses To Produce Higher Quality Face Composites, David Bradley Marwitz May 1989

Training Potential Witnesses To Produce Higher Quality Face Composites, David Bradley Marwitz

Master's Theses

This study attempted to determine if training and familiarization with a composite construction system would improve the quality of subjects' composite production. Subjects were trained in the use of the Mac-a-Mug Pro system over two sessions. During the course of the two meetings, subjects constructed eleven composites (six from memory and five with the face in-view) and were allowed time to practice with the system. Results suggests that the quality of subjects' composites improved with practice. However, training with the composite system prior to exposure to the first face did not lead to higher quality composites. These results have implications ...


Psychosocial Effects Of Juvenile Rheumatic Disease : The Family And Peer Systems As A Context For Coping, Jennifer Ann Harris May 1989

Psychosocial Effects Of Juvenile Rheumatic Disease : The Family And Peer Systems As A Context For Coping, Jennifer Ann Harris

Master's Theses

The psychosocial effects of juvenile rheumatic diseases and disease activity were examined among 24 families (12 with a rheumatic disease child, 12 with no chronic illness). Rheumatic disease children were paired with a healthy control child nominated by their classroom teacher. Family and child functioning was assessed through measures of stress, competence, coping, and adjustment while observations in the classroom were made to assess peer relations. MANOVA's and ANOVA's were performed to determine significant differences. Families with a child with inactive rheumatic disease tended to be less likely to seek out and accept help, more likely to put ...


Risk Perception And Precautionary Intent For Common Consumer Products, Elaine G. Martin Mar 1989

Risk Perception And Precautionary Intent For Common Consumer Products, Elaine G. Martin

Master's Theses

This study attempted to determine if accident scenario analysis reduces accident frequency misestimations and leads to heightened precautionary intent for products. Subjects generated or were provided with scenarios and made estimates. Other subjects made estimates at varying paces without analysis. These and an additional group then rated their precautionary intent for the products. Subjects also gave rating's for confidence in their estimations reported injury experience related to the products. No differences were found among the group correlations. Analyses showed that the Scenario groups performed no better and sometimes worse than the other groups. The Hurried subjects reported lower precautionary ...


Activation Of Social Heuristics In Social Decision Making Tasks As A Function Of Leadership Role Assignment, Amber B. Keating Jan 1989

Activation Of Social Heuristics In Social Decision Making Tasks As A Function Of Leadership Role Assignment, Amber B. Keating

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of assigning leadership roles implying varying degrees of social responsibility along with examining lay peoples' perceptions of these roles. Using 105 subjects, a 3 (leadership role) x 2 (resource type) design was used to examine how leaders make decisions about sharing resources in groups. First, 41 subjects rated the perceived degree of social responsibility for each of the 32 roles. In the next phase, another 64 subjects were assigned one of three leadership roles (supervisor, guide, or leader) and were asked to take that type of leader's deserved amount ...


Positive Distinctiveness And Intergroup Discrimination Between Intercollegiate Athletes And Nonathletes, Jean H. Pace Jan 1989

Positive Distinctiveness And Intergroup Discrimination Between Intercollegiate Athletes And Nonathletes, Jean H. Pace

Honors Theses

Past research has shown that individuals seek to establish a positively valued distinctiveness between their own group (ingroup) and other groups (outgroups) to maintain and enhance their self-esteem (Turner, 1981). The purpose of this study was to explore this issue further using intercollegiate student athletes and nonathletes as subjects. Ten athletes and ten nonathletes each generated lists of personality traits that they believed athletes and nonathletes possess. A different group of athletes and nonathletes (N=68) then rated the social desirability of these traits. The results revealed that each group attempted to differentiate itself positively from the other. Athletes and ...


Family Environments And The Development And Course Of Anorexia Nervosa, Amy E. Hewett Jan 1989

Family Environments And The Development And Course Of Anorexia Nervosa, Amy E. Hewett

Honors Theses

Preoccupation with physical appearance is a hallmark of adolescence, and distorted body images are common among teenage women in developed countries around the world. Obviously alI of these adolescents are not contracting eating disorders, and a distorted body image, although necessary, is not sufficient to induce anorexia. The mitigating factor appears to be family relations and environments. Previous research has noted unusual relationships among family members of anorexic girls. The present study contends that familial factors and environments powerfully direct both the move toward and the recovery from anorexia nervosa. It is hypothesized that high scores on the Family Environment ...


The Effects Of Caffeine On Operant Behavior In The Mongolian Gerbil, Stephanie L. Myers Jan 1989

The Effects Of Caffeine On Operant Behavior In The Mongolian Gerbil, Stephanie L. Myers

Honors Theses

The present study looks at the effects of stomach loads of caffeine on operant behavior in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Four male and four female gerbils were trained to a fixed interval schedule of 30 seconds with Noyes 4.5 mg rodent pellets used for reinforcement. A data collection and analysis package for Apple computers was used to measure the post-reinforcement response frequencies and number of reinforcements. Data was collected using a baseline of saline stomach loads of 1% of body weight, and then stomach loads of ascending concentrations caffeine mixed with saline (10, 20, 40, 60 mg/kg) with ...


