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A Theological Perspective On Heroic Leadership In The Context Of Followership And Servant Leadership, Deborah Robertson Jul 2018

A Theological Perspective On Heroic Leadership In The Context Of Followership And Servant Leadership, Deborah Robertson

Heroism Science

This article aims to bring a theological perspective to the concept of heroic leadership, specifically from a theology of leadership grounded in Christian social teaching, and with a focus on leadership in the workplace. A rationale for bringing a theological perspective to the exploration of heroic leadership within heroism science is provided, and there is discussion on the importance of followership in any dialogue about leadership, as well as the significance of servant leadership. It is argued that a Christian theology of leadership aligns closely with much of what is portrayed by a renewed heroic leadership in the areas of ...


Book Review: Ordinary People Change The World, Stephanie Fagin-Jones Jul 2018

Book Review: Ordinary People Change The World, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

This paper reviews Ordinary People Change the World picture biography series, by New York Times Best-Selling author Brad Meltzer and award-winning illustrator Christopher Eliopoulos. The series offers children, parents, and teachers an indispensible resource toward cultivating the character traits and behaviors associated with heroism and heroic leadership. The extensively-researched, historically accurate series is comprised of eight books, each respectively entitled: I Am…Martin Luther King, Jr.; Albert Einstein; Amelia Earhart; Helen Keller; Rosa Parks; Jackie Robinson; Lucille Ball; and Abraham Lincoln. A major contribution of this book series lies in its ‘parallel process’: parents who share this series on the ...


Leadership And Sexuality: Power, Principles And Processes, James K. Beggan, Scott T. Allison Jan 2018

Leadership And Sexuality: Power, Principles And Processes, James K. Beggan, Scott T. Allison

Bookshelf

Although both leadership and sexuality are important and heavily researched topics, there is little work that addresses the interaction of the two areas. Leadership and Sexuality: Power, Principles, and Processes is a scholarly synthesis of leadership principles with issues related to sexuality and sexual policy-making. The authors' multi-disciplinary analysis of the topic examines sexuality in the context of many different kinds of leadership, exploring both the good and the bad aspects of leadership and sexuality. These integrated topics are examined through three broad areas of study. The first involves individuals who become leaders in sexual domains by advancing new views ...


Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2017

Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we take a social psychological approach to understanding gender and leadership. In doing so, we explain how both the social context and people’s perceptions influence leadership processes involving gender. The theoretical approaches taken by social psychologists are often focused on one of these two questions: (1) Are there gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness? and, (2) What barriers do women face in the leadership domain? We begin our chapter by reviewing the literature surrounding these two questions. We then discuss in detail one of the greatest barriers to women in leadership: the prejudice and discrimination ...


The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2016

The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research broadens our understanding of racial and gender bias in leader evaluations by merging implicit leadership theory and social dominance perspectives. Across two experimental studies (291 participants), we tested the prediction that bias in leader evaluations stemming from White and masculine leader standards depends on the extent to which people favor hierarchical group relationships (SDO) and their level of patriotism. Employing the Goldberg paradigm, participants read identical leadership speeches attributed to either a woman or a man described as either a minority (Black or Latino/a) or a majority (White) group member. Results show SDO negatively predicted evaluations of ...


Ethical Decision Making And Leadership: Merging Social Role And Self-Construal Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price Sep 2013

Ethical Decision Making And Leadership: Merging Social Role And Self-Construal Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends our understanding of ethical decision making on the part of leaders by merging social role and self-construal perspectives. Interdependent self-construal is generally seen as enhancing concern for justice and moral values. Across two studies we tested the prediction that non-leading group members’ interdependent self-construal would be associated with lower levels of unethical decision making on behalf of their group but that, in contrast, this relationship would be weaker for leaders, given their social role. These predictions were experimentally tested by assigning participants to the role of leader or non-leading group member and assessing the association between their ...


Gender Bias In Leader Evaluations: Merging Implicit Theories And Role Congruity Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette Sep 2013

Gender Bias In Leader Evaluations: Merging Implicit Theories And Role Congruity Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people’s attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes ...


Heroic Leadership: An Influence Taxonomy Of 100 Exceptional Individuals, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals Jan 2013

Heroic Leadership: An Influence Taxonomy Of 100 Exceptional Individuals, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals

Bookshelf

Heroic Leadership is a celebration of our greatest heroes, from legends such as Mahatma Gandhi to the legions of unsung heroes who transform our world quietly behind the scenes. The authors argue that all great heroes are also great leaders. The term ‘heroic leadership’ is coined to describe how heroism and leadership are intertwined, and how our most cherished heroes are also our most transforming leaders.

