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Gratitude, Resilience And Post-Traumatic Growth Among Kidney Transplant Recipients, Lillie Credle Jan 2020

Gratitude, Resilience And Post-Traumatic Growth Among Kidney Transplant Recipients, Lillie Credle

Honors Theses

Chronic health conditions, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), can produce detrimental physical, psychological, and emotional effects (Schulz & Kroencke, 2015). While transplantation helps to alleviate the physical symptoms, other psychosocial problems can remain. The present study sought to investigate whether organ transplant recipients utilize certain strength-based attributes—gratitude, resilience, and post-traumatic growth—when coping with life post-transplant. This mixed-methods study recruited eight (N=8) kidney transplant recipients, who took part in semi-structured interviews followed by a survey. Though quantitative data was limited due to COVID-19 interruptions, the qualitative data revealed evidence of gratitude, resilience, and post-traumatic growth being used by ...


The Relationship Between Nature, Media Use And Psychosocial Well Being In A College Population, Eve Gilles Jan 2020

The Relationship Between Nature, Media Use And Psychosocial Well Being In A College Population, Eve Gilles

Honors Theses

Time in nature is associated with a variety of mental, physical and emotional health benefits while the effects of media use on psychosocial well being are unclear. Although our society is increasingly urbanized and technology-focused, there is a lack of research examining the relationship between nature, media and psychosocial well-being. The aim of this research was to explore these variables in a college-age population. Method: 82 participants participated in a survey using measures of Psychosocial Well Being, Media Use and Nature Connection and Exposure. Results: Media use partially mediates the relationship between nature relatedness and social anxiety. Conclusions: There is ...


Associations Between Hookup Culture And Social Group, Ross Abrash Jan 2020

Associations Between Hookup Culture And Social Group, Ross Abrash

Honors Theses

Differences in hookup culture and behavior were examined across different social groups at the University of Richmond. Specifically, I examined the difference between Greek life members, varsity athletes, and the general student population. The sample consisted of 174 students (123 females, 51 males) from the University of Richmond. The sample was 33.3% Greek life, 25.9% varsity athletes, and 40.8% general student population. I distributed a web-based survey for participants to complete in a quiet place of their choosing. Fraternity members, sorority members, and male athletes scored higher than the comparison group on a measure of personal attitudes ...


The Crowbar Sabotaged The Machine: Effects Of Verb Intentionality And Syntactic Structure On Fixation Times During Reading, Michael Pittman Jan 2020

The Crowbar Sabotaged The Machine: Effects Of Verb Intentionality And Syntactic Structure On Fixation Times During Reading, Michael Pittman

Honors Theses

Research conducted by linguists has indicated that inanimate entities are incompatible with verbs that connote intentionality because inanimate entities lack the facilities to complete intentional actions. However, there are currently no studies that have analyzed this inappropriate relationship in real-time. To address this gap, the current eye-tracking experiment investigated the infelicitous nature of this relationship, as well as how it may be modulated by different syntactic structures. The experiment implemented a 2 x 2 within-subjects design, in which the independent variables were verb type (neutral versus intentional) and syntactic structure (main clause versus relative clause), and the dependent variables were ...


“Put Your Phone Down, And Say Hi!” Cultivating Positivity Resonance At Ur, Natalie Szumel Jan 2020

“Put Your Phone Down, And Say Hi!” Cultivating Positivity Resonance At Ur, Natalie Szumel

Honors Theses

The goal of this study is to advance our understanding of outcomes related to experiencing positivity resonance and additionally to examine the role of technology as a potential barrier to experiencing positivity resonance (PR). I expect to see positivity resonance associated with physical, psychological, and social well-being, while phone use will predict lower levels of positivity resonance.

This study is unique because it focuses on a college campus population and analyses how their well-being is affected by their social behaviors. This study is especially important for a campus like UR given how segregated and exclusive the student population has become ...


Public Perceptions And Knowledge Of Transplantation, Kimberly Smith Jan 2020

Public Perceptions And Knowledge Of Transplantation, Kimberly Smith

Honors Theses

Objective: Organ transplantation is currently the most preferred treatment method for end-stage organ disease. Despite this fact, the need for transplants is currently higher than the availability of organs, resulting in approximately 20 deaths each day. The objective of this study was to use qualitative research methods to better understand attitudes towards and public knowledge of organ transplantation. Method: Fourteen focus groups with 58 participants were conducted by a research team. Thematic analyses were conducted using a phenomenological framework. Results: Knowledge of the transplant process was found to play a critical role in one’s decision to donate an organ ...


