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When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe Jan 2019

When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe

Honors Theses

The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) posits that as their future time perspective shrinks, older adults tend to be more motivated by emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age (Carstensen, 2006). The positivity effect had been studied in both attention biases (Isaacowitz et al., 2006a) and memory biases (Kensinger, 2008), with older adults dwelling longer on and better remembering the positive stimuli over the negative. Yet, few studies have measured emotional biases at both the encoding and retrieval phases, which is why this study uses eye-tracking to determine whether any biases in gaze patterns ...


The Performance Implication Of Obsessive Work Passion: Unpacking The Moderating And Mediating Mechanisms From A Conservation Of Resources Perspective, Dejun Tony Kong, Violet T. Ho Jan 2018

The Performance Implication Of Obsessive Work Passion: Unpacking The Moderating And Mediating Mechanisms From A Conservation Of Resources Perspective, Dejun Tony Kong, Violet T. Ho

Management Faculty Publications

Work passion is an important determinant of work performance. While harmonious work passion (HWP) shows its consistent predictive value, obsessive work passion (OWP) appears to have a mixed relationship with work performance. To address this puzzle, we integrate research on OWP and emotional exhaustion with conservation of resources (COR) theory. Specifically, we argue that OWP determines emotional exhaustion, whose relationship with work performance is attenuated by leader-member exchange (LMX). By conducting a field study with a sample of 262 U.S. employees, we found supportive evidence, even when controlling for psychological detachment from work. The findings somewhat reconcile the inconsistent ...


New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary Jan 2015

New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article, the first in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the well-known “crisis of William James” by presenting evidence regarding the previously unrecognized role of Arthur Schopenhauer’s thought in shaping and intensifying the way in which James experienced this crisis. It will also relate Schopenhauer’s influence to prior issues that had concerned James, and in an appendix it will provide an overview of other areas in which Schopenhauer seems to have influenced James, both during and after his personal crisis. The second article in this sequence will present evidence in support of the strong possibility ...


New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary Jan 2015

New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article, the second in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the strong possibility that John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress played a previously unrecognized role in inspiring James’s means of defense against the frightening hallucination and panic fear that characterized his well-known personal crisis in the early 1870s. It will also present an argument about the influence of his defensive measures upon his subsequent views on the nature and importance of attention and will in human life. Along the way, it will identify James’s specific, newly discovered copy of Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s ...


A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary Jan 2013

A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this chapter I will review how James got from his earlier position, which so readily fit the scientific and skeptical tenor of his age, to his later position, and I will indicate how the views he began to articulate by the mid-1870s became central to the doctrines he presented in his magisterial Principles of Psychology (1890) and in his subsequent work in psychology and philosophy. Along the way I will make it clear that even before 1872, when he was attending lectures and doing physiological research in Harvard's Medical School, James was a deeply engaged advocate of philosophy ...


Visions And Values: Ethical Reflections In A Jamesian Key, David E. Leary Jan 2009

Visions And Values: Ethical Reflections In A Jamesian Key, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

The purpose of this article is to provide a quick survey of William James's views on the plurality of visions that humans have regarding reality, as a background for more extensive discussions of his views on the plurality of values that orient human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, as well as his views on the enactment of those values through active resistance to the ways things are and the risk-taking involved in striving to improve the human condition. Consonant with pluralism itself, I intend this discussion to open up rather than close off further considerations of James's views on ...


Instead Of Erklären And Verstehen: William James On Human Understanding, David E. Leary Jan 2007

Instead Of Erklären And Verstehen: William James On Human Understanding, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Perhaps more than any other American psychologist and philosopher, William James (1842-1910) was intimately familiar with contemporary European thought and debate, including the discussion of Erklären and Verstehen advanced by Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and others around the turn of the twentieth century. Even before this discussion was initiated, James had been dealing with related issues, pondering alternative solutions, and formulating his own original views on human understanding. These views coalesced in a distinctive approach to cognition. Fundamental to this approach was a belief in possibility and probability as innate features of the physical as well as mental manifestations of the ...


The Missing Person In The Conversation: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., And The Dialogical Self, David E. Leary Jan 2006

The Missing Person In The Conversation: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., And The Dialogical Self, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Wiley (2006) has argued for a relationship between pragmatism and the dialogical self, noting that both are rooted in the thought of William James and Charles S. Peirce. This commentary delves into the possible connection between James’s and Peirce’s ideas as well as the probable influence of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., on the development of dialogical conceptions of the self.


Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 2006

Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychology, in a general sense, is age-old, extending back across all cultures to the beginnings of recorded time. The healing arts of ancient doctors and the conceptual musings of ancient sages often pointed toward factors that would be considered psychological today. Nevertheless, psychology in its specifically modern sense dates from the second half of the nineteenth century, when a self-consciously scientific, academic, professional discipline took shape in Europe and North America. This multiplex discipline grew and flourished in particular in the United States, where more than forty experimental laboratories, associated programs of research and study, and institutionalized means of communication ...


Race, Trust, Altruism, And Reciprocity, George W. Dent Jr. Mar 2005

Race, Trust, Altruism, And Reciprocity, George W. Dent Jr.

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Objects, Meanings, And Connections In My Life And Career, David E. Leary Jan 2005

Objects, Meanings, And Connections In My Life And Career, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

On the wall of my home-office in Richmond, Virginia, are pictures of St. Francis of Assisi, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and William James. This may seem an odd collection to others. To me, it seems natural and right. Though I didn't plan the collection - each picture having gone up at a separate time - I see now that these four objects represent central meanings and connections in my life. Apparently even a relatively reflective academic can be too busy living his life to spend much time ruminating on the relations that hold it together. Yet I find that ...


On The Conceptual And Linguistic Activity Of Psychologists: The Study Of Behavior From The 1890s To The 1990s And Beyond, David E. Leary Jan 2004

On The Conceptual And Linguistic Activity Of Psychologists: The Study Of Behavior From The 1890s To The 1990s And Beyond, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In the early twentieth century psychology became the study of "behavior." This article reviews developments within animal psychology, functional psychology, and American society and culture that help explain how a term rarely used in the first years of the century became not only an accepted scientific concept but even, for many, an allencompassing label for the entire subject matter of the discipline. The subsequent conceptual and linguistic activity of John B. Watson, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner, as they attempted to explain "behavior" throughout the course of the twentieth century, is then discussed. Finally, the ...


Johann Friedrich Herbart, David E. Leary Jan 2000

Johann Friedrich Herbart, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

German philosopher, psychologist, and educator. Herbart was among the first, early in the nineteenth century, to propose a mathematical psychology. Coming after Immanuel Kant's claim (in his Metaphysische Angangsgriinde der Naturwissenschaft [Metaphysical Foundation of Natural Science], Riga, 1786) that there could be no such discipline, this was a bold proposal. which kept alive the eighteenth-century quest for a science of psychology. Even though Herbart himself denied the possibility of an experimental psychology, and despite the fact that his own psychology (as a branch of applied metaphysics) was largely conjectural, his example inspired subsequent scholars to work toward a quantitative ...


Egon Brunswik (1903-1955), David E. Leary Jan 2000

Egon Brunswik (1903-1955), David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Austrian and American psychologist. Brunswik stood at the nexus of several philosophical and psychological traditions, created his own distinctive psychology, and died without foreseeing the influence of his· concepts and methods. Yet more than forty years after his death by suicide, certain of his ideas and techniques are still being explored and used.


The Social Basis Of Emotion: Affective Consequences Of Social Comparisons With Competitive And Cooperative Others, Celinda M. Reese Jan 1996

The Social Basis Of Emotion: Affective Consequences Of Social Comparisons With Competitive And Cooperative Others, Celinda M. Reese

Master's Theses

The present research explores the affective consequences of social comparisons made by cooperators and competitors. Participants (75 males, 90 females) were randomly assigned to either a cooperative or competitive condition in which they either performed better or worse than a partner. Participants were asked to imagine themselves in a particular situation and then report their emotional reaction to the scenario. Consistent with R. Lazarus' cognitive appraisal theory of emotion, participants in the cooperative condition reported anger when their partner's actions hindered goal attainment but reported joy when the partner promoted goal attainment. Consistent with T. Wills' theory of downward ...


Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 1992

Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although the discipline of psychology, in its contemporary form, is only a century old, psychology's historical antecedents reach back to the beginnings of civilization. Whether defined as the study of the soul or the study of human faculties, as it was in earlier times, or as the study of consciousness, mind, or behavior, as it has been over the past hundred years, psychology has dealt with some of the fundamental questions and issues pertaining to the functions, processes, and mechanisms of human and animal nature.


