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For Whose Greater Good? The Case Of Hero-Making: Girch And Darius, Gražina Kristina Sviderskyte Aug 2019

For Whose Greater Good? The Case Of Hero-Making: Girch And Darius, Gražina Kristina Sviderskyte

Heroism Science

This article reviews an investigation into the case of Stanley Girch (aka Girėnas) and Stephen William Darius as (multi)transfigured and transforming heroes and seeks to examine a two-fold assumption that has emerged in heroism science, namely that people create heroes mostly for the better and that learning from the past can help assess which heroes are needed. We argue that it may be beneficial to shift the focus of the analysis and follow the reverse course of a hero’s journey, tracing the impact, evolution and origin of the heroic status ascribed to the historical figures, whether individual or ...


On The Downside Of Heroism: Grey Zone Limitations On The Value Of Social And Physical Risk Heroism, James K. Beggan Jul 2019

On The Downside Of Heroism: Grey Zone Limitations On The Value Of Social And Physical Risk Heroism, James K. Beggan

Heroism Science

Implicit lay views of heroes are overwhelmingly positive and do not focus on the potential problems that may result from heroic behavior. Similarly, a rarely challenged assumption of heroism research is that heroic behavior represents a social good that should be rewarded, encouraged, and even taught. Yet it is not difficult to demonstrate empirically that heroic behavior, regardless of how well intended, can backfire and hurt, rather than help, the would-be helper, the target of helping, and third parties in the background. By extension, training programs that promote heroism can be of questionable value to the extent that they encourage ...


The State Of The Art (And Science) Of Heroism: Growth, Paradigms, And Future Directions In An Emerging Field, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella Jul 2019

The State Of The Art (And Science) Of Heroism: Growth, Paradigms, And Future Directions In An Emerging Field, Scott T. Allison, Elaine L. Kinsella

Heroism Science

Although less than a decade old, the nascent field of heroism science has enjoyed considerable growth in the form of publication output, a regular conference series, and a flagship journal. We briefly discuss the tradeoffs of heroism science’s paradigmatic multiplicity. Moreover, we offer several observations about the future direction of heroism science, with emphasis on bridging gaps with allied field, embracing cultural diversity, taking a more critical stance, building academic rigor, and developing better measures of heroism. We conclude with a call for the formation of an international professional organization and for the stronger academic legitimation of heroism science.


Book Review: Unlikely Heroes: The Place Of Holocaust Rescuers In Research And Teaching, Stephanie Fagin-Jones Jun 2019

Book Review: Unlikely Heroes: The Place Of Holocaust Rescuers In Research And Teaching, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

Representing the first in a new series, Contemporary Holocaust Studies, from the University of Nebraska Press, this valuable book is the result of a collection of papers presented at the Sommerhauser Symposium on Holocaust Education in April 2017 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This biennial symposia, generously supported by third-generation survivor siblings Peter Sommerhauser and Eileen Sommerhauser-Putter, along with The University of Nebraska, focuses on the integration of research and teaching of Holocaust scholarship. The editors thus seek to address an urgent need to bring past and present academic knowledge on the subject of Holocaust rescue into the classroom in ...


Posthuman Heroes, Joanna Pascoe Jun 2019

Posthuman Heroes, Joanna Pascoe

Heroism Science

This article explores whether narrative texts may help learners grapple with what it means to be human or indeed posthuman in a Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous (VUCA) world inclusive of biotechnology and developing artificial intelligence (AI). Narratives with a posthuman hero may provide access to a post-anthropocentric view described by Braidotti (2016) as life-force egalitarianism inclusive of all human, non-human, geo, cross-species, and transversal alliances. Definitions are broad – narrative includes novels, film, television series, visual art; hero is beyond gender, accessible and encompassing all with life force; posthumanism refers to popular culture and critical theory, with links to transhumanism. Underpinning ...


