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Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson Feb 2018

Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson

Psychology Faculty Publications

What are the effects of word‐by‐word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large‐scale cumulative cloze task to collect word‐by‐word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal and entropy reduction values in a theory‐neutral manner. A separate group of participants ...


The Performance Implication Of Obsessive Work Passion: Unpacking The Moderating And Mediating Mechanisms From A Conservation Of Resources Perspective, Dejun Tony Kong, Violet T. Ho Jan 2018

The Performance Implication Of Obsessive Work Passion: Unpacking The Moderating And Mediating Mechanisms From A Conservation Of Resources Perspective, Dejun Tony Kong, Violet T. Ho

Management Faculty Publications

Work passion is an important determinant of work performance. While harmonious work passion (HWP) shows its consistent predictive value, obsessive work passion (OWP) appears to have a mixed relationship with work performance. To address this puzzle, we integrate research on OWP and emotional exhaustion with conservation of resources (COR) theory. Specifically, we argue that OWP determines emotional exhaustion, whose relationship with work performance is attenuated by leader-member exchange (LMX). By conducting a field study with a sample of 262 U.S. employees, we found supportive evidence, even when controlling for psychological detachment from work. The findings somewhat reconcile the inconsistent ...


Development And Assessment Of The Korean Author Recognition Test, Hyosun Lee, Eunjin Seong, Wonil Choi, Matthew W. Lowder Jan 2018

Development And Assessment Of The Korean Author Recognition Test, Hyosun Lee, Eunjin Seong, Wonil Choi, Matthew W. Lowder

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research reports the development and evaluation of a Korean Author Recognition Test (KART), designed as a measure of print exposure among young adults. Based on the original, English-language version of the Author Recognition Test (ART), the KART demonstrates significant relationships with offline measures of language ability, as well as online measures of word recognition. In particular, KART scores were related to participants' responses on the Comparative Reading Habits (CRH) checklist, suggesting that KART is a valid measure of print exposure. In addition, KART scores showed reliable correlations with offline measures of vocabulary knowledge and language comprehension. Finally, results from ...


Predicting Entrepreneurial Burnout In A Moderated Mediated Model Of Job Fit, Eva De Mol, Violet T. Ho, Jeffrey M. Pollack Jan 2018

Predicting Entrepreneurial Burnout In A Moderated Mediated Model Of Job Fit, Eva De Mol, Violet T. Ho, Jeffrey M. Pollack

Management Faculty Publications

We introduce, and empirically test, a model of entrepreneurial burnout that highlights the relationships among job fit, entrepreneurial passion, destiny beliefs, and burnout. Using a sample of 326 individuals involved in entrepreneurial jobs, we tested the link between job fit and two forms of passion—harmonious and obsessive—and the moderating role of entrepreneurs' destiny beliefs about work (i.e., the belief that a successful career is “meant to be”). Findings illustrated that their job fit perceptions were positively related to harmonious passion, which in turn negatively predicted burnout. Additionally, the relationship between job fit and obsessive passion was moderated ...


Promoting Harmonious Work Passion Among Unmotivated Employees: A Two-Nation Investigation Of The Compensatory Function Of Cooperative Psychological Climate, Violet T. Ho, Dejun Tony Kong, Chay-Hoon Lee, Phillippe Dubreuil, Jacques Forest Jan 2018

Promoting Harmonious Work Passion Among Unmotivated Employees: A Two-Nation Investigation Of The Compensatory Function Of Cooperative Psychological Climate, Violet T. Ho, Dejun Tony Kong, Chay-Hoon Lee, Phillippe Dubreuil, Jacques Forest

Management Faculty Publications

This research draws on self-determination theory to investigate (a) the role of cooperative psychological climate in promoting harmonious work passion among employees with low intrinsic motivation; and (b) the mediating role of harmonious passion in linking cooperative psychological climate to behavioral outcomes. We propose that cooperative psychological climate facilitates harmonious passion and, in particular, plays a compensatory role among employees with low intrinsic motivation. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to facilitate both task performance and interpersonal helping, thereby linking cooperative psychological climate to these employee behaviors. We test the model using data from employees and their supervisors across two ...