"It's Part Of My Responsibility To Help" : Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara Cloonan Jan 2019

"It's Part Of My Responsibility To Help" : Developing A Measure Of Motivations For Extrinsic Emotion Regulation, Sara Cloonan

Honors Theses

Previous research in the field of emotion regulation has largely focused on the ways in which we regulate our own emotions, but not as much work has been done to examine the processes by which we regulate the emotions of others. The current research aims to develop a measure of motivations for engaging in extrinsic emotion regulation (EER), with a focus on why we attempt to down-regulate negative emotional experiences of those around us. Study 1 used narrative responses to formulate and validate a qualitative coding schema for categorizing motives for engaging in EER. The wide variety of EER motivations ...


When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe Jan 2019

When Does The Positivity Effect Emerge? : Age-Related Emotional Biases At Encoding And Retrieval, Hannah Wolfe

Honors Theses

The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST) posits that as their future time perspective shrinks, older adults tend to be more motivated by emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age (Carstensen, 2006). The positivity effect had been studied in both attention biases (Isaacowitz et al., 2006a) and memory biases (Kensinger, 2008), with older adults dwelling longer on and better remembering the positive stimuli over the negative. Yet, few studies have measured emotional biases at both the encoding and retrieval phases, which is why this study uses eye-tracking to determine whether any biases in gaze patterns ...


Driving Anxiety In Young People With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Driving Simulator Pilot Study, Rebecca Pasch Jan 2019

Driving Anxiety In Young People With Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Driving Simulator Pilot Study, Rebecca Pasch

Honors Theses

The goal of this project was to investigate how driving anxiety changes overtime in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when using a driving simulator technology. Additional exploratory measures were collected on duration of participation,. stopping distance, and reaction time.


Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As Treatment For Child Physical Abuse : Relation To Internalizing Symptoms, Emily Kaminsky Jan 2019

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy As Treatment For Child Physical Abuse : Relation To Internalizing Symptoms, Emily Kaminsky

Honors Theses

This paper explores the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in reducing child internalizing symptoms in physically abused children as compared to the standard community group treatment. The data for this study was taken from a randomized control trial by Chaffinet al. (2004), which found that PCIT significantly reduced re-reports of physical abuse. The participants were 110 parent-child dyads referred by child welfare due to a recent report of child physical abuse. Both PCIT and the standard community group showed significant reductions in child internalizing symptoms over time, however there was no interaction effect between treatment group and time. Additionally ...


The Effects Of Health Literacy On Treatment Adherence And Health Optimism In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Heather Gardiner Jan 2019

The Effects Of Health Literacy On Treatment Adherence And Health Optimism In Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Heather Gardiner

Honors Theses

Health literacy is a very critical aspect of a patient's recovery, and low levels of it have been correlated to a large range of negative health outcomes. Health literacy's effects on treatment adherence and health optimism was examined in a sample of 32 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients who were recruited from a transplant center in the southeastern section of the United States. Participants had a mean age of 47.55, with 45.2% (n=14) of the participants being female and 54.8% (n=17) being Caucasian.The participants completed a survey, which incorporated the tools of ...


The Effect Of Health Literacy On Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Health Outcomes, Mia Castagnero Jan 2019

The Effect Of Health Literacy On Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Health Outcomes, Mia Castagnero

Honors Theses

The current study seeks to enhance knowledge of health literacy among patients diagnosed with CKD. Identifying gaps in kidney-specific health literacy may help direct specific interventions to improve patient education and support. The goal of the current study is to investigate the associations between health literacy (general health literacy and kidney-specific health literacy) and patient health outcomes, such as medication adherence and barriers in access to care.