Role Satisfaction In Working Mothers : A Comparison Of Occupational Status, Mary G. O'Donnell Jan 1989

Role Satisfaction In Working Mothers : A Comparison Of Occupational Status, Mary G. O'Donnell

Honors Theses

The effects of employment on a working mother's overall role satisfaction was examined as a function of occupational status (professional, middle management, working class). Sixty women of differing employment levels were given a questionnaire of items concerning their experiences as working mothers. Professional women were found to be at an advantage. They possesed significantly higher levels of work orientation and job satisfaction than both middle management and working class women, and higher levels of family satisfaction than working class women. Professional women were also slightly more satisfied with their roles, but this effect was not significant. A stepwise multiple ...


Prediction Of Reading Pesticide Warnings And Consumer Purchasing Intentions, Kathryn Anne Ponsi Jan 1989

Prediction Of Reading Pesticide Warnings And Consumer Purchasing Intentions, Kathryn Anne Ponsi

Honors Theses

Correlates of reading and noticing warnings on consumer products and of consumers' purchasing intentions were examined using ratings of 26 household pest-control products. Seventy college undergraduates were asked to respond to a 19-item questionnaire assessing subjects' perceptions of each product's packaging, labeling, and warning characteristics. Additional data was collected by coding the products for several packaging and warning characteristics, and product effectiveness. The results showed that the products perceived as more hazardous, potent, likely to cause injury, and difficult to use contained warnings that subjects reported they would more likely notice and read. A different cluster of variables were ...


Initial Dyadic Peer Interaction Of Adhd And Normal Children, Julie A. Hubbard Jan 1989

Initial Dyadic Peer Interaction Of Adhd And Normal Children, Julie A. Hubbard

Honors Theses

The present study assesses the nature of the behavior of ADHD children in an initial social encounter with a peer. Eight pairs each of previously unacquainted ADHD/normal and normal/normal children were videotaped as they interacted in a free-play setting for 30 minutes. All ADHD subjects were currently receiving psychostimulant medication. As compared to the normal/normal dyads, the ADHD/normal dyads engaged in more solitary play as well as less associative play. The ADHD/normal dyads also had a greater latency to reach rule-governed associative play and engaged in less affective verbalization than the normal/normal dyads. Sequential ...


The Correlation Between The Motive To Achieve And The Motive To Affiliate In College Women, Lisa Salladin Jan 1989

The Correlation Between The Motive To Achieve And The Motive To Affiliate In College Women, Lisa Salladin

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the motives to achieve and to affiliate in college senior women and to compare that correlation earlier findings that consistently produced a significant negative relationship. It has been suggested in the 1970's that for women achievement and affiliation were be_coming less adversarial and approaching a more balanced coexistence. These motivations were measured by the frequently utilized Edward's Personal Preference Schedule in an effort to help strengthen the comparability of the present results with those previous findings. Interviews were conducted in an effort to shed light on whether ...


Physical Self Efficacy, Injury, History And Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Athletes' Expected Recovery Actions In Response To Various Levels Of Injury Severity, Kristen R. Goldbach Jan 1989

Physical Self Efficacy, Injury, History And Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Athletes' Expected Recovery Actions In Response To Various Levels Of Injury Severity, Kristen R. Goldbach

Master's Theses

Athletes and coaches from a university athletic program at the highest level of competition in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and a college athletic program at the lowest level of competition participated in this project designed to study athletes expected recovery actions when presented with various levels of injury. Physical self-efficacy, locus of control and injury history were considered as mediators in the expected recovery processes including expected recovery time, the number of recovery strategies, and reaction to permission for competition after injury. The Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (Ryckman, Robbins, Thorton, & Cantrell, 1982) and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for ...


Semantic And Self-Referent Encoding Techniques And Recall Of Meanings Of Unfamiliar Adjectives, Maria K. Whittington Jan 1989

Semantic And Self-Referent Encoding Techniques And Recall Of Meanings Of Unfamiliar Adjectives, Maria K. Whittington

Master's Theses

In order to test the efficacy of levels of processing on memory, recall of unfamiliar adjectives among five encoding groups: a) semantic, b) self-reference specific, c) self-reference general, d) semantic (plural), and e) self-reference specific (plural) was examined. Introductory psychology students at the University of Richmond viewed twenty unfamiliar adjectives and definitions for forty-five seconds each, followed by a five minute distractor task and a seven minute test for recall of the definitions. A second seven minute recall test was administered one week later. There were no significant differences in recall between groups, but a significant effect of time upon ...


Creationist Resistance To Evolution: The Patriarchal Unconscious As The Key, Ladelle Mcwhorter, Robert B. Graber Jan 1989

Creationist Resistance To Evolution: The Patriarchal Unconscious As The Key, Ladelle Mcwhorter, Robert B. Graber

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Enlightened scientists and educators everywhere lament the persistence of disbelief in the process of evolution through natural selection, but they have done little to illuminate the psychological basis of this resistance. This neglect unfortunately applies even to psychoanalytic commentators, who, while uncovering oedipal elements in evolutionism, have remained silent about creationism. We believe, however, that psychoanalysis has much to offer toward a solution of the problem of creationism's persistence. In particular, we propose that evolutionary theory stirs a profound fear, rooted in the psychosexual developmental processes characterizing human society thus far, of female power.