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Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman Nov 2017

Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In two samples (N=247, N= 291), we examined the link between beliefs and messages about the changeable (incremental theory) vs. fixed (entity theory) nature of weight, attributions for weight, and body shame. We recruited participants using online sampling, employing a correlational design in Study 1 and an experimental design in Study 2. Across both studies, we found evidence for the stigma-asymmetry effect—incremental, relative to entity beliefs/messages of weight predicted both (a) stronger onset responsibility attributions, indirectly increasing body shame and (b) stronger offset efficacy attributions, indirectly decreasing body shame. Study 2 replicated the stigma-asymmetry effect with anti-fat ...


Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2017

Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we take a social psychological approach to understanding gender and leadership. In doing so, we explain how both the social context and people’s perceptions influence leadership processes involving gender. The theoretical approaches taken by social psychologists are often focused on one of these two questions: (1) Are there gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness? and, (2) What barriers do women face in the leadership domain? We begin our chapter by reviewing the literature surrounding these two questions. We then discuss in detail one of the greatest barriers to women in leadership: the prejudice and discrimination ...


A Meta-Analytic Test Of Redundancy And Relative Importance Of The Dark Triad And Five Factor Model Of Personality, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story, Charles D. White Oct 2014

A Meta-Analytic Test Of Redundancy And Relative Importance Of The Dark Triad And Five Factor Model Of Personality, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story, Charles D. White

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We examined the relationships between Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—the three traits of the Dark Triad (DT)—and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. The review identified 310 independent samples drawn from 215 sources and yielded information pertaining to global trait relationships and facet-level relationships. We used meta-analysis to examine (a) the bivariate relations between the DT and the five global traits and 30 facets of the FFM; (b) the relative importance of each of the FFM global traits in predicting DT; and (c) the relationship between the DT and FFM facets identified in translational models of narcissism and ...


A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Dark Triad-Intelligence Connection, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story Dec 2013

A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Dark Triad-Intelligence Connection, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We conducted a meta-analytic review of the relations between general mental ability (GMA) and the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—to determine if individuals who display socially exploitative social qualities tend to be more intelligent or less intelligent. Across 48 independent samples, GMA showed no consistent relation with any DT trait. These effects were not sufficient to support either the “evil genius” hypothesis (highly intelligent individuals tend to display socially exploitative personality traits) or the “compensatory” hypothesis (less intelligent individuals compensate for their cognitive disadvantages by adopting manipulative behavioral tendencies). However, these relations were moderated, to ...


The Social Role Theory Of Unethical Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Laura Poatsy Oct 2013

The Social Role Theory Of Unethical Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Laura Poatsy

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Challenging the standard reasoning regarding leaders’ ethical failures, we argue that a potent contributor to these failures is the social role expectations of leaders. We maintain that leaders’ central role expectation of goal achievement contributes to the over-valuing of group goals and greater moral permissibility of the means used to achieve these goals. In studies 1 and 2 we demonstrated that the role of leader, relative to group member, is associated with an increased appraisal of group goals which is predicted by the leaders’ role expectations and not driven by the psychological effects of power. Next, we experimentally demonstrated the ...


Ethical Decision Making And Leadership: Merging Social Role And Self-Construal Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price Sep 2013

Ethical Decision Making And Leadership: Merging Social Role And Self-Construal Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends our understanding of ethical decision making on the part of leaders by merging social role and self-construal perspectives. Interdependent self-construal is generally seen as enhancing concern for justice and moral values. Across two studies we tested the prediction that non-leading group members’ interdependent self-construal would be associated with lower levels of unethical decision making on behalf of their group but that, in contrast, this relationship would be weaker for leaders, given their social role. These predictions were experimentally tested by assigning participants to the role of leader or non-leading group member and assessing the association between their ...


Gender Bias In Leader Evaluations: Merging Implicit Theories And Role Congruity Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette Sep 2013

Gender Bias In Leader Evaluations: Merging Implicit Theories And Role Congruity Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people’s attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes ...


J. Richard Hackman, Phd (1940-2013), Donelson R. Forsyth Apr 2013

J. Richard Hackman, Phd (1940-2013), Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy mourns the passing of our colleague, J. Richard Hackman, PhD, a leading expert on teams and performance-oriented groups in organizations. Dr. Hackman succumbed January 8, 2013 in Boston, from complications of lung cancer.