Bending Ternary Dihalides: A Single Functional Form For Linearization Energies, Supreeth Prasad, Kelling J. Donald Jun 2019

Bending Ternary Dihalides: A Single Functional Form For Linearization Energies, Supreeth Prasad, Kelling J. Donald

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

Although the bonding in the symmetric groups 2 and 12 dihalides (MX2) has been studied extensively1,2, remarkably little work –experimental or theoretical – has been done on the mixed (ternary) dihalides, MXY. Previously, a criterion3,4 based on atomic softness (σ) was proposed for the bending of MX2 and MXY molecules. We extend this softness criterion on the slate of the mixed dihalides and the predicted separation is achieved between the bent and linear structures with almost the same cutoff, and with quasilinear species straddling the boundary. In this work, we report a complete assessment of the bonding preferences ...


Cultural Differences In Perception Of Heroes: Greece, India, And The Usa, Smaragda P. Spyrou, Alexa M. Bertrand, Scott T. Allison Jun 2019

Cultural Differences In Perception Of Heroes: Greece, India, And The Usa, Smaragda P. Spyrou, Alexa M. Bertrand, Scott T. Allison

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Abstract:

Hypothesis: The cultural background of an individual will have a significant effect on their perception of heroes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how one’s cultural background may affect one’s perception of heroes. The results of Study 1 revealed significant cultural differences in ratings of heroic traits. Study 2 employed a trait-sorting and hero-sorting task to explore underlying categories of traits and heroes across cultures. The results again revealed substantial cultural differences, suggesting that heroes, heroic traits, and heroism in general are all constructions of one’s culture and nationality.


Neurobiological Effects Of Probiotic-Supplemented Diets In Acutely Stressed Male Long-Evans Rats: Evidence Of Enhanced Resilience, Nicholas Natale, Bilal Hindi, Peter Santore, Molly H. Kent, Kelly Lambert Jun 2019

Neurobiological Effects Of Probiotic-Supplemented Diets In Acutely Stressed Male Long-Evans Rats: Evidence Of Enhanced Resilience, Nicholas Natale, Bilal Hindi, Peter Santore, Molly H. Kent, Kelly Lambert

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

~Considering that the human intestine is home to almost 100 trillion microorganisms including bacteria (Cryan, 2011), recent research has focused on the role of the microbiome in neurobiological functions such as stress, anxiety and coping responses.

~Focusing on animal models, previous findings indicate that modifications of the gut microbiota via antibiotics and certain probiotics alter the anxiety response via the vagus nerve & immune system mediation (MacQueen et al., 2017).

~Recently, the concept of Psychobiotics has been introduced to refer to the use of microbiota to positively influence mental health outcomes (Foster et al., 2017).


“It’S Part Of My Responsibility To Help”: Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara A. Cloonan, Kristjen B. Lundberg Jun 2019

“It’S Part Of My Responsibility To Help”: Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara A. Cloonan, Kristjen B. Lundberg

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Introduction

A growing field of research has emerged to examine the processes by which people manage their own emotions as well as the emotions of others during social interactions, a set of phenomena broadly known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Within this broad category, extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) refers specifically to the processes by which an individual targets and attempts to regulate the emotions of others (Zaki & Williams, 2013). Recent work by Netzer et al. (2015) has explored the emotion-related goals people have when engaging in EER, suggesting that both hedonic and instrumental goals may motivate these regulation attempts. We ...


Polychromatic Map Reconstruction Using Telescopes With Asymmetric Antenna Patterns, Connor Mooney, Solomon Quinn, Emory F. Bunn Jun 2019

Polychromatic Map Reconstruction Using Telescopes With Asymmetric Antenna Patterns, Connor Mooney, Solomon Quinn, Emory F. Bunn

Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

Imaging telescopes with asymmetric antenna patterns that vary with wavelength can create time-ordered data that may be processed into multiple images corresponding to different bands of wavelengths from just a single set of scans. The imaging telescope named QUBIC has this property and is the inspiration behind this project. Our goal is to quantify, both statistically and analytically, the ability of these telescopes to perform such a reconstruction given different cases. In the case that the telescope is observing the full sky, we reconstruct our maps via a spherical harmonic basis. In this way, the reconstructed images are described as ...


