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On The Bravery And Courage Of Heroes: Considering Gender, Elaine L. Kinsella, Timothy D. Ritchie, Eric R. Igou Jul 2018

On The Bravery And Courage Of Heroes: Considering Gender, Elaine L. Kinsella, Timothy D. Ritchie, Eric R. Igou

Heroism Science

Heroes are frequently described as both brave and courageous. Each adjective is often used interchangeably in public and academic discourse, despite historical and philosophical differences in their meaning. While research about heroes and heroism is burgeoning, little work has yet to provide a detailed analysis of specific hero features; indeed, there is a need for greater precision in our terminology and conceptual analyses of heroism. In the present article, we focus on two features of heroism, bravery and courage, and critically parse these terms and the pervasive gender stereotypes that are associated with each. We aim to spark critical discussions ...


Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2017

Social Psychological Approaches To Women And Leadership Theory, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

In this chapter, we take a social psychological approach to understanding gender and leadership. In doing so, we explain how both the social context and people’s perceptions influence leadership processes involving gender. The theoretical approaches taken by social psychologists are often focused on one of these two questions: (1) Are there gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness? and, (2) What barriers do women face in the leadership domain? We begin our chapter by reviewing the literature surrounding these two questions. We then discuss in detail one of the greatest barriers to women in leadership: the prejudice and discrimination ...


The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Jan 2016

The Role Of Social Dominance Orientation And Patriotism In The Evaluation Of Minority And Female Leaders, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research broadens our understanding of racial and gender bias in leader evaluations by merging implicit leadership theory and social dominance perspectives. Across two experimental studies (291 participants), we tested the prediction that bias in leader evaluations stemming from White and masculine leader standards depends on the extent to which people favor hierarchical group relationships (SDO) and their level of patriotism. Employing the Goldberg paradigm, participants read identical leadership speeches attributed to either a woman or a man described as either a minority (Black or Latino/a) or a majority (White) group member. Results show SDO negatively predicted evaluations of ...


Female Leaders: Injurious Or Inspiring Role Models For Women?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon Mar 2011

Female Leaders: Injurious Or Inspiring Role Models For Women?, Crystal L. Hoyt, Stefanie Simon

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The impact of female role models on women’s leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women’s self-perceptions and leadership aspirations compared to male and less elite female leaders. In Study 1 (N = 60), women were presented with both female and male leaders before serving as leaders of ostensible three-person groups in an immersive virtual environment. This study established the relatively deflating impact of high-level female leaders, compared to high-level male leaders ...


Masculinity, Femininity, & Androgyny : The Interaction Of College Students With Preschoolers, Jan Alexandra Jones May 1980

Masculinity, Femininity, & Androgyny : The Interaction Of College Students With Preschoolers, Jan Alexandra Jones

Master's Theses

The rel ationshi p between sex-typing and the interacti on of col l ege students with 2- to 4-year-ol d male and female children was examined. Seventy-one Introductory Psychol ogy students were admini stered the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), which was scored in terms of the 7 factors introduced by Walker & Preston (1979). Small groups of 3 and 4 individuals were randomly selected to spend 20 minutes in the Child Development Lab, where they had the opportunity to interact with the children, to play with the toys, to observe, and to inter­ act with each other. The behavior of each ...


Age And Sex Differences, Meaningfulness And Formal Similarity In A Verbal Discrimination Task, Aleen Burke Dempster Jun 1974

Age And Sex Differences, Meaningfulness And Formal Similarity In A Verbal Discrimination Task, Aleen Burke Dempster

Master's Theses

The present investigation is concerned with learning in the aged. The task is a verbal discrimination one, in which the dimensions of meaningfulness and formal intrapair similarity are examined. The study is ontogenetic in the limited sense that the older sample, over 60 years of age, is compared to a sample of college age youth.