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The Routledge Guidebook To James's Principles Of Psychology, David E. Leary Jan 2018

The Routledge Guidebook To James's Principles Of Psychology, David E. Leary

Bookshelf

The Routledge Guidebook to James’s Principles of Psychology is an engaging and accessible introduction to a monumental text that has influenced the development of both psychological science and philosophical pragmatism in important and lasting ways. Written for readers approaching William James’s classic work for the first time as well as for those without knowledge of its entire scope, this guidebook not only places this work within its historical context, it provides clear explications of its intertwined aspects and arguments, and examines its relevance within today’s psychology and philosophy.

Offering a close reading of this text, The Routledge ...


Predicting Entrepreneurial Burnout In A Moderated Mediated Model Of Job Fit, Eva De Mol, Violet T. Ho, Jeffrey M. Pollack Jan 2018

Predicting Entrepreneurial Burnout In A Moderated Mediated Model Of Job Fit, Eva De Mol, Violet T. Ho, Jeffrey M. Pollack

Management Faculty Publications

We introduce, and empirically test, a model of entrepreneurial burnout that highlights the relationships among job fit, entrepreneurial passion, destiny beliefs, and burnout. Using a sample of 326 individuals involved in entrepreneurial jobs, we tested the link between job fit and two forms of passion—harmonious and obsessive—and the moderating role of entrepreneurs' destiny beliefs about work (i.e., the belief that a successful career is “meant to be”). Findings illustrated that their job fit perceptions were positively related to harmonious passion, which in turn negatively predicted burnout. Additionally, the relationship between job fit and obsessive passion was moderated ...


Promoting Harmonious Work Passion Among Unmotivated Employees: A Two-Nation Investigation Of The Compensatory Function Of Cooperative Psychological Climate, Violet T. Ho, Dejun Tony Kong, Chay-Hoon Lee, Phillippe Dubreuil, Jacques Forest Jan 2018

Promoting Harmonious Work Passion Among Unmotivated Employees: A Two-Nation Investigation Of The Compensatory Function Of Cooperative Psychological Climate, Violet T. Ho, Dejun Tony Kong, Chay-Hoon Lee, Phillippe Dubreuil, Jacques Forest

Management Faculty Publications

This research draws on self-determination theory to investigate (a) the role of cooperative psychological climate in promoting harmonious work passion among employees with low intrinsic motivation; and (b) the mediating role of harmonious passion in linking cooperative psychological climate to behavioral outcomes. We propose that cooperative psychological climate facilitates harmonious passion and, in particular, plays a compensatory role among employees with low intrinsic motivation. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to facilitate both task performance and interpersonal helping, thereby linking cooperative psychological climate to these employee behaviors. We test the model using data from employees and their supervisors across two ...


Disentangling Passion And Engagement: An Examination Of How And When Passionate Employees Become Engaged Ones, Violet T. Ho, Marina N. Astakhova Jan 2018

Disentangling Passion And Engagement: An Examination Of How And When Passionate Employees Become Engaged Ones, Violet T. Ho, Marina N. Astakhova

Management Faculty Publications

While anecdotal industry evidence indicates that passionate workers are engaged workers, research has yet to understand how and when job passion and engagement are related. To answer the how question, we draw from person-environment fit theory to test, and find support for, the mediating roles of perceived demands-abilities (D-A) fit and person-organization (P-O) fit in the relationships between passion and job engagement, and between passion and organizational engagement, respectively. Also, because the obsessive form of passion is contingency-driven, we answer the when question by adopting a target-similarity approach to test the contingent role of multi-foci trust in the obsessive passion-to-engagement ...


Well-Grounded: The Neurobiology Of Rational Decisions, Kelly Lambert Jan 2018

Well-Grounded: The Neurobiology Of Rational Decisions, Kelly Lambert

Bookshelf

Contingency calculations—the ability to predict the outcomes of decisions and actions—are critical for survival and success. Our amazing brains continually process past and current experiences to enable us to make the most adaptive choices. But when the brain’s information systems are compromised—by such varying conditions as drug addiction, poverty, mental illness, or even privilege—we can lose the ability to arrive at informed decisions.

In this engaging book, behavioral neuroscientist Kelly Lambert explores a variety of the modern factors that can lead to warped neural processing, or distorted realities she terms “brain bubbles.” Individuals who define ...