It's Written All Over Your Face : Examining The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Empathic Accuracy, Megan Roherbeck Wirtz Jan 2019

It's Written All Over Your Face : Examining The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Empathic Accuracy, Megan Roherbeck Wirtz

Honors Theses

What, exactly, is the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and emotional intelligence? Is it possible that emotional intelligence can explain the well-established positive relationship between SES and wellbeing? The purpose of this study was to investigate a) a potential mediational pathwaybetween SES, emotional intelligence, and wellbeing and b) conflicting research in the relationship between SES and emotional intelligence. This study was conducted using avariety of measures of socioeconomic status and wellbeing, as well as a performance-based measure of empathic accuracy.


Family Composition And Outcomes Following Parental Bereavement In Childhood, Ari M. Kagan Jan 2018

Family Composition And Outcomes Following Parental Bereavement In Childhood, Ari M. Kagan

Honors Theses

The primary aim of this study is to compare the grief and stress related growth of individuals who have siblings and those who do not have siblings in the context of parental loss that occurred during childhood (before the age of 16). Adult participants provided self-report for the Traumatic Grief Inventory, Stress Related Growth Scale, and other related measures. We hypothesized only children who were bereaved during childhood would report higher levels of grief and lower levels of stress related growth compared to those with siblings who were bereaved during childhood. Multivariate analyses focus on grief and stress related growth ...


Preferring Positivity : Age Differences In Judgments Of Learning And Memory For Emotionally-Valenced Words, Edie Sanders Jan 2018

Preferring Positivity : Age Differences In Judgments Of Learning And Memory For Emotionally-Valenced Words, Edie Sanders

Honors Theses

Many changes occur with age, including changes in emotion regulation and memory. The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (Carstensen, 2006) posits that older adults tend to be more concerned with emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age. The positivity effect results in a bias in attention and memory towards positive stimuli over neutral and negative stimuli. Age-related changes also arise in memory monitoring, specifically in Judgments of Learning (JOLs), when individuals learn emotional words. We examined the presence of the positivity effect in memory and JOLs for positive, negative, and neutral words. Younger and older ...


Attitude Change Intervention For Victim Blaming Of Sexual Assault, Catharine Sciolla Jan 2018

Attitude Change Intervention For Victim Blaming Of Sexual Assault, Catharine Sciolla

Honors Theses

This research explores the possibility of an Attitude Change based intervention for victim blaming following and surrounding incidents of sexual assault and sexual violence. The study aimed at creating an intervention to successfully decrease and minimize victim blaming attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and tendencies through a combination of internalization strategies, self-reference effects, and empirically supported attitude change methods. There were 149 participants who completed the study. Participants were tasked to complete a series questionnaires measuring Hostile sexism, Benevolent sexism, Just World Bias, Robbery Victim Blame, then complete the intervention, a brief educational reading and a self-generated response to a fictional rape ...


The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner Jan 2017

The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner

Honors Theses

The role of semantic knowledge and familiarity on retrieval processes were investigated in a test of the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH), and the data were interpreted from the perspectives of fuzzy trace theory and source monitoring errors (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Younger and older adults (N=60) studied pairs of words for two recognition tests – an item test, for recognition of individual words, and an associative test, for recognition of word pairs. In the associative test, four word pairs were presented with a forced-choice response requirement (4AFC; Patterson & Hertzog, 2010). In addition to the studied, intact cue-target pair, three cue-target pairs were ...


Do Obsessive Beliefs Moderate The Relationship Between Obsessive-Compulsive And Depressive Symptoms?, Joanthan A. Teller Jan 2017

Do Obsessive Beliefs Moderate The Relationship Between Obsessive-Compulsive And Depressive Symptoms?, Joanthan A. Teller

Honors Theses

There has been limited research investigating potential mechanisms that drive the association between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and depressive symptoms. Obsessive beliefs are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of OC symptoms and have been shown to correlate with depressive symptoms amongst OCD patients. I assessed whether obsessive beliefs moderate the relation between obsessive compulsive and depressive symptoms to replicate analyses from a study conducted by Teller et al. (2017). Forty-six participants with elevated OC symptoms were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Each participant completed the obsessing subscale of the Revised Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI-R), Dimensional Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DOCS), the Revised ...