Disentangling Passion And Engagement: An Examination Of How And When Passionate Employees Become Engaged Ones, Violet T. Ho, Marina N. Astakhova Jan 2018

Disentangling Passion And Engagement: An Examination Of How And When Passionate Employees Become Engaged Ones, Violet T. Ho, Marina N. Astakhova

Management Faculty Publications

While anecdotal industry evidence indicates that passionate workers are engaged workers, research has yet to understand how and when job passion and engagement are related. To answer the how question, we draw from person-environment fit theory to test, and find support for, the mediating roles of perceived demands-abilities (D-A) fit and person-organization (P-O) fit in the relationships between passion and job engagement, and between passion and organizational engagement, respectively. Also, because the obsessive form of passion is contingency-driven, we answer the when question by adopting a target-similarity approach to test the contingent role of multi-foci trust in the obsessive passion-to-engagement ...


Chameleonic Obsessive Job Passion: Demystifying The Relationships Between Obsessive Job Passion And In-Role And Extra-Role Performance, Marina N. Astakhova, Violet T. Ho Jan 2018

Chameleonic Obsessive Job Passion: Demystifying The Relationships Between Obsessive Job Passion And In-Role And Extra-Role Performance, Marina N. Astakhova, Violet T. Ho

Management Faculty Publications

In seeking to address the theoretical ambiguity regarding how and when obsessive job passion (OJP) leads to work performance, we integrate both self-verification and person–environment (P-E) fit perspectives to propose and test a moderated mediation model linking OJP to performance. We argue that OJP is indirectly related to co-worker-rated in-role and extra-role performance through self-verification, and these indirect links are conditioned by perceived demands–abilities (D-A) fit and needs–supplies (N-S) fit. Results from 190 healthcare professionals and their co-workers collected at three different time periods revealed the contrasting roles played by these two moderators. Individuals with higher ...


Improving Teacher Job Satisfaction: The Roles Of Social Capital, Teacher Efficacy, And Support, Suzanne K. Edinger, Matthew J. Edinger Jan 2018

Improving Teacher Job Satisfaction: The Roles Of Social Capital, Teacher Efficacy, And Support, Suzanne K. Edinger, Matthew J. Edinger

School of Professional and Continuing Studies Faculty Publications

In this study, we examine how social capital, teacher efficacy, and organizational support increase teacher job satisfaction. Research suggests that teachers worldwide are exceedingly dissatisfied with their jobs and have significantly higher levels of turnover than their counterparts in other professions. We investigate this phenomenon using a sample of 122 elementary school teachers. We found that teachers’ centrality position, or each teacher’s relationship with every other teacher, in their school’s trust network and the density of a teacher’s academic advice ego-network predicted the development of teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, we found that teacher efficacy mediated the relationship ...


Print Exposure Modulates The Effects Of Repetition Priming During Sentence Reading, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon Dec 2017

Print Exposure Modulates The Effects Of Repetition Priming During Sentence Reading, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, as practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. The current eye-tracking experiment tests the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the Author Recognition Test (ART). Lexical repetition of ...


Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman Nov 2017

Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In two samples (N=247, N= 291), we examined the link between beliefs and messages about the changeable (incremental theory) vs. fixed (entity theory) nature of weight, attributions for weight, and body shame. We recruited participants using online sampling, employing a correlational design in Study 1 and an experimental design in Study 2. Across both studies, we found evidence for the stigma-asymmetry effect—incremental, relative to entity beliefs/messages of weight predicted both (a) stronger onset responsibility attributions, indirectly increasing body shame and (b) stronger offset efficacy attributions, indirectly decreasing body shame. Study 2 replicated the stigma-asymmetry effect with anti-fat ...


"Authentic Tidings": What Wordsworth Gave To William James, David E. Leary Apr 2017

"Authentic Tidings": What Wordsworth Gave To William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

It is widely recognized that William James had a profound and pervasive impact upon literary writers, works, styles, and genres, not to mention upon the encompassing frameworks of modernism and post-modernism, throughout the 20th century. Much less recognized is the impact of literature upon James’s life and work, whether in psychology or philosophy. This article looks at the influence of one particular author, William Wordsworth, primarily through his long 1814 poem The Excursion, from which James drew “authentic tidings” that helped him weather some early storms and create his distinctive way of thinking about the human mind and its ...