This book offers a new conceptual framework for understanding heroism and heroic leadership, drawing from theories of great leadership and heroic action. Ten categories of heroism are described: Trending Heroes, Transitory Heroes, Transparent Heroes ...


I Can Do That: The Impact Of Implicit Theories On Leadership Role Model Effectiveness, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Audrey N. Innella Feb 2012

I Can Do That: The Impact Of Implicit Theories On Leadership Role Model Effectiveness, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette, Audrey N. Innella

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research investigates the role of implicit theories in influencing the effectiveness of successful role models in the leadership domain. Across two studies, we test the prediction that incremental theorists (‘leaders are made’) compared to entity theorists (‘leaders are born’) will respond more positively to being presented with a role model before undertaking a leadership task. In Study 1, measuring people’s naturally occurring implicit theories of leadership, we showed that after being primed with a role model, incremental theorists reported greater leadership confidence and less anxious-depressed affect than entity theorists following the leadership task. In Study 2, we demonstrated ...


The Bathsheba Syndrome: When A Leader Fails, Donelson R. Forsyth Nov 2011

The Bathsheba Syndrome: When A Leader Fails, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Another leader—no, an entire cadre of leaders—has been found to be a moral failure. Legal authorities have charged Jerry Sandusky, who retired as the defensive coordinator for the Penn State football team in 1999, with the sexual abuse of children who he targeted through his involvement in the charitable organization The Second Mile. Additionally, a number of other administrators and leaders at Penn State University—the university’s president Graham Spanier, vice-president Gary Schultz, athletic director Tim Curley and long-time football coach Joe Paterno—face charges or have been fired from the university because of their failure to ...


Female Leaders: Injurious Or Inspiring Role Models For Women?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Mar 2011

Female Leaders: Injurious Or Inspiring Role Models For Women?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The impact of female role models on women’s leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women’s self-perceptions and leadership aspirations compared to male and less elite female leaders. In Study 1 (N = 60), women were presented with both female and male leaders before serving as leaders of ostensible three-person groups in an immersive virtual environment. This study established the relatively deflating impact of high-level female leaders, compared to high-level male leaders ...


Taking A Turn Toward The Masculine: The Impact Of Mortality Salience On Implicit Leadership Theories, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon, Audrey N. Innella Jan 2011

Taking A Turn Toward The Masculine: The Impact Of Mortality Salience On Implicit Leadership Theories, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon, Audrey N. Innella

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The present research investigates the influence of subtle death-related thoughts (i.e., mortality salience), on people’s images of effective leaders (i.e., their implicit leadership theories). We test the prediction that mortality salience will change the content of these implicit theories to be more gender stereotypical such that individuals will conceive of effective leaders in a significantly more masculine, or agentic, manner. To test this prediction, we assessed participants’ communal and agentic implicit leadership theories after they were presented with a mortality salience or control manipulation. Results show that priming individuals to think about their mortality with two open-ended ...


Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette Jan 2010

Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social behavior is often group behavior. People are in many respects individuals seeking their personal, private objectives, yet they are also members of social collectives that bind members to one another. The tendency to join with others is perhaps the most important single characteristic of humans. The processes that take place within these groups influence, in fundamental ways, their members and society-at-large. Just as the dynamic processes that occur in groups--such as the exchange of information among members, leading and following, pressures put on members to adhere to the group's standards, shifts in friendship alliances, and conflict and collaboration-change ...


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. Leadership can occur across great distances, as when a leader influences followers who are distributed across differing contexts, but in many cases leadership occurs in an intact group that exists in a specific locale: Teams, boards, advisory councils, and classrooms arc all examples of groups that work toward shared goals with, in many cases, the help and guidance of a leader. Leadership can be considered a set of personality traits or a specific set of behaviors enacted by an individual, but an interpersonal, group-level conceptualization considers Ieadership to ...


Leadership And The More-Important-Than-Average Effect: Overestimation Of Group Goals And The Justification Of Unethical Behavior, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Alyson E. Emrick Jan 2010

Leadership And The More-Important-Than-Average Effect: Overestimation Of Group Goals And The Justification Of Unethical Behavior, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Alyson E. Emrick

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research investigates the empirical assumptions behind the claim that leaders exaggerate the importance of their group’s goals more so than non-leaders and that they may use these beliefs to justify deviating from generally accepted moral requirements when doing so is necessary for goal achievement. We tested these biased thought processes across three studies. The results from these three studies established the more-important-than-average effect, both for real and illusory groups. Participants claimed that their group goals are more important than the goals of others, and this effect was stronger for leaders than for non-leading group members. In Study 3 ...


