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The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner Jan 2017

The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner

Honors Theses

The role of semantic knowledge and familiarity on retrieval processes were investigated in a test of the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH), and the data were interpreted from the perspectives of fuzzy trace theory and source monitoring errors (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Younger and older adults (N=60) studied pairs of words for two recognition tests – an item test, for recognition of individual words, and an associative test, for recognition of word pairs. In the associative test, four word pairs were presented with a forced-choice response requirement (4AFC; Patterson & Hertzog, 2010). In addition to the studied, intact cue-target pair, three cue-target pairs were ...


Memory Aging: Deficits, Beliefs, And Interventions, Jane M. Berry, Erin Hastings, Robin West, Courtney Lee, John C. Cavanaugh Jan 2009

Memory Aging: Deficits, Beliefs, And Interventions, Jane M. Berry, Erin Hastings, Robin West, Courtney Lee, John C. Cavanaugh

Psychology Faculty Publications

Of all mental faculties, memory is unique. It defines who we are and places our lives on a narrative continuum from birth to death. It helps to structure our days, it guides our daily tasks and goals, and it provides pleasurable interludes as we anticipate the future and recall the past. As a core, defining feature of the self (Birren & Schroots, 2006), memory takes on heightened meaning as we age. In the face of other losses that accumulate with age, memory can serve to preserve our sense of self and place in time. In normal aging, memory loss is minor ...


Working Memory In Schizophrenics And Older Adults : A Mediator For Episodic Memory Deficits?, Matthew W. Webster Jan 2002

Working Memory In Schizophrenics And Older Adults : A Mediator For Episodic Memory Deficits?, Matthew W. Webster

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of working memory on episodic memory in older adults and adults with schizophrenia. This study included 15 adults with schizophrenia, 20 young adults without psychopathology, and 21 older adults without psychopathology. Storage working memory scores were greater than processing working memory scores in all groups. Young adults had the fewest problems with episodic and working memory, compared to older adults and adults with schizophrenia, who had similar deficits in both memory types. Speed of processing was found to be the greatest predictor of working memory capacity.


Attention, Memory, And Self-Efficacy Differences Between Adhd And Aging Individuals, Douglas Lee Welsh Jan 2000

Attention, Memory, And Self-Efficacy Differences Between Adhd And Aging Individuals, Douglas Lee Welsh

Master's Theses

Attention and memory abilities decline with age. Although a similar pattern of attentional and memory decrement has been observed in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), these two populations have never been directly compared. The present study examined performance on attention, self-efficacy (SE), and memory tasks by ADHD young adults and non-ADHD younger and older adults. ADHD adults displayed lower attentional SE than both non-ADHD younger and older adults, but performed comparably to older adults on an attention task on which non-ADHD younger adults outperformed both groups. ADHD adults and older adults had lower memory SE than non-AD HD ...


Memory Self-Efficacy In Its Social Cognitive Context, Jane M. Berry Jan 1999

Memory Self-Efficacy In Its Social Cognitive Context, Jane M. Berry

Psychology Faculty Publications

This chapter takes a primarily cognitive construct - memory self-efficacy (MSE) - and returns it to its roots - social cognition (Bandura, 1986). This is a natural and obvious move. MSE has evolved since the mid-1980s (Berry, West, & Powlishta, 1986; Hertzog, Dixon, Schulenberg, & Hultsch, 1987) to its present identity and status in the cognitive aging and adult developmental research literature. If it is to avoid becoming a hypothesis in search of data (Light, 1991) or worse, an epiphenomenon to more robust explanations of cognitive aging (e.g., speed) (Salthouse, 1993), its potential and limits must be scrutinized and subjected to rigorous new research agendas. Arguably, MSE has arrived at its present destination via metamemory (Dixon, Hertzog, & Hultsch, 1986; Hertzog, Dixon, & Hultsch, 1990a; Hertzog et al., 1987; Hultsch, Hertzog, Dixon, & Davidson, 1988), thereby acquiring a more cognitive emphasis than its clinical and social underpinnings suggest. This chapter presents MSE research from my lab that has been conducted from the orienting framework of self-efficacy theory and methodology (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997; Bandura, Adams, Hardy, & Howells, 1980; Bandura, Reese, & Adams, 1982). The value of this framework lies in its rich theoretical foundation, its unique measurement approach, and its ties to social cognition. The goal of the chapter is to evaluate the present status of MSE research and to suggest new research directions.