Eating Your Feelings: The Relationship Between Core Affect And Food Choices, Kana V. Rolett Jan 2017

Eating Your Feelings: The Relationship Between Core Affect And Food Choices, Kana V. Rolett

Honors Theses

The psychology of eating behavior is increasingly important given that more than one- third of Americans are obese, with 74% of men considered overweight or obese (Overweight and Obesity Statistics, 2012). This study examines the relationship between core affect and healthy food choices. Though previous research has examined relationships between specific emotions and eating behavior, little is known about core affect or about these relationships in more naturalistic settings (outside the lab). To evaluate the role of core affect in healthy food choices, a field study was conducted in the University of Richmond (UR) dining hall to measure UR students ...


Aging Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: Eye-Tracking And Person-Perception Analyses Of Young And Old Faces, Stephanie M. Ha Jan 2017

Aging Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: Eye-Tracking And Person-Perception Analyses Of Young And Old Faces, Stephanie M. Ha

Honors Theses

To examine possible mechanisms related to negative attitudes of aging revealed in face processing patterns, young and old participants rated their first impressions (positive or negative) of 100 faces of young and old individuals taken from the CAL/PAL Fate Database (Minear & Park, 2004) while gaze patterns were recorded using eye-tracking methods. In a follow-up study, an independent sample of young participants rated the same 100 faces on competence, attractiveness, and subjective age in order to further assess age-related stereotypes. This study replicated the T-gaze pattern in previous eye-tracking studies (Firestone, Turk, Browne, & Ryan 2007). We also found evidence of ...


A Change Of Heart : The Effect Of Heartwarming Advertisements On Brand Affinity, Hannah Butman Jan 2016

A Change Of Heart : The Effect Of Heartwarming Advertisements On Brand Affinity, Hannah Butman

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine if evoking heartfelt responses to advertisements would yield greater brand affinity. It was hypothesized that a heartwarming response would yield greater brand affinity because it was a mixed emotional experience that produced both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. Across two studies, participants were shown both control and heartwarming advertisements for five brands. After each video, all participants were prompted to respond to every measure, regardless of condition. Heartwarming perceptions of the advertisements, overlap of self, feelings of love, and a mixed emotional experience were all significant mediators of video condition and brand ...


Dognition : The Effect Of Pet Ownership On Cognition In Older Adults, Molly Mcsweeney Jan 2016

Dognition : The Effect Of Pet Ownership On Cognition In Older Adults, Molly Mcsweeney

Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pet ownership on cognition in older adults. Previous research has indicated that interactions with pets are associated with improved mental and physical health in humans. We predicted that these benefits of human-pet interactions will extend to expose superior cognitive functioning in cat-owning or dog-owning older adults as compared to older adults who do not own pets. More specifically, we hypothesized that dog-owners would perform significantly better than cat-owners and non-pet owners on cognitive tasks as owning a dog requires exceeding attention, training, and exercise. We tested this effect ...


Breaking The Language Barrier : The Spanish Translation Of The Barriers To Access To Care Evaluation (Bace), Yosmary Rodriguez Jan 2016

Breaking The Language Barrier : The Spanish Translation Of The Barriers To Access To Care Evaluation (Bace), Yosmary Rodriguez

Honors Theses

The Hispanic/Latino population in the United States has been identified as a high-risk group for mental health problems. Unfortunately, due to commonly reported factors such as lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate services, many fail to seek treatment. While growing research has focused on identifying and addressing the different barriers to accessing mental health care experienced by this community, there continues to be a lack of validated Spanish assessments to aid in the evaluation of these barriers. In hopes of overcoming this barrier, and working towards better quality of care for this growing population, this project translated the Barriers ...


Depression And Social Functioning : Examining Two Interpersonal Theories, Caroline B. Smith May 2015

Depression And Social Functioning : Examining Two Interpersonal Theories, Caroline B. Smith

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to test the specific predictions of two theories of depression and social functioning. One, the Social Navigation Hypothesis, is an adaptationist approach that predicts that depression functions to increase an individual’s ability to analyze and solve problems in their social system. The individual engages in behaviors such as feedback seeking in order to identify potential problems and develop solutions. In contrast, Interpersonal Theory predicts that depression is related to aversive social behaviors that can lead to rejection. Adult American participants (n=155) were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. They completed an online ...