Group Dynamics, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2007

Group Dynamics, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Group dynamics are the influential actions, processes, and changes that take place in groups. Individuals often seek personal objectives independently of others, but across a wide range of settings and situations, they join with others in groups. The processes that take place within these groups--such as pressures to conform, the development of norms and roles, differentiation of leaders from followers, collective goal-strivings, and conflict-substantially influence members' emotions, actions, and thoughts. Kurt Lewin, widely recognized as the founding theorist of the field, used the term group dynamics to describe these group processes, as well as the scientific discipline devoted to their ...


Leadership During Personal Crisis, Gill Robinson Hickman, Ann Creighton-Zollar Jan 2000

Leadership During Personal Crisis, Gill Robinson Hickman, Ann Creighton-Zollar

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

During a seminar involving Kellogg leadership scholars and fellows, the presenters asked participants to identify areas of study that were absent from leadership research (Concepts in Leadership seminar, 1997). Participants at this session indicated that studies involving personal aspects of leadership, among others, were noticeably absent form the literature. Leadership studies students have echoed similar sentiments about the literature and curriculum. They wanted research that focused on individuals in the leadership process as people, who must live, learn, experience, and cope with all of the issues of life, while fulfilling their roles as effective leaders and followers.


Leaders Of The Future : Differentiating Leaders Among High School Seniors, Richard S. Mohn Jr. Mar 1992

Leaders Of The Future : Differentiating Leaders Among High School Seniors, Richard S. Mohn Jr.

Master's Theses

The present study investigated high school leadership at two independent high schools using a peer nomination technique. Seniors nominate classmates who best fit each of 20 items indexing attributes of business world leaders. The seniors also nominated students they liked most and liked least. The leadership attributes were conceptualized to fit into four constructs: Other oriented, Inner oriented, Situationally oriented, and Derailment characteristics. The like most and like least items were used for measuring social impact and social preference and for classifying students into the sociometric groups of popular, controversial, rejected, neglected, and average. Test-retest correlations at a one month ...


Activation Of Social Heuristics In Social Decision Making Tasks As A Function Of Leadership Role Assignment, Amber B. Keating Jan 1989

Activation Of Social Heuristics In Social Decision Making Tasks As A Function Of Leadership Role Assignment, Amber B. Keating

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of assigning leadership roles implying varying degrees of social responsibility along with examining lay peoples' perceptions of these roles. Using 105 subjects, a 3 (leadership role) x 2 (resource type) design was used to examine how leaders make decisions about sharing resources in groups. First, 41 subjects rated the perceived degree of social responsibility for each of the 32 roles. In the next phase, another 64 subjects were assigned one of three leadership roles (supervisor, guide, or leader) and were asked to take that type of leader's deserved amount ...


Effectiveness Of Computer-Based, Modified Computer-Based And Workshop Training In The Learning/Application Of Leadership Skills, Karen E. Chappell May 1986

Effectiveness Of Computer-Based, Modified Computer-Based And Workshop Training In The Learning/Application Of Leadership Skills, Karen E. Chappell

Master's Theses

This study examined the effectiveness of training methods in effective leadership principles. Forty-two male and female Introductory Psychology students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: computer-based training (CBT), computer-based training with videotaped vignettes (CBTV), or group-based workshop training with videotaped vignettes (GBW). Training effectiveness was assessed on two dependent variables, pretest/posttest scores in conceptual knowledge and pretest/posttest scores in applied knowledge. Only partial support was found for the hypothesis that there would be significant differences in mean pretest and mean posttest scores on both conceptual and applied knowledge as a result of training method. Method of ...


Styles Of Leadership : Leader Behavior In A Crisis Situation, Jacqueline J. Delisle Jan 1986

Styles Of Leadership : Leader Behavior In A Crisis Situation, Jacqueline J. Delisle

Honors Theses

This study examined leadership behavior in a simulated crisis situation. The subjects were 16 undergraduate students enrolled in a leadership class. Subjects completed a leadership behavior questionnaire, and two leaders were chosen on the basis of their scores. The remainder of the subjects were assigned to groups in a manner which balanced their average scores. The findings indicated that the appointed leaders made significantly less suggestions as emergent leaders arose and gained power. Possibilities for future research were proposed.


