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A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Dark Triad-Intelligence Connection, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story Dec 2013

A Meta-Analytic Review Of The Dark Triad-Intelligence Connection, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Donelson R. Forsyth, George C. Banks, Paul A. Story

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We conducted a meta-analytic review of the relations between general mental ability (GMA) and the Dark Triad (DT) personality traits—Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy—to determine if individuals who display socially exploitative social qualities tend to be more intelligent or less intelligent. Across 48 independent samples, GMA showed no consistent relation with any DT trait. These effects were not sufficient to support either the “evil genius” hypothesis (highly intelligent individuals tend to display socially exploitative personality traits) or the “compensatory” hypothesis (less intelligent individuals compensate for their cognitive disadvantages by adopting manipulative behavioral tendencies). However, these relations were moderated, to ...


The Social Role Theory Of Unethical Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Laura Poatsy Oct 2013

The Social Role Theory Of Unethical Leadership, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price, Laura Poatsy

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Challenging the standard reasoning regarding leaders’ ethical failures, we argue that a potent contributor to these failures is the social role expectations of leaders. We maintain that leaders’ central role expectation of goal achievement contributes to the over-valuing of group goals and greater moral permissibility of the means used to achieve these goals. In studies 1 and 2 we demonstrated that the role of leader, relative to group member, is associated with an increased appraisal of group goals which is predicted by the leaders’ role expectations and not driven by the psychological effects of power. Next, we experimentally demonstrated the ...


Ethical Decision Making And Leadership: Merging Social Role And Self-Construal Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price Sep 2013

Ethical Decision Making And Leadership: Merging Social Role And Self-Construal Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Terry L. Price

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends our understanding of ethical decision making on the part of leaders by merging social role and self-construal perspectives. Interdependent self-construal is generally seen as enhancing concern for justice and moral values. Across two studies we tested the prediction that non-leading group members’ interdependent self-construal would be associated with lower levels of unethical decision making on behalf of their group but that, in contrast, this relationship would be weaker for leaders, given their social role. These predictions were experimentally tested by assigning participants to the role of leader or non-leading group member and assessing the association between their ...


Gender Bias In Leader Evaluations: Merging Implicit Theories And Role Congruity Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette Sep 2013

Gender Bias In Leader Evaluations: Merging Implicit Theories And Role Congruity Perspectives, Crystal L. Hoyt, Jeni L. Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people’s attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes ...


J. Richard Hackman, Phd (1940-2013), Donelson R. Forsyth Apr 2013

J. Richard Hackman, Phd (1940-2013), Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The Society of Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy mourns the passing of our colleague, J. Richard Hackman, PhD, a leading expert on teams and performance-oriented groups in organizations. Dr. Hackman succumbed January 8, 2013 in Boston, from complications of lung cancer.

John Richard Hackman was born in Joliet, Illinois, on June 14, 1940. He received his bachelor's degree in mathematics and minors in psychology and physics from MacMurray College and his Master's and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois. The Illinois program was emerging, at that time, as the leading research center for the study of groups ...


The Effect Of Oral Contraceptives On Performance In Sexually Dimorphic Cognitive Tasks, Kathryn Sears Apr 2013

The Effect Of Oral Contraceptives On Performance In Sexually Dimorphic Cognitive Tasks, Kathryn Sears

Honors Theses

The goal of the current study was to further extend limited research assessing the effects of sex, menstrual phase, and oral contraceptive use on sexually dimorphic cognitive tasks, as well as emotional regulation. Studies have found that menstrual cycle phases have cognitive and physiological effects on women’s brains depending on the concentration of female sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen (Epting & Overman, 1998). Oral Contraceptive pills (OC) contain a concentration of these female sex hormones that have been shown to alter gray matter volume to resemble men’s brains in areas associated with learning, memory, spatial navigation, and emotional regulation ...


Effect Of Behavioral Intervention Training On Parents' Stress, Parenting Behaviors And Self-Efficacy, Emily Schworer Apr 2013

Effect Of Behavioral Intervention Training On Parents' Stress, Parenting Behaviors And Self-Efficacy, Emily Schworer

Honors Theses

For children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), early intervention is incredibly important. In order for a behavioral intervention to be fully effective, it needs to be followed at all times of the day, not just during school hours. Because of this, a key factor during intervention is the involvement of parents of the child with the disorder. Parents/caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders participating in behavioral interventions at the Faison School for Autism were surveyed in order to find out more about strategies used when implementing a child’s behavioral plan at home, and also their overall understanding ...