John Richard Hackman was born in Joliet, Illinois, on June 14, 1940. He received his bachelor's degree in mathematics and minors in psychology and physics from MacMurray College and his Master's and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois. The Illinois program was emerging, at that time, as the leading research center for the study of groups ...


Stop Blaming Video Games For America's Gun Violence, Kristin M.S. Bezio Feb 2013

Stop Blaming Video Games For America's Gun Violence, Kristin M.S. Bezio

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Recently, America's attention has been understandably focused on the potential causes of increased violence - especially gun violence - particularly among children and youth, and how to stop it. Alongside gun-control proposals, some of which President Obama is likely to highlight in his State of the Union address tonight, much of that attention has looked at the potential of violent video games to cause or exacerbate the tendencies of youth to engage in real, harmful violence.


Ethics Position Theory And Unethical Work Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr. Jan 2013

Ethics Position Theory And Unethical Work Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr.

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This chapter explores these psychological interpersonal consequences of unethical work behavior, but focuses on who reacts most negatively to such indiscrestions and why. We base our analysis on ethics positions theory (EPT), which suggests that people's reactions in morally toned situations can be traced to variations in their intuitive, personal moral philosophies (Forsyth, 1980). After summarizing the theory and its basic assumptions, we examine the relationship between these variations in moral philosophies and well-being, focusing on the way people respond, psychologically and emotionally, when they act in morally evaluable ways. We then shift the analysis up to the group ...


Making Heroes: The Construction Of Courage, Competence, And Virtue, George R. Goethals, Scott T. Allison Jul 2012

Making Heroes: The Construction Of Courage, Competence, And Virtue, George R. Goethals, Scott T. Allison

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

People use the term hero frequently in our culture, and most people can easily name several heroes. Our research explores how people think about heroes as well as the determinants of heroic behavior. People's heroes may be real-world figures or fictional characters. They are thought to be competent enough to achieve at a high level, moral enough to do the right thing in difficult situations, or both. People's conceptions of heroes reflect both schemas about what heroes are like and narrative structures about how they act. We consider the possibility that images of heroes and common hero narratives ...


The List: The Death Of Robert Champion, Donelson R. Forsyth May 2012

The List: The Death Of Robert Champion, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The list grows ever longer: Names like Harry Lew, Chucky Stenzel, Chad Saucier, Gabe Higgins, Donna Bedinger, J. B. Joynt…and now Robert Champion. Its the list of people killed by hazing. Champion died of “blunt force trauma” that occurred during the FAMU marching band’s “Crossing Bus C” ritual, when his classmates punched and slapped him as he walked down the aisle of the band bus. He suffered so many injuries, inflicted by so many hands, that prosecutors charged 11 members of the band with felony hazing.

Hazing should never happen, but it does. Hank Nuwer’s Wrongs of ...


The Seditious Class, Donelson R. Forsyth Apr 2012

The Seditious Class, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

I never saw it coming. My students and I had just shared a splendid semester-long educational experience. I had deftly mixed original readings, engaging class discussions, illuminating lectures, and thoughtful assessments with a community-based project that gave students the opportunity to apply course concepts in a real-world setting. Or had I? You would think that, after some 30 years of opening packets of students’ evaluations at the semester’s end (and now, downloading them from the University’s evil evaluation website), that the thrill would be gone—no more disappointment, elation, or surprise.

Not so.

My course was a required ...


Nobody Studies Groups Anymore, Donelson R. Forsyth Apr 2012

Nobody Studies Groups Anymore, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

When Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa was asked about the level of gang activity in his city, he explained “I’m not a sociologist or an anthropologist, so I can’t share with you the root causes of gang violence that you see in urban areas” (Sims, 2007). He did not include “social psychologist” on his list of experts on gangs, because social psychologists don’t study gangs—in fact, social psychologists don’t even study groups anymore. That is why Lee Ross, Mark Lepper, and Andrew Ward (2010), in their chapter on history in the Handbook of Social Psychology ...


I Can Do That: The Impact Of Implicit Theories On Leadership Role Model Effectiveness, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Audrey N. Innella Feb 2012

I Can Do That: The Impact Of Implicit Theories On Leadership Role Model Effectiveness, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Audrey N. Innella

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research investigates the role of implicit theories in influencing the effectiveness of successful role models in the leadership domain. Across two studies, we test the prediction that incremental theorists (‘leaders are made’) compared to entity theorists (‘leaders are born’) will respond more positively to being presented with a role model before undertaking a leadership task. In Study 1, measuring people’s naturally occurring implicit theories of leadership, we showed that after being primed with a role model, incremental theorists reported greater leadership confidence and less anxious-depressed affect than entity theorists following the leadership task. In Study 2, we demonstrated ...