Realignment, Region And Race: Presidential Leadership And Social Identity, George R. Goethals Jan 2018

Realignment, Region And Race: Presidential Leadership And Social Identity, George R. Goethals

Bookshelf

The Trump presidency may well be the first phase of a new American political alignment deeply rooted in identity politics. Now more than ever, it seems especially important to understand how leaders compete to engage different human motivations—how presidents, presidential candidates, and other political leaders appeal to potential followers' needs for economic well-being, safety, self-esteem, and a sense of significance. It is time to come to terms with the roles of race and region in US political history.

In Realignment, Region, and Race, George R. Goethals addresses this challenge head-on, exploring the place of racial dynamics in American politics ...


Writing And The Body In Motion: Awakening Voice Through Somatic Practice, Cheryl Pallant Jan 2018

Writing And The Body In Motion: Awakening Voice Through Somatic Practice, Cheryl Pallant

Bookshelf

Based upon the author’s lifetime practices as a dancer, poet and teacher, this innovative approach to developing body awareness focuses on achieving self-discovery and well-being through movement, mindfulness and writing.


Written from a holistic (rather than dualistic) view of the mind-body duality, discussion and exercises draw on dance, psychology, neuroscience and meditation to guide personal exploration and creative expression.


Heroic Humility: What The Science Of Humility Can Say To People Raised On Self-Focus, Everett L. Worthington Jr., Scott T. Allison Jan 2018

Heroic Humility: What The Science Of Humility Can Say To People Raised On Self-Focus, Everett L. Worthington Jr., Scott T. Allison

Bookshelf

In this age of selfies, instant celebrity, and corporate scandals, there is a pressing need for greater humility.

This book synthesizes research and theory relevant to humility and heroism, articulating a vision of heroic humility — humility of such great depth that it inspires others.

Fortunately, humility can be learned. It has three aspects: an honest self-appraisal (including an attitude that one is teachable), modest self-presentation, and an orientation toward building others up rather than putting them down. People who embody heroic humility not only demonstrate instances of great humility, but practice it throughout their lives, even when severely tested.

This ...


Heroism And Wellbeing In The 21st Century: Applied And Emerging Perspectives, Olivia Efthimiou, Scott T. Allison, Zeno E. Franco Jan 2018

Heroism And Wellbeing In The 21st Century: Applied And Emerging Perspectives, Olivia Efthimiou, Scott T. Allison, Zeno E. Franco

Bookshelf

Offering a holistic take on an emerging field, this edited collection examines how heroism manifests, is appropriated, and is constructed in a broad range of settings and from a variety of disciplines and perspectives. Psychologists, educators, lawyers, researchers and cultural analysts consider how heroism intersects with wellbeing, and how we still use—and even abuse—heroism as a vehicle to thrive and prosper in the everyday and in the face of the most unbearable situations. Highlighting some of the most pressing issues in today’s world—including genocide, racism, deceitful business practices, bystanderism, mental health, unethical governance and the global ...


"Stitching Life Together” A Capstone Project, Jane M. Berry, Alex Bruno, Elizabeth Cooper, Stephanie Elmaleh, Olivia Lavin, Mallory Haskins, Peter Kade, Adrian Matthews, Gibran Merchant, Rachel Morris, Pascaline Munezero, Henna Ragoowansi, Alexandra Serek, William Tague, Ben Weinstein, Emily Wu Jan 2018

"Stitching Life Together” A Capstone Project, Jane M. Berry, Alex Bruno, Elizabeth Cooper, Stephanie Elmaleh, Olivia Lavin, Mallory Haskins, Peter Kade, Adrian Matthews, Gibran Merchant, Rachel Morris, Pascaline Munezero, Henna Ragoowansi, Alexandra Serek, William Tague, Ben Weinstein, Emily Wu

SSIR Presentations 2018

Our Sophomore Scholars in Residence class, Longevity and Happiness, made a quilt for its capstone project. Each member of the class (15 students, 1 faculty) designed and then sewed together a 12 x 12 inch square, based on a particular person or theme from the course. Most of the squares depict the lives of individuals we met and interviewed over the year, including several from Canada, where we traveled for fall break to interview the exceptionally long-lived individuals in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. We also interviewed several individuals from Richmond, VA. Throughout the spring semester, we learned and practiced our sewing ...