The Hero's Transformation, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals Jan 2017

The Hero's Transformation, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals

Psychology Faculty Publications

Stories of heroes undergoing significant transformations are as old as stories themselves. The first known mythical narrative in Western literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh, tells the tale of Gilgamesh, the great demigod ruler of Uruk who revels in his invincibility. Gilgamesh terrorizes a city, kills the guardian of a forest, spurns the goddess of love, and slays the mighty bull of heaven. He is reckless, ruthless, and arrogant. Through his friendship with Enkidu and later by his recognition of his own mortality, Gilgamesh experiences loss, becomes humbled, and acquires wisdom about life and love. His personal growth as a hero ...


Adolescence Versus Politics: Metaphors In Late Colonial Uganda, Carol Summers Jan 2017

Adolescence Versus Politics: Metaphors In Late Colonial Uganda, Carol Summers

History Faculty Publications

This article discusses the British deployment of metaphors of adolescence in late colonial Uganda. Topics include the psychological, physiological, sociological and anthropological implications of a modern stage of adolescent life, the presence and persistence of ideas of adolescence in the country, and British engagement in developmental politics and institutions.


Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2017

Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we take a social psychological approach to understanding gender and leadership. In doing so, we explain how both the social context and people’s perceptions influence leadership processes involving gender. The theoretical approaches taken by social psychologists are often focused on one of these two questions: (1) Are there gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness? and, (2) What barriers do women face in the leadership domain? We begin our chapter by reviewing the literature surrounding these two questions. We then discuss in detail one of the greatest barriers to women in leadership: the prejudice and discrimination ...


Prediction In The Processing Of Repair Disfluencies: Evidence From The Visual-World Paradigm, Matthew Warren Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira Sep 2016

Prediction In The Processing Of Repair Disfluencies: Evidence From The Visual-World Paradigm, Matthew Warren Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira

Psychology Faculty Publications

Two visual-world eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of prediction in the processing of repair disfluencies (e.g., “The chef reached for some salt uh I mean some ketchup . . .”). Experiment 1 showed that listeners were more likely to fixate a critical distractor item (e.g., pepper) during the processing of repair disfluencies compared with the processing of coordination structures (e.g., “. . . some salt and also some ketchup . . .”). Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for disfluency versus coordination constructions and also showed that the pattern of fixations to the critical distractor for disfluency constructions was similar to the fixation patterns ...


The Role Of Encoding Strategy In Younger And Older Adult Associative Recognition: A Think-Aloud Analysis, Mark C. Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P. Freeman, Jane M. Berry Aug 2016

The Role Of Encoding Strategy In Younger And Older Adult Associative Recognition: A Think-Aloud Analysis, Mark C. Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P. Freeman, Jane M. Berry

Psychology Faculty Publications

Older adults have especially poor recognition memory for word pairs, and recent research suggests this associative deficit manifests primarily in older adults’ higher rates of false alarms compared to younger adults. This could result from older adults either failing to generate meaningful (deep) mediators at study, or failing to benefit from having generated deep mediators at test. Younger and older adults performed a recognition memory task for words and word-pairs. A think-aloud analysis of their spontaneous encoding strategies (e.g., repetition, shallow mediators, and deep mediators) revealed that generation of deep mediators did not differ between younger and older adults ...


Evaluating Treatments And Interventions: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Treatment?, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Amanda Costello, Carrie Jackson, Rochelle F. Hanson Jul 2016

Evaluating Treatments And Interventions: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Treatment?, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Amanda Costello, Carrie Jackson, Rochelle F. Hanson

Psychology Faculty Publications

This chapter provides an overview of the evidence-based treatment (EBT) paradigm, beginning with definitional issues, followed by a discussion on use of the iterative process and the importance of strong academic–practice partnerships to inform the development, selection, and implementation of EBTs. The discussion then turns to the importance of attaining, measuring, and sustaining fidelity to the treatment models; and identifying common barriers to sustained EBT use. Drawing from our expertise related to interventions for children and adolescents, a few dissemination/implementation models are highlighted as examples of current efforts to achieve sustained use of EBTs among practitioners, within agencies ...