Self-Realization And Validity Surplus In Proactive Heroism, Bryan Smyth May 2019

Self-Realization And Validity Surplus In Proactive Heroism, Bryan Smyth

Heroism Science

This article provides a brief outline of an approach to understanding proactive (or social) heroism in embodied terms, taking this as essential to supporting the idea of ‘the banality of heroism’. I first present an analysis of heroic action in general that shows it as involving self-realization through nonselfsacrificial existential necessity, and then show how in cases of reactive heroic action this necessity is best understood in predispositional embodied terms, such that the agent may be said to quite literally incarnate certain generally accepted norms of the intersubjective ethical context. I then briefly sketch out how this same kind of ...


Prosocialization: Lessons Learned From The Upbringing Of Holocaust Heroes, Stephanie Fagin-Jones May 2019

Prosocialization: Lessons Learned From The Upbringing Of Holocaust Heroes, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

Research on factors associated with heroic rescue during the Holocaust suggest that the parenting and upbringing of the rescuer was significant (Ganz, 1993; Oliner & Oliner, 1988). The research suggests that heroic altruism during the Holocaust was but a natural extension of the rescuers’ integrated moral identities reflecting deep-seated instincts, predispositions, and habitual patterns established in early upbringing according to moral parenting practices, that when acted upon conferred the deepest feelings of meaning, life satisfaction, and sustained well-being across the life-span. This paper explores the implications of these and other findings from the research on heroism during the Holocaust, specifically, how ...


Disruptive Leadership In Legal Education, Nicholas A. Mirkay, Palma Joy Strand May 2019

Disruptive Leadership In Legal Education, Nicholas A. Mirkay, Palma Joy Strand

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Legal education and the legal profession are ripe for disruption. The crisis in legal education reflects an increasing mismatch between the limited services that the law and lawyers provide and the vast and acute societal need for legal services. The structure of academia generally and legal academia in particular, however, serves as an obstacle to the disruptive leadership that can initiate necessary adaptation. Here, we discuss our own experience with disruptive leadership and the backlash we received, as well as the risks of failing to embrace disruptive leadership in legal education going forward. “The act of leadership is not always ...


Children Are Different: The Need For Reform Of Virginia's Juvenile Transfer Laws, M. Randell Scism May 2019

Children Are Different: The Need For Reform Of Virginia's Juvenile Transfer Laws, M. Randell Scism

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

In Virginia, there are three ways that a juvenile can be sent to the adult criminal justice system: discretionary waiver, certification (direct file), and mandatory waiver through transfer and certification, but they are no ways to be sent back to the juvenile criminal justice system if that would be more appropriate. Once a juvenile enters the adult criminal justice system, they are subject to more significant sentences and collateral consequences. This increased punishment is counterproductive because, as the Supreme Court recognized in Roper, Graham, and Miller, juveniles are less culpable for the crimes they commit and more likely to be ...


Intersecting Trends In Abortion And Capital Punishment Policy, Erica Rebussini May 2019

Intersecting Trends In Abortion And Capital Punishment Policy, Erica Rebussini

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

A recent bill in Ohio brought to the forefront of the nation’s consciousness the intersection of abortion and capital punishment. The bill sought to redefine “person” to include “unborn humans,” therefore making the termination of a pregnancy the intentional killing of another person. Further, because one of Ohio’s aggravating circumstances for the imposition of capital punishment is child homicide, those who choose to have an abortion would be subject to the possibility of capital punishment. While the bill died in committee, it provides a unique lens through which to examine the intersection of the debate over abortion restrictions ...


Letter From The Editor, Maryann Grover May 2019

Letter From The Editor, Maryann Grover

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


Prefatory Matter May 2019

Prefatory Matter

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


Applying The Principle Of Proportionality To The War On Terror, Waseem Ahmad Qureshi May 2019

Applying The Principle Of Proportionality To The War On Terror, Waseem Ahmad Qureshi

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

This paper aims to discuss and apply the principle of proportionality (PoP) to the War on Terror (WoT). For this, vital characteristics and conditions of the PoP will be discussed in great detail. The paper argues that notions of the “just cause,” the “reasonable hope of success,” and the “requirement of the last resort” are incorporated within the PoP. This paper also defines how the harm caused by military actions is weighed against the direct military advantage to arrive at conclusions on the proportionality or disproportionality of an attack. After discussing the theoretical grounds of the PoP, this paper tries ...