Chameleonic Obsessive Job Passion: Demystifying The Relationships Between Obsessive Job Passion And In-Role And Extra-Role Performance, Marina N. Astakhova, Violet T. Ho Jan 2018

Chameleonic Obsessive Job Passion: Demystifying The Relationships Between Obsessive Job Passion And In-Role And Extra-Role Performance, Marina N. Astakhova, Violet T. Ho

Management Faculty Publications

In seeking to address the theoretical ambiguity regarding how and when obsessive job passion (OJP) leads to work performance, we integrate both self-verification and person–environment (P-E) fit perspectives to propose and test a moderated mediation model linking OJP to performance. We argue that OJP is indirectly related to co-worker-rated in-role and extra-role performance through self-verification, and these indirect links are conditioned by perceived demands–abilities (D-A) fit and needs–supplies (N-S) fit. Results from 190 healthcare professionals and their co-workers collected at three different time periods revealed the contrasting roles played by these two moderators. Individuals with higher ...


Improving Teacher Job Satisfaction: The Roles Of Social Capital, Teacher Efficacy, And Support, Suzanne K. Edinger, Matthew J. Edinger Jan 2018

Improving Teacher Job Satisfaction: The Roles Of Social Capital, Teacher Efficacy, And Support, Suzanne K. Edinger, Matthew J. Edinger

School of Professional and Continuing Studies Faculty Publications

In this study, we examine how social capital, teacher efficacy, and organizational support increase teacher job satisfaction. Research suggests that teachers worldwide are exceedingly dissatisfied with their jobs and have significantly higher levels of turnover than their counterparts in other professions. We investigate this phenomenon using a sample of 122 elementary school teachers. We found that teachers’ centrality position, or each teacher’s relationship with every other teacher, in their school’s trust network and the density of a teacher’s academic advice ego-network predicted the development of teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, we found that teacher efficacy mediated the relationship ...


Print Exposure Modulates The Effects Of Repetition Priming During Sentence Reading, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon Dec 2017

Print Exposure Modulates The Effects Of Repetition Priming During Sentence Reading, Matthew W. Lowder, Peter C. Gordon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, as practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. The current eye-tracking experiment tests the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the Author Recognition Test (ART). Lexical repetition of ...


Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman Nov 2017

Weight Beliefs And Messages: Mindsets Predict Body-Shame And Anti-Fat Attitudes Via Attributions, Jeni L. Burnette, Crystal L. Hoyt, Carol S. Dweck, Lisa Auster-Gussman

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In two samples (N=247, N= 291), we examined the link between beliefs and messages about the changeable (incremental theory) vs. fixed (entity theory) nature of weight, attributions for weight, and body shame. We recruited participants using online sampling, employing a correlational design in Study 1 and an experimental design in Study 2. Across both studies, we found evidence for the stigma-asymmetry effect—incremental, relative to entity beliefs/messages of weight predicted both (a) stronger onset responsibility attributions, indirectly increasing body shame and (b) stronger offset efficacy attributions, indirectly decreasing body shame. Study 2 replicated the stigma-asymmetry effect with anti-fat ...


The Lives And Lessons Of Richmond Nonagerians And Centenarians, Jieyi Ding, Grace Holzer, Caitlin Livesey, Haley Neuenfeldt Apr 2017

The Lives And Lessons Of Richmond Nonagerians And Centenarians, Jieyi Ding, Grace Holzer, Caitlin Livesey, Haley Neuenfeldt

SSIR Presentations 2017

Capstone presentation for the University of Richmond SSIR (Sophomore Scholars in Residence) Program.


The Lives And Lessons Of Nova Scotian Nonagerians And Centenarians, Susie Shepardson, Ayaka Hasegawa, Chris Cushman, Maryann Adesoba Apr 2017

The Lives And Lessons Of Nova Scotian Nonagerians And Centenarians, Susie Shepardson, Ayaka Hasegawa, Chris Cushman, Maryann Adesoba

SSIR Presentations 2017

Capstone presentation for the University of Richmond SSIR (Sophomore Scholars in Residence) Program.


What’S The Secret To Longevity?, Hannah Wolfe, Chris Selwood, Sara Cloonan Apr 2017

What’S The Secret To Longevity?, Hannah Wolfe, Chris Selwood, Sara Cloonan

SSIR Presentations 2017

Capstone presentation for the University of Richmond SSIR (Sophomore Scholars in Residence) Program.


