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Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson Feb 2018

Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson

Psychology Faculty Publications

What are the effects of word‐by‐word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large‐scale cumulative cloze task to collect word‐by‐word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal and entropy reduction values in a theory‐neutral manner. A separate group of participants ...


Development And Assessment Of The Korean Author Recognition Test, Hyosun Lee, Eunjin Seong, Wonil Choi, Matthew W. Lowder Jan 2018

Development And Assessment Of The Korean Author Recognition Test, Hyosun Lee, Eunjin Seong, Wonil Choi, Matthew W. Lowder

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research reports the development and evaluation of a Korean Author Recognition Test (KART), designed as a measure of print exposure among young adults. Based on the original, English-language version of the Author Recognition Test (ART), the KART demonstrates significant relationships with offline measures of language ability, as well as online measures of word recognition. In particular, KART scores were related to participants' responses on the Comparative Reading Habits (CRH) checklist, suggesting that KART is a valid measure of print exposure. In addition, KART scores showed reliable correlations with offline measures of vocabulary knowledge and language comprehension. Finally, results from ...


Print Exposure Modulates The Effects Of Repetition Priming During Sentence Reading, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon Dec 2017

Print Exposure Modulates The Effects Of Repetition Priming During Sentence Reading, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, as practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. The current eye-tracking experiment tests the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the Author Recognition Test (ART). Lexical repetition of ...


"Authentic Tidings": What Wordsworth Gave To William James, David E. Leary Apr 2017

"Authentic Tidings": What Wordsworth Gave To William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

It is widely recognized that William James had a profound and pervasive impact upon literary writers, works, styles, and genres, not to mention upon the encompassing frameworks of modernism and post-modernism, throughout the 20th century. Much less recognized is the impact of literature upon James’s life and work, whether in psychology or philosophy. This article looks at the influence of one particular author, William Wordsworth, primarily through his long 1814 poem The Excursion, from which James drew “authentic tidings” that helped him weather some early storms and create his distinctive way of thinking about the human mind and its ...


The Hero's Transformation, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals Jan 2017

The Hero's Transformation, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals

Psychology Faculty Publications

Stories of heroes undergoing significant transformations are as old as stories themselves. The first known mythical narrative in Western literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh, tells the tale of Gilgamesh, the great demigod ruler of Uruk who revels in his invincibility. Gilgamesh terrorizes a city, kills the guardian of a forest, spurns the goddess of love, and slays the mighty bull of heaven. He is reckless, ruthless, and arrogant. Through his friendship with Enkidu and later by his recognition of his own mortality, Gilgamesh experiences loss, becomes humbled, and acquires wisdom about life and love. His personal growth as a hero ...


Prediction In The Processing Of Repair Disfluencies: Evidence From The Visual-World Paradigm, Matthew Warren Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira Sep 2016

Prediction In The Processing Of Repair Disfluencies: Evidence From The Visual-World Paradigm, Matthew Warren Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira

Psychology Faculty Publications

Two visual-world eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of prediction in the processing of repair disfluencies (e.g., “The chef reached for some salt uh I mean some ketchup . . .”). Experiment 1 showed that listeners were more likely to fixate a critical distractor item (e.g., pepper) during the processing of repair disfluencies compared with the processing of coordination structures (e.g., “. . . some salt and also some ketchup . . .”). Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for disfluency versus coordination constructions and also showed that the pattern of fixations to the critical distractor for disfluency constructions was similar to the fixation patterns ...


The Role Of Encoding Strategy In Younger And Older Adult Associative Recognition: A Think-Aloud Analysis, Mark C. Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P. Freeman, Jane M. Berry Aug 2016

The Role Of Encoding Strategy In Younger And Older Adult Associative Recognition: A Think-Aloud Analysis, Mark C. Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P. Freeman, Jane M. Berry

Psychology Faculty Publications

Older adults have especially poor recognition memory for word pairs, and recent research suggests this associative deficit manifests primarily in older adults’ higher rates of false alarms compared to younger adults. This could result from older adults either failing to generate meaningful (deep) mediators at study, or failing to benefit from having generated deep mediators at test. Younger and older adults performed a recognition memory task for words and word-pairs. A think-aloud analysis of their spontaneous encoding strategies (e.g., repetition, shallow mediators, and deep mediators) revealed that generation of deep mediators did not differ between younger and older adults ...