Gender Bias In Employment Contexts: A Closer Examination Of The Role Incongruity Principle, Crystal L. Hoyt Jan 2012

Gender Bias In Employment Contexts: A Closer Examination Of The Role Incongruity Principle, Crystal L. Hoyt

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends the role incongruity analysis of employment-related gender bias by investigating the role of dispositional and situational antecedents, specifically political ideology and the salience of cues to the traditional female gender role. The prediction that conservatives would show an anti-female candidate bias and liberals would show a pro-female bias when the traditional female gender role is salient was tested across three experimental studies. In Study 1, 126 participants evaluated a male or a female job applicant with thoughts of the traditional female gender role activated or not. Results showed that when the gender role is salient, political ideology ...


The Bathsheba Syndrome: When A Leader Fails, Donelson R. Forsyth Nov 2011

The Bathsheba Syndrome: When A Leader Fails, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Another leader—no, an entire cadre of leaders—has been found to be a moral failure. Legal authorities have charged Jerry Sandusky, who retired as the defensive coordinator for the Penn State football team in 1999, with the sexual abuse of children who he targeted through his involvement in the charitable organization The Second Mile. Additionally, a number of other administrators and leaders at Penn State University—the university’s president Graham Spanier, vice-president Gary Schultz, athletic director Tim Curley and long-time football coach Joe Paterno—face charges or have been fired from the university because of their failure to ...


Group Processes And The Chilean Mine Disaster, Donelson R. Forsyth Jun 2011

Group Processes And The Chilean Mine Disaster, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We are used to hearing about groups and problems they can cause, but the rescue of the Chilean miners is a story of everyday individuals who, by banding together, can do great good.


Female Leaders: Injurious Or Inspiring Role Models For Women?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Mar 2011

Female Leaders: Injurious Or Inspiring Role Models For Women?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The impact of female role models on women’s leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women’s self-perceptions and leadership aspirations compared to male and less elite female leaders. In Study 1 (N = 60), women were presented with both female and male leaders before serving as leaders of ostensible three-person groups in an immersive virtual environment. This study established the relatively deflating impact of high-level female leaders, compared to high-level male leaders ...


Anticipating Happiness In A Future Negotiation: Anticipated Happiness, Propensity To Initiate A Negotiation, And Individual Outcomes, Dejun Tony Kong, Ece Tuncel, Judi Mclean Parks Jan 2011

Anticipating Happiness In A Future Negotiation: Anticipated Happiness, Propensity To Initiate A Negotiation, And Individual Outcomes, Dejun Tony Kong, Ece Tuncel, Judi Mclean Parks

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We examined the role of anticipated happiness in negotiation settings. Anticipated happiness is the happiness that individuals expect to experience in the future if certain events do or do not occur. In two studies, we tested the argument that anticipated happiness initiates an approach goal, leading individuals to promote economic interests. Study 1 revealed that anticipated happiness was positively related to the propensity to initiate a negotiation, mediated by an approach goal. In Study 2, we found that anticipated happiness about reaching the target value increased the individual negotiation outcome, mediated by actual target value. Our studies provide insight into ...


Group Dynamics, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2011

Group Dynamics, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Engagement-elevating activities used in a course such as group dynamics fall into two broad categories: topic-focused short-term activities and problem-focused, longer-term projects. Topic-focused activities are, in most cases, deliberate applications of a concept or process in a group-based experience and are typically tied to the content of the course in a direct way. For example, when students study group decision-making they may meet in small groups to make a series of decisions. Afterwards, they examine their group’s decisions, and gauge for themselves the extent to which their group reacted as theory and research would suggest. Problem-focused projects, in contrast ...


What Makes Leadership Necessary, Possible And Effective: The Psychological Dimensions, George R. Goethals, Crystal L. Hoyt Jan 2011

What Makes Leadership Necessary, Possible And Effective: The Psychological Dimensions, George R. Goethals, Crystal L. Hoyt

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter we explore leadership from a psychological perspective. We consider the three questions raised by the examples discussed above. What about the human condition makes leadership necessary, what makes leadership possible, and what makes leadership effective? Considering leadership from these vantage points will allow us to organize a wealth of psychological knowledge about leading and following, and about doing them both well or not well.