"Authentic Tidings": What Wordsworth Gave To William James, David E. Leary Apr 2017

"Authentic Tidings": What Wordsworth Gave To William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

It is widely recognized that William James had a profound and pervasive impact upon literary writers, works, styles, and genres, not to mention upon the encompassing frameworks of modernism and post-modernism, throughout the 20th century. Much less recognized is the impact of literature upon James’s life and work, whether in psychology or philosophy. This article looks at the influence of one particular author, William Wordsworth, primarily through his long 1814 poem The Excursion, from which James drew “authentic tidings” that helped him weather some early storms and create his distinctive way of thinking about the human mind and its ...


Aging Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: Eye-Tracking And Person-Perception Analyses Of Young And Old Faces, Stephanie M. Ha Jan 2017

Aging Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: Eye-Tracking And Person-Perception Analyses Of Young And Old Faces, Stephanie M. Ha

Honors Theses

To examine possible mechanisms related to negative attitudes of aging revealed in face processing patterns, young and old participants rated their first impressions (positive or negative) of 100 faces of young and old individuals taken from the CAL/PAL Fate Database (Minear & Park, 2004) while gaze patterns were recorded using eye-tracking methods. In a follow-up study, an independent sample of young participants rated the same 100 faces on competence, attractiveness, and subjective age in order to further assess age-related stereotypes. This study replicated the T-gaze pattern in previous eye-tracking studies (Firestone, Turk, Browne, & Ryan 2007). We also found evidence of ...


Do Obsessive Beliefs Moderate The Relationship Between Obsessive-Compulsive And Depressive Symptoms?, Joanthan A. Teller Jan 2017

Do Obsessive Beliefs Moderate The Relationship Between Obsessive-Compulsive And Depressive Symptoms?, Joanthan A. Teller

Honors Theses

There has been limited research investigating potential mechanisms that drive the association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and depressive symptoms. Obsessive beliefs are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of OC symptoms and have been shown to correlate with depressive symptoms amongst OCD patients. I assessed whether obsessive beliefs moderate the relation between obsessive compulsive and depressive symptoms to replicate analyses from a study conducted by Teller et al. (2017). Forty-six participants with elevated OC symptoms were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Each participant completed the obsessing subscale of the Revised Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R), Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DOCS), the Revised ...


The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner Jan 2017

The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner

Honors Theses

The role of semantic knowledge and familiarity on retrieval processes were investigated in a test of the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH), and the data were interpreted from the perspectives of fuzzy trace theory and source monitoring errors (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Younger and older adults (N=60) studied pairs of words for two recognition tests – an item test, for recognition of individual words, and an associative test, for recognition of word pairs. In the associative test, four word pairs were presented with a forced-choice response requirement (4AFC; Patterson & Hertzog, 2010). In addition to the studied, intact cue-target pair, three cue-target pairs were ...


Eating Your Feelings: The Relationship Between Core Affect And Food Choices, Kana V. Rolett Jan 2017

Eating Your Feelings: The Relationship Between Core Affect And Food Choices, Kana V. Rolett

Honors Theses

The psychology of eating behavior is increasingly important given that more than one- third of Americans are obese, with 74% of men considered overweight or obese (Overweight and Obesity Statistics, 2012). This study examines the relationship between core affect and healthy food choices. Though previous research has examined relationships between specific emotions and eating behavior, little is known about core affect or about these relationships in more naturalistic settings (outside the lab). To evaluate the role of core affect in healthy food choices, a field study was conducted in the University of Richmond (UR) dining hall to measure UR students ...


The Hero's Transformation, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals Jan 2017

The Hero's Transformation, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals

Psychology Faculty Publications

Stories of heroes undergoing significant transformations are as old as stories themselves. The first known mythical narrative in Western literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh, tells the tale of Gilgamesh, the great demigod ruler of Uruk who revels in his invincibility. Gilgamesh terrorizes a city, kills the guardian of a forest, spurns the goddess of love, and slays the mighty bull of heaven. He is reckless, ruthless, and arrogant. Through his friendship with Enkidu and later by his recognition of his own mortality, Gilgamesh experiences loss, becomes humbled, and acquires wisdom about life and love. His personal growth as a hero ...


Heroes Of Richmond: Four Centuries Of Courage, Dignity, And Virtue, Scott T. Allison Jan 2017

Heroes Of Richmond: Four Centuries Of Courage, Dignity, And Virtue, Scott T. Allison

Bookshelf

A gorgeous river city blessed with abundant resources, Richmond, Virginia has also been called the city of “contradictions” and “crises”, a city with a “complicated history” replete with “struggles and wounds”. Richmond has been a magnet for heroism and villainy, a place where the best and worst of human nature have collided over several centuries. This volume, Heroes of Richmond: Four Centuries of Courage, Dignity, and Virtue, captures the complex heroic history of a complex city. Authored by a group of outstanding students at the University of Richmond, this book provides coverage of Richmond’s heroes from the first Euro ...