Self-Presentational Determinants Of Sex Differences In Leadership Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Barry R. Schlenker, Mark R. Leary, Nancy E. Mccown May 1985

Self-Presentational Determinants Of Sex Differences In Leadership Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Barry R. Schlenker, Mark R. Leary, Nancy E. Mccown

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Men and women placed in leadership positions communicated information about their skills and abilities to their subordinates. Although leaders’ perceptions of their abilities, group members’ knowledge of their leader’s abilities, and the specific skills needed by the leader were all manipulated in the experimental setting, self-presentations of ability were primarily determined by sex role stereotypes rather than by situational factors. Results indicated that (1) male leaders emphasized their social influence and task abilities; (2) female leaders emphasized their interpersonal, socioemotional abilities; and (3) group members felt task ability, as compared to interpersonal ability, was a far more important skill ...


Effective Group Meetings And Decision Making, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 1985

Effective Group Meetings And Decision Making, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

An extraordinary amount of work and many types of decisions are handled by groups of people, for in group meetings we can pool our knowledge and abilities, give each other feedback about our ideas, and tackle problems that would overcome us if we faced them alone. Group members not only give us emotional and social support when meeting together, but they can stimulate us to become more creative, more insightful, and more committed to our goals.

Not every group, however, realizes all these positive consequences. Often we dread going to "committee meetings," "council sessions," and "discussion groups" because they take ...


The Influence Of The Perceived Emotions Anger And Fear On Leadership Ratings, Helen M. Mcfalls Jan 1981

The Influence Of The Perceived Emotions Anger And Fear On Leadership Ratings, Helen M. Mcfalls

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Leader, Follower, And Nonleader Patterns In Emergent Leadership, Catherine Mae Holmes Jan 1978

Leader, Follower, And Nonleader Patterns In Emergent Leadership, Catherine Mae Holmes

Master's Theses

In the present research 82 freshmen at the University of Richmond who had previously been administered the Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) volunteered for a short discussion session after which each student completed a 9 item leadership scale on each of the other group members. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the Social Extroversion scale of the UPI and ratings of group participation (r=.38, <.01). A post hoc multiple discriminant analysis identified 7 OPI scales which discriminated 64.4% of the cases into correct leadership groups. These findings support a leader-follower-nonleader paradigm for small croup participation, identifying unique personality configurations for each group -- leaders who participate actively and who organize the group process, followers who offer suggestions congeniality and nonreaders who either refuse to interact or become antagonistic to group goals. Suggestions for future research include a need for observer ratings of group interactions as well as more extensive personality measures of social variables such as dominance and social desirability.


Predicting Leader Emergence Within Fielder's Contingency Model Of Leadership Effectiveness, Helen Ferguson Daniel May 1976

Predicting Leader Emergence Within Fielder's Contingency Model Of Leadership Effectiveness, Helen Ferguson Daniel

Master's Theses

Eighteen fourman groups consisting of female undergraduates at the University of Richmond participated in problem-solving tasks within the restrictions of an all-channel communication network. Each subject was chosen by her scores on Fiedler' s (1967) Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) scale. The hypothesis that low LPC Ss would emerge as group leaders under the conditions of Octant II of Fiedler's contingency model was not supported by the nominations of twelve groups. Two-factor ANOV s showed non­ significant time differences over time for the four leadership conditions. These results are consistent with the Rice and Chemers (1973) findings which indicate that Fiedler ...


A Partial Test Of The Contingency Model On Adult-Led Groups Of Children, Jeffrey Wayne Jones May 1975

A Partial Test Of The Contingency Model On Adult-Led Groups Of Children, Jeffrey Wayne Jones

Master's Theses

The problem was to test the applicability of Fiedler's contingency model on 15 adult-led groups of children in a field situation. The effectiveness of high and low least preferred co-worker (LPC) leaders on structured and unstructured group tasks was investigated when leader­ member relations were good and leaders had strong power. The data were analyzed in a 2 x 2 factorial design using the analysis of variance. None of the F tests reached statistical significance, thus the model was not supported. Several possible reasons for the findings were given as well as suggestions for future research.


Emergent Leadership As A Function Of The Leaders Social Distance And The Task Situation, George Stephen Goldstein Jan 1965

Emergent Leadership As A Function Of The Leaders Social Distance And The Task Situation, George Stephen Goldstein

Master's Theses

The present study attempts to investigate the phenomena of social distance of the leader as a function of group effectiveness on different tasks. A number of hypotheses will be studied.