Taking A Turn Toward The Masculine: The Impact Of Mortality Salience On Implicit Leadership Theories, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon, Audrey N. Innella Jan 2011

Taking A Turn Toward The Masculine: The Impact Of Mortality Salience On Implicit Leadership Theories, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon, Audrey N. Innella

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The present research investigates the influence of subtle death-related thoughts (i.e., mortality salience), on people’s images of effective leaders (i.e., their implicit leadership theories). We test the prediction that mortality salience will change the content of these implicit theories to be more gender stereotypical such that individuals will conceive of effective leaders in a significantly more masculine, or agentic, manner. To test this prediction, we assessed participants’ communal and agentic implicit leadership theories after they were presented with a mortality salience or control manipulation. Results show that priming individuals to think about their mortality with two open-ended ...


The Nature And Significance Of Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

The Nature And Significance Of Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

An understanding of group counseling requires an understanding of groups themselves, their basic nature and processes. Given that human beings are a social species and spend their lives in groups rather than alone, an individual-level analysis of adjustment, well-being, and treatment, with its focus on internal, psychological processes, should be supplemented by a group-level analysis. The defining features of a group are relationships linking a substantial number of members, boundaries, interdependence, structure, cohesion, and entitativity (perceived groupness): and groups with more of these features are more Influential than other forms of association, such as social networks. The chapter reviews a ...


Group Processes And Group Psychotherapy: Social Psychological Foundations Of Change In Therapeutic Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

Group Processes And Group Psychotherapy: Social Psychological Foundations Of Change In Therapeutic Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social psychology and clinical psychology share an interest in change. Rather than assuming that people are static and that psychological systems are immutable, social psychologists track the shifts in social attitudes, actions, values, and beliefs that result from individuals' everyday interactions in their social worlds. Similarly, clinical psychologists examine changes in adjustment, well-being, and dysfunction that are evidenced as people develop psychologically and physically, confront new life circumstances, or react effectively or less adaptively to daily life events.


Delphi Therapy, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

Delphi Therapy, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The Delphi technique is a structured forecasting and decision-making method that assesses and summarizes the individually held opinions and judgments of group members with little or no discussion or deliberation among the members. Named for the legendary Delphic oracle, this method involves surveying members repeatedly, with the results of each round of surveys informing the framing of the questions for subsequent rounds. The Delphi technique avoids some of the limitations of traditional group decision-making procedures and is particularly useful when the group members are so widely divided on issues that a face-to-face discussion will not be productive.


Support Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

Support Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

When people experience traumas, crises, or catastrophes, when they encounter medical or interpersonal difficulties that they cannot cope with by themselves, or if they simply need to find a sympathetic audience who will listen to their problems, they often turn to support groups: groups of people who meet to exchange social support about a problem or situation that they all have experienced. Support groups, which are also known as self-help groups, exist for nearly every major medical, psychological, or stress-related problem. Each one is likely to be unique in some respects, but most such groups are practical in focus and ...


Biography And The Social Cognition Of Leadership, George R. Goethals Jan 2010

Biography And The Social Cognition Of Leadership, George R. Goethals

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we'll discuss why we have a penchant for the depiction of leadership through the stories of individual leaders and why that tendency poses serious challenges to understanding leadership. One of the key distinctions in this collection of essays is the one between leaders and leadership. Following James MacGregor Burns, Richard Couto has tried to focus scholars and practitioners on the dynamics of leadership rather than on the lives of leaders. It may well be a losing battle. We'll try to explain why.

Our discussion proceeds as follows. First, we will discuss the ways human wiring ...


Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette Jan 2010

Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social behavior is often group behavior. People are in many respects individuals seeking their personal, private objectives, yet they are also members of social collectives that bind members to one another. The tendency to join with others is perhaps the most important single characteristic of humans. The processes that take place within these groups influence, in fundamental ways, their members and society-at-large. Just as the dynamic processes that occur in groups--such as the exchange of information among members, leading and following, pressures put on members to adhere to the group's standards, shifts in friendship alliances, and conflict and collaboration-change ...


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. Leadership can occur across great distances, as when a leader influences followers who are distributed across differing contexts, but in many cases leadership occurs in an intact group that exists in a specific locale: Teams, boards, advisory councils, and classrooms arc all examples of groups that work toward shared goals with, in many cases, the help and guidance of a leader. Leadership can be considered a set of personality traits or a specific set of behaviors enacted by an individual, but an interpersonal, group-level conceptualization considers Ieadership to ...