William James On The Self And Personality: Clearing The Ground For Subsequent Theorists, Researchers, And Practitioners, David E. Leary Jan 1990

William James On The Self And Personality: Clearing The Ground For Subsequent Theorists, Researchers, And Practitioners, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

The fundamental basis of William James's psychology - the rock-bottom foundation on which it is constructed - is "the stream of thought" or "the stream of consciousness. " 1* The first and preeminent characteristic of our flowingly continuous experience of "thought" or "consciousness," James (1890/1983d) said, is that it is personal (pp. 220-224). Every thought, every psychological experience, is mine, or hers, or his, or yours. For this reason, he suggested, "the personal self rather than the thought [or consciousness] might be treated as the immediate datum in psychology" (p. 221).2 Indeed, James was strongly convinced that "no psychology ... can ...


Metaphor, Theory, And Practice In The History Of Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 1990

Metaphor, Theory, And Practice In The History Of Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In these chapters we have seen that neuropsychological discourse has been advanced by the use of metaphors from telecommunications, control systems engineering, computer science, holography, and other developments in parallel distributed processing (Pribram, Chapter 2); that theoretical discussions of the emotions have revolved around metaphors of inner feelings, physiological responses, vestiges of animal nature, diseases of the mind, driving forces, and social roles (Averill, Chapter 3); that treatments of motivation have portrayed the human person as a pawn, an agent, a natural entity, an organism, or a machine (McReynolds, Chapter 4); that a vast array of cognitive metaphors have been ...


The Future Of Elderly Women : Psychosocial Factors Influencing The Aging Transition, Michelle Dever Jan 1986

The Future Of Elderly Women : Psychosocial Factors Influencing The Aging Transition, Michelle Dever

Honors Theses

In the U.S. today there is an increasing number of elderly in the population. There are over twenty million persons who are 65 years of age and older. It is predicted that there will be over 32 million older Americans by the year 2000. There has been a greater increase in the number of older women compared to men with women having a greater life expectancy also. The effects of aging on individuals and their ability to adapt to society needs to examined in our society today. There is a special need to study elderly women and the difficulties ...


Residence, Perceived Latitude Of Choice And Desired Control Among The Long-Livin, Steven R. Shank Jan 1985

Residence, Perceived Latitude Of Choice And Desired Control Among The Long-Livin, Steven R. Shank

Master's Theses

Perceived control, perceived choice, and residential setting are important factors which need to be addressed in research involving long-living. The focus of this study was to determine the relationships among thee variables. The search for an interaction between residential setting (either high or low constraining) and perceived choice and its effect on perceived control distinguishes this study from previous research.


The Cult Of Empiricism In Psychology, And Beyond, Stephen Toulmin, David E. Leary Jan 1985

The Cult Of Empiricism In Psychology, And Beyond, Stephen Toulmin, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

At some stage in it's development, any field of intellectual discussion or scientific speculation may reach a point at which it begins to generate large numbers of "empirical" questions, that is, questions whose answers must refer to carefully documented observations, or even to controlled experiments. In physics, this happened most strikingly in the course of the seventeenth century; in biology, the comparable stage was not reached until around 1770, rising to its peak in the course of the nineteenth century (Toulmin, 1972; Toulmin & Goodfield, 1962); whereas in psychology, it has become customary-though a trifle arbitrary-to argue that this happened just one ...


Psychological Needs Of The Elderly : Community, Religious Affiliated Institutions, And Public Institutions, Sharon Bonaventura Apr 1984

Psychological Needs Of The Elderly : Community, Religious Affiliated Institutions, And Public Institutions, Sharon Bonaventura

Master's Theses

Although research has shown that psychological needs change as a person ages, available data on the relationship of psychological needs and types of residential institutions for the elderly are limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible connection between a particular residential environment and the elderly's psychological needs. Forty-five elderly females ages 62 through 89, participated in this study. Subjects were chosen from one of three residential groups, community, religious affiliated institutions, and public institutions. All subjects were asked to complete the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. In addition, demographic data were collected on each subject. Results ...


The Biological, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, And Social Psychological Perspectives Of Athletic Participation, Katharine R. Johnson Jan 1983

The Biological, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, And Social Psychological Perspectives Of Athletic Participation, Katharine R. Johnson

Honors Theses

Why become an athlete? Why all the long hours of continuous dedication? Would male and female athletes answer these questions differently?

The following essay is a review of the potential reasons why individuals strive to become athletes as perceived by the biological, psycho-dynamic, humanistic, and social psychological perspectives. Emphasis is placed on differences between the sexes when the perspective under discussion considers these differences to be relevant.