The Embodied Cognition Of Resilience, Kelsey Mahler Apr 2013

The Embodied Cognition Of Resilience, Kelsey Mahler

Honors Theses

First impressions can impact our opinions and behaviors towards another person. The act of priming, though, can work to alter a person’s perceptions, and subsequent behaviors. Embodiment, the idea that the body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information, can result from priming. The current research seeks to answer several questions related to the importance of first impressions, judgments of sympathy and resilience, deep role categorizations, and the power of priming to prompt the embodied cognition of resilience. The results of the current research partially support the initial hypotheses that—when presented with information about ...


The Influence Of Word Problem Structures On Algebraic Expression Construction, Taylyn Hulse Apr 2013

The Influence Of Word Problem Structures On Algebraic Expression Construction, Taylyn Hulse

Honors Theses

Certain learning domains come naturally to humans. Evidence supports that core knowledge systems of objects, number, action and space are innate for infants (Spelke, 2007). These core domains remain throughout development and they also give rise to more complex cognitive skills (Spelke, 2000). As we develop, we form new concepts that transcend the core learning domains (Carey, 2009). These new concepts, unlike core knowledge, are not innate and are learned under social and cultural pressures (Carey, 2009). This means that there is a transition from practicing core knowledge that is learned naturally and higher-functioning cognitive skills that must be specifically ...


Need-Based Heroism : The Motivation To Assign Heroic Status To Others, Torrie Williams Apr 2013

Need-Based Heroism : The Motivation To Assign Heroic Status To Others, Torrie Williams

Honors Theses

This study was looking to determine whether people are more likely to look for heroic qualities in others in an emergency situation where a hero is needed, compared to a situation where nothing is wrong. This study also sought to find whether strangers in non-emergency situations will be seen as more villainous and more threatening than strangers in emergency situations. The hypotheses were supported. Participants found an ambiguous stranger to be more heroic in an emergency scenario, compared to a nonemergency. Additionally, in the situation where no hero was needed, the participants found an ambiguous stranger more threatening than in ...


Differential Diagnosis Of Adhd And Bipolar Disorder : An Analogue Study, Sarah Yurinich Apr 2013

Differential Diagnosis Of Adhd And Bipolar Disorder : An Analogue Study, Sarah Yurinich

Honors Theses

Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share an overlapping number of symptoms. These shared symptoms may result in the misdiagnosis or over diagnosis of these two disorders. The purpose of this study was to look at the diagnostic practices of clinicians and clinicians-in-training to see what diagnosis they would give to a hypothetical patient who presents with ambiguously ADHD and bipolar disorder symptoms. Clinicians and clinicians-in-training (N = 40) read two vignettes, one child and one adult, where the patient presented with both ADHD and BD overlapping symptoms, and then were asked to provide one primary DSM-IV diagnosis ...


Generalization Of Expert Face Processing Takes Time, Karen Duan Apr 2013

Generalization Of Expert Face Processing Takes Time, Karen Duan

Honors Theses

Same race faces are recognized better than other race faces, and this other-race effect (ORE) can be explained by reduced holistic processing of other-race faces. Holistic processing is defined as a tendency to process all parts of a stimulus interactively as a whole. Previous studies found that experience can mediate ORE in holistic processing. The present study investigated whether quality or quantity of experience with the other-race better predicts holistic processing of other-race faces between Caucasian and Asian individuals. Contrary to what we expected, we did not find any correlation between experience with the other-race and the ORE in holistic ...


A Comparison Of Mindfulness And Incremental Theory Based Interventions, Kelsey Greenfield Apr 2013

A Comparison Of Mindfulness And Incremental Theory Based Interventions, Kelsey Greenfield

Honors Theses

In only a span of 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased in the United States. Thirty five percent of adults and seventeen percent of children are obese. Every state has an obesity prevalence of over twenty percent (CDC, 2013). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention defines obesity as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. A person's weight and height are used to calculate BMI, which indicates level of body fatness that may lead to health problems (CDC, 2013). From the economy to healthcare, this weight trend has turned into a phenomenon ...


Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation And Reliability Of The Brazilian Version Of The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale, Priscilla Leite, Bernard Range, Monika Kukar-Kinney, Nancy Ridgway, Kent Monroe, Rodolfo Ribas Jr., J. Landeira-Fernandez, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Adriana Silva Mar 2013

Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation And Reliability Of The Brazilian Version Of The Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale, Priscilla Leite, Bernard Range, Monika Kukar-Kinney, Nancy Ridgway, Kent Monroe, Rodolfo Ribas Jr., J. Landeira-Fernandez, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Adriana Silva

Marketing Faculty Publications

Objective: To present the process of transcultural adaptation of the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale to Brazilian Portuguese.