Age Declines In Memory Self-Efficacy: General Or Limited To Particular Tasks And Measure?, Robin Lea West, Jane M. Berry Jan 1994

Age Declines In Memory Self-Efficacy: General Or Limited To Particular Tasks And Measure?, Robin Lea West, Jane M. Berry

Psychology Faculty Publications

The potential for lifelong learning has been demonstrated clearly in research on problem solving, prose recall, and other measures of mental skill (Reese & Puckett, 1993; Sinnott, 1989). However, there are factors that may serve as barriers to lifelong learning for older adults (see Arenberg, chapter 23 in this volume). Among others, these factors include age changes in attentional or memory capacity (e.g., Salthouse, 1991), declines in memory self-confidence or change in memory beliefs (e.g., Berry, West & Dennehy, 1989), and reduced opportunities for education and training (e.g., Rebok & Offermann, 1983). This chapter focuses on self-report or subjective beliefs about memory.


Age And Personality Differences In The Choice Of Mnemonic Strategy, Gretchen Witte Apr 1993

Age And Personality Differences In The Choice Of Mnemonic Strategy, Gretchen Witte

Honors Theses

Personality as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has been shown to change with age. Specifically, older adults become more sensing, while younger adults remain more intuitive on the SN dimension. Memory and the use of mnemonic strategies, or memory aids, changes with age as well. Older adults typically report more problems with their memory, yet use fewer memory strategy aids. If adults learn and use memory aids consistent with intuitive processing in youth, the hypothesized transition to a more sensing modality in old age may cause the use of intuitive strategies to decline. Thus, the finding that older adults ...


Effect Of Memory Training On Memory Performance, Self-Efficacy Rarings And Patterns Of Attributions In Older Adults, Krista E. Larson Jan 1990

Effect Of Memory Training On Memory Performance, Self-Efficacy Rarings And Patterns Of Attributions In Older Adults, Krista E. Larson

Honors Theses

An investigation of age differences in memory performance for list and text recall was conducted in the context of a training manipulation. It was hypothesized that there would be age differences in performance, measures of self-efficacy, and attributional style, but that training in memory strategies would have an effect on those differences. The training manipulation appeared to be more effective for the list portion of the experiment, and improvements in performance and changes in attributions were induced. The text portion of the experiment revealed the predicted age differences, but training failed to elicit any of the other predicted effects. The ...


Semantic And Self-Referent Encoding Techniques And Recall Of Meanings Of Unfamiliar Adjectives, Maria K. Whittington Jan 1989

Semantic And Self-Referent Encoding Techniques And Recall Of Meanings Of Unfamiliar Adjectives, Maria K. Whittington

Master's Theses

In order to test the efficacy of levels of processing on memory, recall of unfamiliar adjectives among five encoding groups: a) semantic, b) self-reference specific, c) self-reference general, d) semantic (plural), and e) self-reference specific (plural) was examined. Introductory psychology students at the University of Richmond viewed twenty unfamiliar adjectives and definitions for forty-five seconds each, followed by a five minute distractor task and a seven minute test for recall of the definitions. A second seven minute recall test was administered one week later. There were no significant differences in recall between groups, but a significant effect of time upon ...


