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The Effect Of Explanation On The Art Preferences Of Liberals And Conservatives, Joseph Fay Oct 1977

The Effect Of Explanation On The Art Preferences Of Liberals And Conservatives, Joseph Fay

Master's Theses

One hundred thirteen subjects at the University of Richmond were shown twenty-four slides of paintings from four categories of art: simple representational, simple abstract, complex representational, complex abstract. Half of the paintings in each category were accompanied by a one-paragraph explanation. Based on their scores on the Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1968), subjects were divided into two groups: liberals and conservatives. Using Wilson’s (1973) theory of conservatism as the theoretical base, it was hypothesized that, for the unexplained paintings, conservatives would prefer simple art while liberals would prefer complex art.


Efficacy, Contrast Effect And Differential Effectiveness Of Two Time-Out Durations In The Treatment Of Two Autistic Children, Susan Adell Blankenbaker Sep 1977

Efficacy, Contrast Effect And Differential Effectiveness Of Two Time-Out Durations In The Treatment Of Two Autistic Children, Susan Adell Blankenbaker

Master's Theses

A single subject simultaneous treatment design, within a multiple baseline framework, was used to test the efficacy, contrast effect and differential effectiveness of two durations of time-out (TO). With two children on the autistic ward of a residential mental hospital serving as subjects, the TO procedure was demonstrated to be effective in reducing target behavior. No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 minute and 5 minute TOs and limited support for the existence of a contrast effect was revealed. It was concluded that strategies for the facilitation of the use of the shortest TO interval possible should be ...


Life Satisfaction And Aging: A Comparison Of Life Satisfaction Index A, The Tennessee Self Concept Scale And Correlates, Ann Rowley Penberthy Aug 1977

Life Satisfaction And Aging: A Comparison Of Life Satisfaction Index A, The Tennessee Self Concept Scale And Correlates, Ann Rowley Penberthy

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction and other relevant variables in a sample of noninstitutionalized older Americans. Recent research has related satisfaction with life to adjustment in aging. Previous studies, however, have used a variety of methods to measure life satisfaction or self-concept. This study was designed to be an analysis of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index A with selected personal and behavioral variables. 59 subjects, primarily Jewish, aged 56 to 91 were tested during their regular activity meetings at the Jewish Community Center of Richmond, Virginia. The ...


Relationship Of State-Trait Anxiety And Type Of Practice To Reading Comprehension Of College Students, Lewis R. Waid Aug 1977

Relationship Of State-Trait Anxiety And Type Of Practice To Reading Comprehension Of College Students, Lewis R. Waid

Master's Theses

Sixty male and female college students of average scholastic aptitude, 30 with high A-trait and 30 with low A-trait, were tested for reading comprehension following either massed (MP) or distributed practice (DP) with narrative reading material. Twice during the experiment the students' A-state was assessed through Spielberger's STAI A-state scale. The findings demonstrated; (a) high A-trait students responded to the experimental situation with greater elevations in A-state; (b) performance on the reading comprehension task was related to A-trait level with low A-trait students performing significantly better; (c) the A-state level of the students immediately prior to the reading comprehension ...


The Leader's Method And The Follower's Outcome: Predictors Of Future Interaction, Geoffrey J. Nimich Jul 1977

The Leader's Method And The Follower's Outcome: Predictors Of Future Interaction, Geoffrey J. Nimich

Master's Theses

In attempting to explain the degree of cooperation in the leader-follower dyad, leadership style and situational outcome, in a mixed motive game, were controlled. 120 business employees, both male and female, were paired with a leader who was projected as a Prisoner's Dilemma game expert. The subject, with the help of the leader who was either democratic or autocratic, then played a round of the game against a confederate subject. The win/lose outcome of the first game was controlled. The subject was then given the opportunity to play a second game against the leader, and the number of ...