Evaluating Treatments And Interventions: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Treatment?, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Amanda Costello, Carrie Jackson, Rochelle F. Hanson Jul 2016

Evaluating Treatments And Interventions: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Treatment?, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Amanda Costello, Carrie Jackson, Rochelle F. Hanson

Psychology Faculty Publications

This chapter provides an overview of the evidence-based treatment (EBT) paradigm, beginning with definitional issues, followed by a discussion on use of the iterative process and the importance of strong academic–practice partnerships to inform the development, selection, and implementation of EBTs. The discussion then turns to the importance of attaining, measuring, and sustaining fidelity to the treatment models; and identifying common barriers to sustained EBT use. Drawing from our expertise related to interventions for children and adolescents, a few dissemination/implementation models are highlighted as examples of current efforts to achieve sustained use of EBTs among practitioners, within agencies ...


Typing With Emg Using Myoware, L. Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T. Vavra Jun 2016

Typing With Emg Using Myoware, L. Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T. Vavra

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this tutorial, we show how to create a simple at-home electromyography (EMG) system that will sense muscle activation from the surface of the skin and use it to send a keypress to a computer, bypassing the keyboard. We used a classic MaKey MaKey and a MyoWare sensor to accomplish this, along with a bit of coding. First, we show how to accomplish this using one MyoWare sensor. Then, we show how to add a second sensor to the system. For our purposes we used two sensors, but the methods described in this tutorial can be used to add any ...


Eye-Tracking And Corpus-Based Analyses Of Syntax-Semantics Interactions In Complement Coercion, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon May 2016

Eye-Tracking And Corpus-Based Analyses Of Syntax-Semantics Interactions In Complement Coercion, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Previous work has shown that the difficulty associated with processing complex semantic expressions is reduced when the critical constituents appear in separate clauses as opposed to when they appear together in the same clause. We investigated this effect further, focusing in particular on complement coercion, in which an event-selecting verb (e.g., began) combines with a complement that represents an entity (e.g., began the memo). Experiment 1 compared reading times for coercion versus control expressions when the critical verb and complement appeared together in a subject-extracted relative clause (SRC) (e.g., The secretary that began/wrote the memo) compared ...


The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2016

The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research broadens our understanding of racial and gender bias in leader evaluations by merging implicit leadership theory and social dominance perspectives. Across two experimental studies (291 participants), we tested the prediction that bias in leader evaluations stemming from White and masculine leader standards depends on the extent to which people favor hierarchical group relationships (SDO) and their level of patriotism. Employing the Goldberg paradigm, participants read identical leadership speeches attributed to either a woman or a man described as either a minority (Black or Latino/a) or a majority (White) group member. Results show SDO negatively predicted evaluations of ...


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Adhd In College: Recommendations “Hot Off The Press”, Laura E. Knouse Aug 2015

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Adhd In College: Recommendations “Hot Off The Press”, Laura E. Knouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

ADHD leads to impairment across the lifespan including during the college years. An increasing number of studies document the academic, social, and psychological impairments associated with the disorder in college (DuPaul, Weyandt, O’Dell, & Varejao, 2009). Yet, until very recently, there were no published studies on cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches specifically tailored to college students with ADHD. Over the past year, however, four research groups have published work on skills-based cognitive-behavioral treatments for this population. My goal in this article is to briefly summarize these findings and to identify key recommendations for clinicians working with college students with the disorder that ...


New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary Jan 2015

New Insights Into William James’S Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part 1. Arthur Schopenhauer And The Origin & Nature Of The Crisis, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article, the first in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the well-known “crisis of William James” by presenting evidence regarding the previously unrecognized role of Arthur Schopenhauer’s thought in shaping and intensifying the way in which James experienced this crisis. It will also relate Schopenhauer’s influence to prior issues that had concerned James, and in an appendix it will provide an overview of other areas in which Schopenhauer seems to have influenced James, both during and after his personal crisis. The second article in this sequence will present evidence in support of the strong possibility ...


New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary Jan 2015

New Insights Into William James's Personal Crisis In The Early 1870s: Part Ii. John Bunyan And The Resolution & Consequences Of The Crisis, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article, the second in a two-part sequence, will cast new light on the strong possibility that John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress played a previously unrecognized role in inspiring James’s means of defense against the frightening hallucination and panic fear that characterized his well-known personal crisis in the early 1870s. It will also present an argument about the influence of his defensive measures upon his subsequent views on the nature and importance of attention and will in human life. Along the way, it will identify James’s specific, newly discovered copy of Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s ...