Friendship Quality And Personality As Predictors Of Psychological Well-Being In Emerging Adults, Emma Gleckel Jan 2015

Friendship Quality And Personality As Predictors Of Psychological Well-Being In Emerging Adults, Emma Gleckel

Honors Theses

The present study investigated the relationship between personality, friendship quality, and wellbeing, among 394 emerging adults. The aim of the study was to examine whether friendship quality contributed to aspects of well-being (e.g. happiness, belongingness, and anxiety), when controlling for personality. Results showed that personality dimensions accounted for a significant amount of variance in each aspect of well-being. Moreover, friendship quality predicted happiness, belongingness, and anxiety, above and beyond the influence of personality. Results also revealed that only positive friendship features predicted variance in happiness and belongingness, whereas only negative friendship features predicted variance in anxiety. Findings indicate the ...


Extending An Implicit Theories Approach To The Examination Of Empathy And Forgiveness, Jennifer Cecilione Jan 2015

Extending An Implicit Theories Approach To The Examination Of Empathy And Forgiveness, Jennifer Cecilione

Honors Theses

Empathy and forgiveness are two key constructs involved in effective conflict-resolution. Empathy has been defined in terms of its cognitive aspects (i.e. the ability to understand another’s emotional reactions to situations without actually feeling the other’s emotions) and its affective components (i.e. the ability to vicariously feel the emotions of another without directly experiencing the other’s situation). On the other hand, forgiveness has been described as the ability to act in a prosocial manner towards a transgressor. Past research has repeatedly shown links between empathy and forgiveness, such that empathy is a precursor to forgiveness ...


Shifting Perceptions : Exploring With The Rubber Hand Illusion, Avery Harrison Jan 2015

Shifting Perceptions : Exploring With The Rubber Hand Illusion, Avery Harrison

Honors Theses

In two experiments, we explored the boundary conditions for evoking the rubber hand illusion (RHI). In the first study, we hypothesized that we could elicit more vivid RHI experiences using personal cell phones than using wooden blocks as external objects because we interact with our phones and they are familiar objects. The cell phone condition elicited a weak illusory experience but it did not significantly differ from the wooden block condition. In the second study, we hypothesized that manipulating the size of rubber hands used for the illusion would affect size estimates of objects. Participants who experienced a strong RHI ...


Implicit Theories Of Self-Regulation Among Adults With Adhd, Lauren Oddo Jan 2015

Implicit Theories Of Self-Regulation Among Adults With Adhd, Lauren Oddo

Honors Theses

Implicit theories of self-regulation were examined among adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to determine whether mindsets about self- regulation affect goal-attainment in the context of a self-regulation disorder. We conducted two studies in an effort to develop a deeper understanding of goal-related impairment among adults with ADHD. Study 1 was an exploratory study wherein we investigated general correlations between implicit theories of self-regulation, avoidance, negative emotions, and functional impairment in a community sample of adults with ADHD. Study 2 examined the incremental validity of implicit theories. In Study 2 we also examined whether implicit theories of ...


Is Positive Affect A Mediator Of The Association Between Emerging Adults' Relationship Quality With Mothers And Friendship Quality?, Nil Horoz Jan 2015

Is Positive Affect A Mediator Of The Association Between Emerging Adults' Relationship Quality With Mothers And Friendship Quality?, Nil Horoz

Honors Theses

The present study aimed to examine positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, as a mediator of the association between relationship with mothers and samesex friendship quality among emerging adults. Participants (N=394) were recruited from two small liberal arts colleges on the east coast of the United States. To be included in the study, participants needed to be the same sex, attend the same university and have been friends for at least four months. I hypothesized that positive affect was one possible pathway through which relationship with mothers predict same-sex friendship quality among emerging adults. Results replicated previous research ...


Spatial Cognition And Emotion Recognition As A Function Of Asd, Catalina Cumpanasoiu Jan 2015

Spatial Cognition And Emotion Recognition As A Function Of Asd, Catalina Cumpanasoiu

Honors Theses

Past research shows that although autism has among its particularities a tendency for lower results on cognitive tasks, especially on the executive functioning skills, people with ASD perform equally well, and sometimes even better than controls on tasks for visuo-spatial cognition. However, there is also evidence suggesting that people on the spectrum might have an impaired emotion recognition mechanism. In addition, there is research on spatial cognition and affect, looking at how emotions provoked by stimuli can change the way in which we perceive the space. In the current study, we will look at spatial cognition and emotion recognition as ...