Nonprofit Hospitals' Community Benefits Should Actually Benefit The Community: How Irs Reforms Can Improve The Provision Of Community Benefits, Kim Simmons May 2019

Nonprofit Hospitals' Community Benefits Should Actually Benefit The Community: How Irs Reforms Can Improve The Provision Of Community Benefits, Kim Simmons

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Policymakers and health care leaders have frequently questioned and critiqued whether nonprofit hospitals’ provision of community benefits is worth their favored tax status. While legislation and regulations have recently been enacted to address such concerns, the tax exemption standards continue to fail to promote the goals articulated in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) of reforming and improve health care delivery systems in the United States for all people. To better effectuate the purposes of the ACA, this article suggests that the Internal Revenue Service adopt minimum community benefit spending requirements that vary depending on the ...


Zachary Cain, Senior Recital, Department Of Music, University Of Richmond May 2019

Zachary Cain, Senior Recital, Department Of Music, University Of Richmond

Music Department Concert Programs

No abstract provided.


E-Museletter: May 2019, William Taylor Muse Law Library May 2019

E-Museletter: May 2019, William Taylor Muse Law Library

Museletter

This Issue:

What You Need to Know

Resource Updates

Summer Fun

Director's Message


Max's Taxes: A Tax-Based Analysis Of Pet Trusts, Gerry W. Beyer, Jonathan P. Wilkerson May 2019

Max's Taxes: A Tax-Based Analysis Of Pet Trusts, Gerry W. Beyer, Jonathan P. Wilkerson

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Financial Climate And Economic Mechanisms That Facilitated The Usa And Ur’S Shift Towards Solar Power, Monica Stack Apr 2019

The Financial Climate And Economic Mechanisms That Facilitated The Usa And Ur’S Shift Towards Solar Power, Monica Stack

Geography and the Environment Capstone Projects

The University of Richmond (UR) has been committed to sustainability and environmental innovation for many years. However, in the pursuit of carbon neutrality they have had had to weigh economic interests with their commitment to environmentalism. Due to a shifting national energy climate and the emergence of financial mechanisms by which an entity can participate in the renewable energy market, UR was recently able to invest in a 20MW portion of a nearby solar array to offset emissions from 100% of their purchased electricity. This report details the financial forces which have made solar prominent and affordable. It then explains ...


The Current And Future Land Assessment Analysis And Property Taxes Analysis Of The Land Of Proposed Solar Farm In Spotsylvania County, Evelyn Jeong Apr 2019

The Current And Future Land Assessment Analysis And Property Taxes Analysis Of The Land Of Proposed Solar Farm In Spotsylvania County, Evelyn Jeong

Geography and the Environment Capstone Projects

Anthropogenic global climate change is threatening our planet. Human energy demand and consumption has been rapidly increasing throughout the world. In order to combat global climate change from greenhouse gases emissions, increase in renewable energy development is crucial. Solar energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energy source in the world and in the United States. In Spotsylvania County, Virginia, a solar energy company called sPower proposed one of the biggest solar farms in the East Coast. Because of the size, scale, economic viability, environmental concerns, and more, there has been push back from the concerned citizens of the ...


Watershed Environmental Analysis: Waterflow Function And Vulnerabilities, Olivia Hubert Apr 2019

Watershed Environmental Analysis: Waterflow Function And Vulnerabilities, Olivia Hubert

Environmental Studies Senior Seminar Projects

The environmental impacts on the proposed area for the sPower solar panels has been a primary concern from the citizens of Spotsylvania County during the special use permit process. This project will discuss the function of watersheds, specifically within the sPower Spotsylvania County solar panel farm sites, to effectively present the findings from sPower’s permitting process and the concerned citizens of Spotsylvania to answer the following questions: How do the sPower solar farm watersheds function, what are their vulnerabilities, and how is sPower addressing them? The information presented is a collection and analysis of data using ArcGIS software and ...