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies For Adhd, Laura E. Knouse Jan 2014

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies For Adhd, Laura E. Knouse

Psychology Faculty Publications

This chapter provides an introduction to the science and practice of CBT for adult ADHD and next-step resources for those wishing to learn more. As such, the chapter does not review every psychosocial approach for adult ADHD listed earlier; instead, it focuses on CBT treatment principles and the most rigorously tested approaches. The information presented draws heavily on the growing research literature on CBT in general and specifically for adult ADHD. In the latter part of the chapter, I also provide some general recommendations to clinicians implementing skills-based treatment with this population, drawing on the clinical literature and my experience ...


A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary Jan 2013

A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this chapter I will review how James got from his earlier position, which so readily fit the scientific and skeptical tenor of his age, to his later position, and I will indicate how the views he began to articulate by the mid-1870s became central to the doctrines he presented in his magisterial Principles of Psychology (1890) and in his subsequent work in psychology and philosophy. Along the way I will make it clear that even before 1872, when he was attending lectures and doing physiological research in Harvard's Medical School, James was a deeply engaged advocate of philosophy ...


Psychosocial Treatment For Adult Adhd, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren Jan 2013

Psychosocial Treatment For Adult Adhd, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren

Psychology Faculty Publications

Many adults with ADHD are likely to benefit from psychosocial interventions that teach compensatory skills to manage symptoms and address functional impairment. Based on the research literature and the authors’ experience developing and implementing interventions, this chapter provides a practice-friendly overview of skills-based treatment selection and implementation, emphasizing cognitive-behavioral techniques. Principles are illustrated using case examples and adjunctive treatment options are discussed.


Special Support For University Students With Adhd And Ld In The United States, Laura E. Knouse, J Kanazawa Jan 2012

Special Support For University Students With Adhd And Ld In The United States, Laura E. Knouse, J Kanazawa

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Psychological Functioning In Adulthood: A Self-Efficacy Analysis, Daniele Artistico, Jane M. Berry, Justin Black, Dan Cervone, Courtney Lee, Heather Orom Jan 2011

Psychological Functioning In Adulthood: A Self-Efficacy Analysis, Daniele Artistico, Jane M. Berry, Justin Black, Dan Cervone, Courtney Lee, Heather Orom

Psychology Faculty Publications

In the first edition of this handbook, we laid the foundation for a self-efficacy approach to understanding learning in adulthood. We examined self-efficacy applications to learning in adulthood from two broad-based theoretical perspectives: KAPA (knowledge and appraisal personality architecture; Cervone, 2004a) and SOC (selective optimization with compensation, Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 2006). Both perspectives emphasize the dynamic interplay between dispositional, motivational, situational, and developmental contexts for successful functioning and adaptation in life. In this edition, we build upon earlier claims with new evidence regarding the central role of self-efficacy to adult development, aging, and well-being in memory, health, work, and everyday ...


Psychosocial Treatment Of Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren Jan 2011

Psychosocial Treatment Of Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this chapter, we first review the rationale for psychosocial treatment of adults with ADHD. We then focus on treatment programs that have received support in the research literature, highlighting the role of comprehensive assessment. Drawing upon existing interventions, as well as clinical guidelines and our clinical experiences in the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Adult ADHD at Massachusetts General Hospital, we present recommendations for psychosocial treatment planning with this population. We conclude with a brief discussion of psychosocial management of comorbid disorders.


Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren Jan 2010

Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren

Psychology Faculty Publications

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults is a valid and impairing disorder for which psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatments are recommended. Self-report ratings scales for adult ADHD can serve several functions in clinical work with this population including screening, providing information, in a comprehensive assessment, and tracking treatment-related change. The use of two symptom-based ratings scales for screening and tracking treatment progress- the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS) [5] and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) [6] - is outlined for the practicing clinician. Key issues in the assessment of adult ADHD are briefly discussed, highlighting the role of rating scales within a ...


Memory Aging: Deficits, Beliefs, And Interventions, Jane M. Berry, Erin Hastings, Robin West, Courtney Lee, John C. Cavanaugh Jan 2009

Memory Aging: Deficits, Beliefs, And Interventions, Jane M. Berry, Erin Hastings, Robin West, Courtney Lee, John C. Cavanaugh

Psychology Faculty Publications

Of all mental faculties, memory is unique. It defines who we are and places our lives on a narrative continuum from birth to death. It helps to structure our days, it guides our daily tasks and goals, and it provides pleasurable interludes as we anticipate the future and recall the past. As a core, defining feature of the self (Birren & Schroots, 2006), memory takes on heightened meaning as we age. In the face of other losses that accumulate with age, memory can serve to preserve our sense of self and place in time. In normal aging, memory loss is minor ...