Typing With Emg Using Myoware, L. Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T. Vavra Jun 2016

Typing With Emg Using Myoware, L. Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T. Vavra

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this tutorial, we show how to create a simple at-home electromyography (EMG) system that will sense muscle activation from the surface of the skin and use it to send a keypress to a computer, bypassing the keyboard. We used a classic MaKey MaKey and a MyoWare sensor to accomplish this, along with a bit of coding. First, we show how to accomplish this using one MyoWare sensor. Then, we show how to add a second sensor to the system. For our purposes we used two sensors, but the methods described in this tutorial can be used to add any ...


Eye-Tracking And Corpus-Based Analyses Of Syntax-Semantics Interactions In Complement Coercion, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon May 2016

Eye-Tracking And Corpus-Based Analyses Of Syntax-Semantics Interactions In Complement Coercion, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Previous work has shown that the difficulty associated with processing complex semantic expressions is reduced when the critical constituents appear in separate clauses as opposed to when they appear together in the same clause. We investigated this effect further, focusing in particular on complement coercion, in which an event-selecting verb (e.g., began) combines with a complement that represents an entity (e.g., began the memo). Experiment 1 compared reading times for coercion versus control expressions when the critical verb and complement appeared together in a subject-extracted relative clause (SRC) (e.g., The secretary that began/wrote the memo) compared ...


The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2016

The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research broadens our understanding of racial and gender bias in leader evaluations by merging implicit leadership theory and social dominance perspectives. Across two experimental studies (291 participants), we tested the prediction that bias in leader evaluations stemming from White and masculine leader standards depends on the extent to which people favor hierarchical group relationships (SDO) and their level of patriotism. Employing the Goldberg paradigm, participants read identical leadership speeches attributed to either a woman or a man described as either a minority (Black or Latino/a) or a majority (White) group member. Results show SDO negatively predicted evaluations of ...


African-American Women On Predominantly White College Campuses: In The Shadows Of Eating Disorders, Charlynn Small Jan 2016

African-American Women On Predominantly White College Campuses: In The Shadows Of Eating Disorders, Charlynn Small

University Staff Publications

Existing literature on Black women and body image often addresses the misconception that these groups are well-protected from eating disorders (EDs). The misconception can be attributed to sociocultural models of eating pathology, clinical approaches to classification, conflicting research results, and the extant measures for assessing ED symptoms and risk factors.


Case Study Of The Eastern State Hospital As Evidence Of English Influence On American Ideas About Mental Illness, Grace Devries Dec 2015

Case Study Of The Eastern State Hospital As Evidence Of English Influence On American Ideas About Mental Illness, Grace Devries

James W. Jackson Award for Excellence in Library Research in the Social Sciences

Grace DeVries, Class of 2016 at the University of Richmond, received the James W. Jackson Award for Excellence in the Social Sciences. Her research paper is entitled, Case Study of the Eastern State Hospital as Evidence of English Influence on American Ideas about Mental Illness.


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Adhd In College: Recommendations “Hot Off The Press”, Laura E. Knouse Aug 2015

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Adhd In College: Recommendations “Hot Off The Press”, Laura E. Knouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

ADHD leads to impairment across the lifespan including during the college years. An increasing number of studies document the academic, social, and psychological impairments associated with the disorder in college (DuPaul, Weyandt, O’Dell, & Varejao, 2009). Yet, until very recently, there were no published studies on cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches specifically tailored to college students with ADHD. Over the past year, however, four research groups have published work on skills-based cognitive-behavioral treatments for this population. My goal in this article is to briefly summarize these findings and to identify key recommendations for clinicians working with college students with the disorder that ...


New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary Jan 2015

New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article, the first in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the well-known “crisis of William James” by presenting evidence regarding the previously unrecognized role of Arthur Schopenhauer’s thought in shaping and intensifying the way in which James experienced this crisis. It will also relate Schopenhauer’s influence to prior issues that had concerned James, and in an appendix it will provide an overview of other areas in which Schopenhauer seems to have influenced James, both during and after his personal crisis. The second article in this sequence will present evidence in support of the strong possibility ...