The Effects Of Litter Size On Behavioral Development And Adult Emotinoality In The Rat, Elizabeth N. Pully May 1977

The Effects Of Litter Size On Behavioral Development And Adult Emotinoality In The Rat, Elizabeth N. Pully

Master's Theses

The effects of the early experience variable of litter size is examined at two developmental time periods (infancy and adulthood) in the rat. The study departs from the majority of the early experience experimentation in its use of a naturally occurring independent variable in place of the typical handling and shocking procedures. Large (n = 9), medium (n = 5), small litters (n = 3) were developed by pooling rat pups at birth and then distributing them to randomly selected, lactating females. Observations of behaviors (including maternal grooming) during the preweaning stage of development disclosed substantial differences in response activity in the three ...


The Effect Of Two Exercise Programs On Positional Kinesthetic Awareness In College Varsity Swimmers, Brenda Dianne Glascock May 1977

The Effect Of Two Exercise Programs On Positional Kinesthetic Awareness In College Varsity Swimmers, Brenda Dianne Glascock

Master's Theses

The following study was undertaken to determine if Standard and Kinesthetic swimming training would produce an effect on positional kinesthetic awareness of male competitive swimmers at the college level. It was hoped both methods would produce a positive effect, but that Kinesthetic training would prove superior.


Impression Management Concerns Governing Reactions To A Faulty Decision, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 1977

Impression Management Concerns Governing Reactions To A Faulty Decision, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

As a part of a study ostensibly concerned with conceptual ability, 120 male and 92 female undergraduates were asked to perform a boring task that consisted of generating random numbers for 20 minutes. The experimenter presented herself as being either attractive or unattractive, and made either favorable or unfavorable comments in describing the task. Following performance of the task, subjects rated it on either signed or unsigned questionnaires. Prior findings were replicated since a direct relationship was obtained between subjects' task evaluations and experimenter's opinion only when the experimenter was attractive; when she behaved unattractively, her opinion had no ...


The Attributional "Double Standard": Actor-Observer Differences In Predicting The Relationship Between Attitudes And Behaviors, Donelson R. Forsyth, Barry R. Schlenker, Thomas V. Bonoma Jan 1977

The Attributional "Double Standard": Actor-Observer Differences In Predicting The Relationship Between Attitudes And Behaviors, Donelson R. Forsyth, Barry R. Schlenker, Thomas V. Bonoma

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

It was hypothesized that subjects who took the role of interaction observers ration than actors would predict a closer relationship between attitudes and behaviors and would report greater confidence in behavioral predictions derivable from an actor's attitude statements. One hundred sixty-eight subjects assumed the role of either actor or observer in scenarios of group interactions in which a central person made a statement about a particular attitude object. As predicted, subjects in the observer role reported that specific future behaviors (e.g., loaning money, helping to study for a test) had a greater likelihood of occurrence following an attitude ...


Correlating Locus Of Control With The Motive To Avoid Success, Gary W. Embrey Jan 1977

Correlating Locus Of Control With The Motive To Avoid Success, Gary W. Embrey

Master's Theses

Expectancy seems to operate as described in J.B. Rotter' s Social Learning Theory (1954). His work , although seemingly related to that of other notables (Riesman, 1954, in particular), is distinguished through one vital concept-­ perception. According to Rotter, any reinforcement or reward will gain or lose effectiveness in insuring the recurrence of a preceding behavior or event only if it is perceived to have a casual relationship. One must believe the reward to be contingent upon his behavior or independent of it in order for an expectancy to be established (Rotter, 1954, 1960). It follows then that the reward ...


Berkeley's Social Theory: Context And Development, David E. Leary Jan 1977

Berkeley's Social Theory: Context And Development, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper is an investigation of Berkeley's social thought, particularly as it is grounded upon Berkeley's quite explicit, but neglected, social theory, which is revealed in an essay written by Berkeley in 1713 for Steele's short-lived Guardian. Originally untitled, this short essay has been labeled "The Bond of Society" in Luce and Jessop's critical edition of Berkeley's works. Its significance was noted by Harry Elmer Barnes in 1948, but Barnes's comment has not brought the essay the recognition it deserves. This is all the more unfortunate since, as Barnes says, Berkeley's essay is ...