Methods: For the semantic adaptation step, the scale was translated to Portuguese and then back-translated to English by two professional translators and one psychologist, without any communication between them. The scale was then applied to 20 participants from the general population for language adjustments. For the construct validation step, an exploratory factor analysis was performed, using the scree plot test, principal component analysis for factor extraction, and Varimax rotation. For convergent validity, the correlation matrix was analyzed through Pearson’s coefficient.

Results: The ...


Stop Blaming Video Games For America's Gun Violence, Kristin M.S. Bezio Feb 2013

Stop Blaming Video Games For America's Gun Violence, Kristin M.S. Bezio

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Recently, America's attention has been understandably focused on the potential causes of increased violence - especially gun violence - particularly among children and youth, and how to stop it. Alongside gun-control proposals, some of which President Obama is likely to highlight in his State of the Union address tonight, much of that attention has looked at the potential of violent video games to cause or exacerbate the tendencies of youth to engage in real, harmful violence.


Ethics Position Theory And Unethical Work Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr. Jan 2013

Ethics Position Theory And Unethical Work Behavior, Donelson R. Forsyth, Ernest H. O'Boyle Jr.

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This chapter explores these psychological interpersonal consequences of unethical work behavior, but focuses on who reacts most negatively to such indiscrestions and why. We base our analysis on ethics positions theory (EPT), which suggests that people's reactions in morally toned situations can be traced to variations in their intuitive, personal moral philosophies (Forsyth, 1980). After summarizing the theory and its basic assumptions, we examine the relationship between these variations in moral philosophies and well-being, focusing on the way people respond, psychologically and emotionally, when they act in morally evaluable ways. We then shift the analysis up to the group ...


Heroic Leadership: An Influence Taxonomy Of 100 Exceptional Individuals, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals Jan 2013

Heroic Leadership: An Influence Taxonomy Of 100 Exceptional Individuals, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals

Bookshelf

Heroic Leadership is a celebration of our greatest heroes, from legends such as Mahatma Gandhi to the legions of unsung heroes who transform our world quietly behind the scenes. The authors argue that all great heroes are also great leaders. The term ‘heroic leadership’ is coined to describe how heroism and leadership are intertwined, and how our most cherished heroes are also our most transforming leaders.

This book offers a new conceptual framework for understanding heroism and heroic leadership, drawing from theories of great leadership and heroic action. Ten categories of heroism are described: Trending Heroes, Transitory Heroes, Transparent Heroes ...


From Mind To Machine : Parity Affects In The Attentional Set-Shifting Task In Animal And Machine Models, Katie Coren Freeman Jan 2013

From Mind To Machine : Parity Affects In The Attentional Set-Shifting Task In Animal And Machine Models, Katie Coren Freeman

Honors Theses

As a dual behavioral and computational neuroscience research project, this study first tested reproductive effects on attention, learning, and decision making using the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (AS-ST) and then a Machine Learning model was constructed to simulate perceptual judgments and decision making through reinforced learning. In the behavioral task, response times and errors from 5 primiparous (one-time mothers) and 4 nulliparous (never pregnant) Sprague-Dawley rats were recorded during four increasingly complex attention modulation and paired associative learning tasks. The Machine Learning model reconstructed each task's decision problems through representation of internal and external conditions, valuation, action, and outcome evaluation ...


A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary Jan 2013

A Moralist In An Age Of Scientific Analysis And Skepticism: Habit In The Life And Work Of William James, David E. Leary

Psychology Faculty Publications

In this chapter I will review how James got from his earlier position, which so readily fit the scientific and skeptical tenor of his age, to his later position, and I will indicate how the views he began to articulate by the mid-1870s became central to the doctrines he presented in his magisterial Principles of Psychology (1890) and in his subsequent work in psychology and philosophy. Along the way I will make it clear that even before 1872, when he was attending lectures and doing physiological research in Harvard's Medical School, James was a deeply engaged advocate of philosophy ...


Psychosocial Treatment For Adult Adhd, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren Jan 2013

Psychosocial Treatment For Adult Adhd, Laura E. Knouse, Steven A. Safren

Psychology Faculty Publications

Many adults with ADHD are likely to benefit from psychosocial interventions that teach compensatory skills to manage symptoms and address functional impairment. Based on the research literature and the authors’ experience developing and implementing interventions, this chapter provides a practice-friendly overview of skills-based treatment selection and implementation, emphasizing cognitive-behavioral techniques. Principles are illustrated using case examples and adjunctive treatment options are discussed.