Adolescence Versus Politics: Metaphors In Late Colonial Uganda, Carol Summers Jan 2017

Adolescence Versus Politics: Metaphors In Late Colonial Uganda, Carol Summers

History Faculty Publications

This article discusses the British deployment of metaphors of adolescence in late colonial Uganda. Topics include the psychological, physiological, sociological and anthropological implications of a modern stage of adolescent life, the presence and persistence of ideas of adolescence in the country, and British engagement in developmental politics and institutions.


Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2017

Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we take a social psychological approach to understanding gender and leadership. In doing so, we explain how both the social context and people’s perceptions influence leadership processes involving gender. The theoretical approaches taken by social psychologists are often focused on one of these two questions: (1) Are there gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness? and, (2) What barriers do women face in the leadership domain? We begin our chapter by reviewing the literature surrounding these two questions. We then discuss in detail one of the greatest barriers to women in leadership: the prejudice and discrimination ...


Prediction In The Processing Of Repair Disfluencies: Evidence From The Visual-World Paradigm, Matthew Warren Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira Sep 2016

Prediction In The Processing Of Repair Disfluencies: Evidence From The Visual-World Paradigm, Matthew Warren Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira

Psychology Faculty Publications

Two visual-world eye-tracking experiments investigated the role of prediction in the processing of repair disfluencies (e.g., “The chef reached for some salt uh I mean some ketchup . . .”). Experiment 1 showed that listeners were more likely to fixate a critical distractor item (e.g., pepper) during the processing of repair disfluencies compared with the processing of coordination structures (e.g., “. . . some salt and also some ketchup . . .”). Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for disfluency versus coordination constructions and also showed that the pattern of fixations to the critical distractor for disfluency constructions was similar to the fixation patterns ...


The Role Of Encoding Strategy In Younger And Older Adult Associative Recognition: A Think-Aloud Analysis, Mark C. Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P. Freeman, Jane M. Berry Aug 2016

The Role Of Encoding Strategy In Younger And Older Adult Associative Recognition: A Think-Aloud Analysis, Mark C. Fox, Zachary Baldock, Sara P. Freeman, Jane M. Berry

Psychology Faculty Publications

Older adults have especially poor recognition memory for word pairs, and recent research suggests this associative deficit manifests primarily in older adults’ higher rates of false alarms compared to younger adults. This could result from older adults either failing to generate meaningful (deep) mediators at study, or failing to benefit from having generated deep mediators at test. Younger and older adults performed a recognition memory task for words and word-pairs. A think-aloud analysis of their spontaneous encoding strategies (e.g., repetition, shallow mediators, and deep mediators) revealed that generation of deep mediators did not differ between younger and older adults ...


Evaluating Treatments And Interventions: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Treatment?, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Amanda Costello, Carrie Jackson, Rochelle F. Hanson Jul 2016

Evaluating Treatments And Interventions: What Constitutes “Evidence-Based” Treatment?, Lisa Jobe-Shields, Amanda Costello, Carrie Jackson, Rochelle F. Hanson

Psychology Faculty Publications

This chapter provides an overview of the evidence-based treatment (EBT) paradigm, beginning with definitional issues, followed by a discussion on use of the iterative process and the importance of strong academic–practice partnerships to inform the development, selection, and implementation of EBTs. The discussion then turns to the importance of attaining, measuring, and sustaining fidelity to the treatment models; and identifying common barriers to sustained EBT use. Drawing from our expertise related to interventions for children and adolescents, a few dissemination/implementation models are highlighted as examples of current efforts to achieve sustained use of EBTs among practitioners, within agencies ...


Typing With Emg Using Myoware, L. Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T. Vavra Jun 2016

Typing With Emg Using Myoware, L. Elizabeth Crawford, Dylan T. Vavra

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this tutorial, we show how to create a simple at-home electromyography (EMG) system that will sense muscle activation from the surface of the skin and use it to send a keypress to a computer, bypassing the keyboard. We used a classic MaKey MaKey and a MyoWare sensor to accomplish this, along with a bit of coding. First, we show how to accomplish this using one MyoWare sensor. Then, we show how to add a second sensor to the system. For our purposes we used two sensors, but the methods described in this tutorial can be used to add any ...