New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary Jan 2015

New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article, the second in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the strong possibility that John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress played a previously unrecognized role in inspiring James’s means of defense against the frightening hallucination and panic fear that characterized his well-known personal crisis in the early 1870s. It will also present an argument about the influence of his defensive measures upon his subsequent views on the nature and importance of attention and will in human life. Along the way, it will identify James’s specific, newly discovered copy of Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s ...


A Meta-Analytic Test Of Redundancy And Relative Importance Of The Dark Triad And Five Factor Model Of Personality, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story, Charles D. White Oct 2014

A Meta-Analytic Test Of Redundancy And Relative Importance Of The Dark Triad And Five Factor Model Of Personality, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story, Charles D. White

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We examined the relationships between Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—the three traits of the Dark Triad (DT)—and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The review identified 310 independent samples drawn from 215 sources and yielded information pertaining to global trait relationships and facet-level relationships. We used meta-analysis to examine (a) the bivariate relations between the DT and the five global traits and 30 facets of the FFM; (b) the relative importance of each of the FFM global traits in predicting DT; and (c) the relationship between the DT and FFM facets identified in translational models of narcissism and ...


Passion Isn't Always A Good Thing: Examining Entrepreneurs' Network Centrality And Financial Performance With A Dualistic Model Of Passion, Violet Ho, Jeffrey Pollack May 2014

Passion Isn't Always A Good Thing: Examining Entrepreneurs' Network Centrality And Financial Performance With A Dualistic Model Of Passion, Violet Ho, Jeffrey Pollack

Management Faculty Publications

We propose a conceptual model that links entrepreneurs' passion, network centrality, and financial performance, and test this model with small business managers in formal business networking groups. Drawing on the dualistic model of passion, we explore the relationships that harmonious and obsessive passion have with financial performance, mediated by network centrality. Results indicate that harmoniously passionate entrepreneurs had higher out‐degree centrality in their networking group (i.e., they were more inclined to seek out members to discuss work issues), which increased the income they received from peer referrals and, ultimately, business income. Obsessively passionate entrepreneurs had lower in‐degree ...


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies For Adhd, Laura E. Knouse Jan 2014

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies For Adhd, Laura E. Knouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

This chapter provides an introduction to the science and practice of CBT for adult ADHD and next-step resources for those wishing to learn more. As such, the chapter does not review every psychosocial approach for adult ADHD listed earlier; instead, it focuses on CBT treatment principles and the most rigorously tested approaches. The information presented draws heavily on the growing research literature on CBT in general and specifically for adult ADHD. In the latter part of the chapter, I also provide some general recommendations to clinicians implementing skills-based treatment with this population, drawing on the clinical literature and my experience ...


A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Dark Triad-Intelligence Connection, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story Dec 2013

A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Dark Triad-Intelligence Connection, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We conducted a meta-analytic review of the relations between general mental ability (GMA) and the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—to determine if individuals who display socially exploitative social qualities tend to be more intelligent or less intelligent. Across 48 independent samples, GMA showed no consistent relation with any DT trait. These effects were not sufficient to support either the “evil genius” hypothesis (highly intelligent individuals tend to display socially exploitative personality traits) or the “compensatory” hypothesis (less intelligent individuals compensate for their cognitive disadvantages by adopting manipulative behavioral tendencies). However, these relations were moderated, to ...


The Social Role Theory Of Unethical Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Laura Poatsy Oct 2013

The Social Role Theory Of Unethical Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Laura Poatsy

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Challenging the standard reasoning regarding leaders’ ethical failures, we argue that a potent contributor to these failures is the social role expectations of leaders. We maintain that leaders’ central role expectation of goal achievement contributes to the over-valuing of group goals and greater moral permissibility of the means used to achieve these goals. In studies 1 and 2 we demonstrated that the role of leader, relative to group member, is associated with an increased appraisal of group goals which is predicted by the leaders’ role expectations and not driven by the psychological effects of power. Next, we experimentally demonstrated the ...