The Effects Of Levels Of Processing On Retention Of Word Meaning, Dorothy A. Flannagan Aug 1986

The Effects Of Levels Of Processing On Retention Of Word Meaning, Dorothy A. Flannagan

Master's Theses

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the three encoding techniques of rote memory, semantic, and self-reference, on short-term and long-term retention levels of unfamiliar vocabulary words and their meanings. Seventy-two college students participated in the experiment, with 24 students in each encoding group. All participants viewed 20 target words and their definitions, and were exposed to each word for 30 seconds. Each group was given instructions designed to promote a type of encoding specific to their group. After a five-minute distractor task, subjects were given a list of the target words and were tested on ...


Endurance And Affiliation : Traits As A Priori Self Schemata In Memory, Nancy Mackay Bruckner May 1986

Endurance And Affiliation : Traits As A Priori Self Schemata In Memory, Nancy Mackay Bruckner

Master's Theses

This study investigated the hypotheses that subjects' scores on the trait of endurance would have s. positive, significant correlation with their recall of endurance-related adjectives, and that subjects' scores on the trait of affiliation would have a positive, significant correlation with their recall of affiliation-related words. One hundred forty-five male and female undergraduates from the University of Richmond answered questions from the Affiliation and Endurance scales of the Personality Research Form (Jackson, 1967). As a separate task subjects decided whether or not each of fortyeight adjectives described themselves. Sixteen of these adjectives referred to endurance, sixteen to affiliation, and sixteen ...


Closed-Loop Theory And The Partial Recall Hypothesis : Explanations Of The Sources Of Information About Knowledge In Memory, Thomas Beverly Watkins Jan 1975

Closed-Loop Theory And The Partial Recall Hypothesis : Explanations Of The Sources Of Information About Knowledge In Memory, Thomas Beverly Watkins

Master's Theses

Examples of information about knowledge in memory are described, and two conceptualizations of the source of such information--the partial recall hypothesis and the closed-loop theory--are reviewed. Wearing (1970) conducted a study to support the closed-loop theory using 60 CVC pairs in a paired-associate task with recall measure and confidence ratings. An attempt is made to replicate and extend some of his findings. Some are replicated, except for one finding with which he supported closed-loop theory. With support for closed-loop theory thus reduced, the partial recall hypothesis seems more plausible.


Effectiveness Of Experimenter-Supplied And Subject-Originated First Letter And Descriptive Sentence Mnemonics In Learning Word Pairs, Michael B. Pines Jan 1973

Effectiveness Of Experimenter-Supplied And Subject-Originated First Letter And Descriptive Sentence Mnemonics In Learning Word Pairs, Michael B. Pines

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Interference And Trace Decay In The Retention Of A Simple Psychomotor Task, Stephen David Southall Jan 1970

The Role Of Interference And Trace Decay In The Retention Of A Simple Psychomotor Task, Stephen David Southall

Master's Theses

The purpose of the present study was to try to distinguish between the interference theory and trace decay theory and to try to establish whether one or a combination of the two best accounts for the forgetting shown in motor short-term memory (STM). The experiment was a seven by three factorial design with repeated measures on the second factor. The first factor was number of prior responses which the S experienced on the linear slide apparatus, and the number of responses ranged from zero through six. The second factor, length of the retention interval between practice and recall, had values ...


Effects Of Category-Relevance, Retention Measure, And Category-Affiliation Upon Retention Of The Aging, Gary M. Tyson Jan 1968

Effects Of Category-Relevance, Retention Measure, And Category-Affiliation Upon Retention Of The Aging, Gary M. Tyson

Master's Theses

The present investigation represents an attempt to further explore several parameters of short-term memory as a function of the relevance of appropriateness of the verbal materials utilized. It is the author's contention that due to changing patterns of interests and experiences accompanying chronological aging, certain types of verbal material vary with respect to their relevance for use with aging populations. In regard to parameters of short-term memory, the present study contains provisions for exploring efficiency of retention as a function of the retention measure; and category•affiliated as opposed to randomly-selected words. A more complete and integrated formulation is ...