Concept Formation And Development In The Congenitally Blind Child, Kimberly J. Franco Apr 1982

Concept Formation And Development In The Congenitally Blind Child, Kimberly J. Franco

Honors Theses

T.D. Cutsforth once stated that "no single mental activity of the congenitally blind child is not distorted by the absence of sight." Blindness permeates the intellectual functioning of language, thought, comprehension and conceptualization. Ultimately, the child lacking vision will both understand and respond to the world in a manner unlike that of a sighted child. This incongruous interaction breeds frustration since the blind are a minority in a world which concentrates on the characteristics, needs, behaviors, and accomplishments of sighted individuals. Lacking the visual modality, the blind rely on the information about the objective world which they receive from ...


The Psychology Of Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843): Its Context, Nature, And Historical Significance, David E. Leary Jan 1982

The Psychology Of Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843): Its Context, Nature, And Historical Significance, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Most German philosophers in the early nineteenth century were devoted, to the idealistic « completion » of Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy. A few independent philosophers, however, were preoccupied with the elaboration of a non-idealistic, and less speculative, conclusion to Kant's thought. Among the earliest opponents of the speculative idealists was Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843), a philosopher of wide-ranging interests who might have had a much greater impact upon the course of German philosophy had his liberal political affiliations not curtailed his academic career. As it was, his influence was considerable anyway. One aspect of this influence is of particular interest ...


Rotc Vs Non-Rotc Students: Demographic, Attitudes, Behavior, And Personality Differences, Mark A. Pieffer Apr 1981

Rotc Vs Non-Rotc Students: Demographic, Attitudes, Behavior, And Personality Differences, Mark A. Pieffer

Master's Theses

This study looked at similarities and differences between those students who take ROTC at the college level and those who do not. Two hundred sixteen male students at the University of Richmond who had taken the Omnibus Personality Inventory as a freshmen completed a 26-item questionnaire concerning their family economic levels, homes, and past and present school situations. One hundred of the students were past or present ROTC students, while the remainder students have never taken a ROTC course at the college level. A contingency analysis was run on the questionnaire answers and it was found that ROTC students earn ...


German Idealism And The Development Of Psychology In The Nineteenth Century, David E. Leary Jan 1980

German Idealism And The Development Of Psychology In The Nineteenth Century, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY is generally placed in Germany around 1850. This birth is credited by the standard historiography to the dual parentage of the empirical school of philosophy and the experimental study of sensory physiology. There is also a tradition of giving a nod toward Kant and Herbart as predecessors, for varying reasons, of the rise of scientific psychology.1 Almost completely overlooked in the literature is the influence of post-Kantian German idealism upon the development of the concepts, subject matter, and methods of psychology. This is somewhat surprising since idealism was the dominant philosophical movement in ...


Male/Female Conceptualization Differences In Children Of Single Fathers And Dual Parent Families, Patricia A. Riley Jan 1979

Male/Female Conceptualization Differences In Children Of Single Fathers And Dual Parent Families, Patricia A. Riley

Honors Theses

Fifteen single fathers and their children and fifteen presently married fathers and their children were Ss in this study to investigate differences in male/female conceptualizations between the children of the two different family structures as well as the influence of the fathers' self-reported sex-role on the children. The BEM Sex-Role Inventory was administered to the fathers and the Kagen Symbolic Conceptualization Test was given to the children. Analysis results indicate no sex-role differences among both groups of fathers. Children's responses were significant when 1) scores of children of married fathers and children of single fathers were compared on ...


Life Satisfaction And Aging: A Comparison Of Life Satisfaction Index A, The Tennessee Self Concept Scale And Correlates, Ann Rowley Penberthy Aug 1977

Life Satisfaction And Aging: A Comparison Of Life Satisfaction Index A, The Tennessee Self Concept Scale And Correlates, Ann Rowley Penberthy

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction and other relevant variables in a sample of noninstitutionalized older Americans. Recent research has related satisfaction with life to adjustment in aging. Previous studies, however, have used a variety of methods to measure life satisfaction or self-concept. This study was designed to be an analysis of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index A with selected personal and behavioral variables. 59 subjects, primarily Jewish, aged 56 to 91 were tested during their regular activity meetings at the Jewish Community Center of Richmond, Virginia. The ...


The Effect Of Public Commitment On Attitudes In Consonant And Dissonant Situations, Mark Joseph Slichter May 1974

The Effect Of Public Commitment On Attitudes In Consonant And Dissonant Situations, Mark Joseph Slichter

Master's Theses

A primary objective of the study was to treat commitment as a discrete independent.variable, avoiding the confusion resulting from inferential and partially confounded designs employed in most previous commitment studies, and this objective was achieved. Separation of commitment as a distinct variable allows specific inferences to be made about its function in the attitude change process.