Spotsylvania Solar: A Stakeholder Analysis Of Corporate Involvement, Merissa Shebell Apr 2019

Spotsylvania Solar: A Stakeholder Analysis Of Corporate Involvement, Merissa Shebell

Environmental Studies Senior Seminar Projects

This report investigates the major corporations that hold a stake in sPower’s 500-Megawatt Spotsylvania Solar Project through the framework of corporate social responsibility. The major corporations include the investors in the project, Microsoft, Apple in collaboration with Akamai, Etsy, and Swiss Re, and the University of Richmond, as well as the energy provides and distributors, Dominion Energy and PJM Interconnection. Through an evaluation of the investors’ sustainability and environmental reports, the motivations behind their agreements with sPower can be attributed to a desire to meet their renewable energy goals. By purchasing a portion of the electricity generated by the ...


The Most Environmentally Beneficial Option: An Analysis On Spower’S Solar Project In Relation To The Endangered Species Act, Victoria Williams Apr 2019

The Most Environmentally Beneficial Option: An Analysis On Spower’S Solar Project In Relation To The Endangered Species Act, Victoria Williams

Environmental Studies Senior Seminar Projects

Today, the current impacts of high greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production have been widely discussed in scholarly literature. In 2018, the University of Richmond (UR) announced a goal to match 100% of the campus' electricity demand with solar energy to decrease its carbon footprint. UR partnered with sPower to construct a 500-megawatt solar array in which UR will receive the 20-megawatts worth of energy from the site in Spotsylvania, Virginia. sPower’s solar project engendered various environmental concerns surrounding Fawn Lake and the endangered species found in the proximity of the project. Acknowledging the environmental concerns, the objective ...


Spotsylvania Solar Farm: Watershed Environmental Analysis: Material And Chemical Impacts, Colby Prokop Apr 2019

Spotsylvania Solar Farm: Watershed Environmental Analysis: Material And Chemical Impacts, Colby Prokop

Environmental Studies Senior Seminar Projects

The purpose of this compiled review is to answer the research question: What are the implications of the materials being used in the Spotsylvania sPower solar farm and the impacts of any contributing chemicals? I will approach this question using a theoretical framework to investigate the public participation (PP) process (Munch-Petersen, 2017) in the preliminary environmental analysis research done by sPower (in accordance with their special use permit [SUP]). This will be a context-specific framework, in which I will navigate the discrepancies between the environmental SUP information and citizen concerns about the chemicals and materials used in the sPower solar ...


Hydropower As A Feasible Option Of The University Of Richmond, Gershom Ejoni Apr 2019

Hydropower As A Feasible Option Of The University Of Richmond, Gershom Ejoni

Environmental Studies Senior Seminar Projects

As the University of Richmond moves forward in achieving its sustainability goals, it made a decision to invest into a solar array in Spotsylvania, VA in order to offset their energy consumption with renewable energy. However, this solar array has been controversial for many of the residents in Spotsylvania. My senior seminar class has tasked itself with investigating all aspects of the University’s decision to partner with sPower. This paper will analyze the potential alternative energy sources that the University can possible consider, in particular, hydropower; thereby, determining if hydropower is a potential viable option the University of Richmond ...


Understanding The Stake Of The Government And Government Officials In The Spotsylvania Solar Farm Project, Haley Neuenfeldt Apr 2019

Understanding The Stake Of The Government And Government Officials In The Spotsylvania Solar Farm Project, Haley Neuenfeldt

Geography and the Environment Capstone Projects

The Spotsylvania Solar Farm Project is a proposal to build a 500 megawatt solar farm in Livingston in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. The project is managed by Spower with various investors such as Dominion, the University of Richmond, Microsoft, Apple, Etsy, Swiss-Re, and Akamai. However, there are many stakeholders outside of the main investment groups. These stakeholders include the citizens in Spotsylvania where the solar farm will be located, climate activists advocating for increased renewable energy usage, and local, state, and federal government representatives. Across the scale of government representatives, there have been initiatives to increase, decrease, and regulate solar power ...