Visions And Values: Ethical Reflections In A Jamesian Key, David E. Leary Jan 2009

Visions And Values: Ethical Reflections In A Jamesian Key, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

The purpose of this article is to provide a quick survey of William James's views on the plurality of visions that humans have regarding reality, as a background for more extensive discussions of his views on the plurality of values that orient human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, as well as his views on the enactment of those values through active resistance to the ways things are and the risk-taking involved in striving to improve the human condition. Consonant with pluralism itself, I intend this discussion to open up rather than close off further considerations of James's views on ...


Ernest R. Hilgard, David E. Leary Jan 2008

Ernest R. Hilgard, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Hilgard, commonly known as Jack, enjoyed one of the longest and most productive careers in twentieth-century American psychology. As a scholar who synthesized and advanced important areas of research, a teacher of leading scientists and writer of influential textbooks, an administrator who played key roles in the development of academic and professional organizations, and a strong advocate for the application of psychological knowledge in the improvement of human life, Hilgard left a lasting mark upon the scientific, educational, professional, and social spheres in which he lived and worked. His most notable scientific contributions were his integration of cognitive and motivational ...


Instead Of Erklären And Verstehen: William James On Human Understanding, David E. Leary Jan 2007

Instead Of Erklären And Verstehen: William James On Human Understanding, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Perhaps more than any other American psychologist and philosopher, William James (1842-1910) was intimately familiar with contemporary European thought and debate, including the discussion of Erklären and Verstehen advanced by Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and others around the turn of the twentieth century. Even before this discussion was initiated, James had been dealing with related issues, pondering alternative solutions, and formulating his own original views on human understanding. These views coalesced in a distinctive approach to cognition. Fundamental to this approach was a belief in possibility and probability as innate features of the physical as well as mental manifestations of the ...


The Missing Person In The Conversation: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., And The Dialogical Self, David E. Leary Jan 2006

The Missing Person In The Conversation: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., And The Dialogical Self, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Wiley (2006) has argued for a relationship between pragmatism and the dialogical self, noting that both are rooted in the thought of William James and Charles S. Peirce. This commentary delves into the possible connection between James’s and Peirce’s ideas as well as the probable influence of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., on the development of dialogical conceptions of the self.


Self-Efficacy And Adult Development, Daniel Cervone, Daniele Artistico, Jane M. Berry Jan 2006

Self-Efficacy And Adult Development, Daniel Cervone, Daniele Artistico, Jane M. Berry

Psychology Faculty Publications

A major theme in the contemporary study of human development across the life span is that people have the capacity for personal agency. Innumerable writers emphasize that individuals can exert intentional influence over their experiences and actions, the circumstances they encounter, the skills they acquire, and thus ultimately the course of their development.


Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 2006

Psychology, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychology, in a general sense, is age-old, extending back across all cultures to the beginnings of recorded time. The healing arts of ancient doctors and the conceptual musings of ancient sages often pointed toward factors that would be considered psychological today. Nevertheless, psychology in its specifically modern sense dates from the second half of the nineteenth century, when a self-consciously scientific, academic, professional discipline took shape in Europe and North America. This multiplex discipline grew and flourished in particular in the United States, where more than forty experimental laboratories, associated programs of research and study, and institutionalized means of communication ...


Objects, Meanings, And Connections In My Life And Career, David E. Leary Jan 2005

Objects, Meanings, And Connections In My Life And Career, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

On the wall of my home-office in Richmond, Virginia, are pictures of St. Francis of Assisi, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and William James. This may seem an odd collection to others. To me, it seems natural and right. Though I didn't plan the collection - each picture having gone up at a separate time - I see now that these four objects represent central meanings and connections in my life. Apparently even a relatively reflective academic can be too busy living his life to spend much time ruminating on the relations that hold it together. Yet I find that ...


On The Conceptual And Linguistic Activity Of Psychologists: The Study Of Behavior From The 1890s To The 1990s And Beyond, David E. Leary Jan 2004

On The Conceptual And Linguistic Activity Of Psychologists: The Study Of Behavior From The 1890s To The 1990s And Beyond, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In the early twentieth century psychology became the study of "behavior." This article reviews developments within animal psychology, functional psychology, and American society and culture that help explain how a term rarely used in the first years of the century became not only an accepted scientific concept but even, for many, an allencompassing label for the entire subject matter of the discipline. The subsequent conceptual and linguistic activity of John B. Watson, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner, as they attempted to explain "behavior" throughout the course of the twentieth century, is then discussed. Finally, the ...