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Preferring Positivity : Age Differences In Judgments Of Learning And Memory For Emotionally-Valenced Words, Edie Sanders Jan 2018

Preferring Positivity : Age Differences In Judgments Of Learning And Memory For Emotionally-Valenced Words, Edie Sanders

Honors Theses

Many changes occur with age, including changes in emotion regulation and memory. The Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (Carstensen, 2006) posits that older adults tend to be more concerned with emotionally meaningful goals and therefore experience what is called the “positivity effect” with age. The positivity effect results in a bias in attention and memory towards positive stimuli over neutral and negative stimuli. Age-related changes also arise in memory monitoring, specifically in Judgments of Learning (JOLs), when individuals learn emotional words. We examined the presence of the positivity effect in memory and JOLs for positive, negative, and neutral words. Younger and older ...


Eating Your Feelings: The Relationship Between Core Affect And Food Choices, Kana V. Rolett Jan 2017

Eating Your Feelings: The Relationship Between Core Affect And Food Choices, Kana V. Rolett

Honors Theses

The psychology of eating behavior is increasingly important given that more than one- third of Americans are obese, with 74% of men considered overweight or obese (Overweight and Obesity Statistics, 2012). This study examines the relationship between core affect and healthy food choices. Though previous research has examined relationships between specific emotions and eating behavior, little is known about core affect or about these relationships in more naturalistic settings (outside the lab). To evaluate the role of core affect in healthy food choices, a field study was conducted in the University of Richmond (UR) dining hall to measure UR students ...


Effect Of Behavioral Intervention Training On Parents' Stress, Parenting Behaviors And Self-Efficacy, Emily Schworer Apr 2013

Effect Of Behavioral Intervention Training On Parents' Stress, Parenting Behaviors And Self-Efficacy, Emily Schworer

Honors Theses

For children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), early intervention is incredibly important. In order for a behavioral intervention to be fully effective, it needs to be followed at all times of the day, not just during school hours. Because of this, a key factor during intervention is the involvement of parents of the child with the disorder. Parents/caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders participating in behavioral interventions at the Faison School for Autism were surveyed in order to find out more about strategies used when implementing a child’s behavioral plan at home, and also their overall understanding ...


A Comparison Of Mindfulness And Incremental Theory Based Interventions, Kelsey Greenfield Apr 2013

A Comparison Of Mindfulness And Incremental Theory Based Interventions, Kelsey Greenfield

Honors Theses

In only a span of 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased in the United States. Thirty five percent of adults and seventeen percent of children are obese. Every state has an obesity prevalence of over twenty percent (CDC, 2013). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention defines obesity as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. A person's weight and height are used to calculate BMI, which indicates level of body fatness that may lead to health problems (CDC, 2013). From the economy to healthcare, this weight trend has turned into a phenomenon ...


Friendship And Problem Solving : The Effect Of Various Situations On Co-Rumination In Emerging Adulthood Friendships, Kelly Larsen Apr 2011

Friendship And Problem Solving : The Effect Of Various Situations On Co-Rumination In Emerging Adulthood Friendships, Kelly Larsen

Honors Theses

Co-rumination is the act of negatively discussing problems with another person. The focus of co-rumination is generally on the negative aspects, or things that cannot be changed as opposed to active problem solving. Co-rumination is positively associated with positive friendship quality as well as internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression. Co-rumination is most commonly studied in children and adolescents, but the present study extends this research by looking at the undergraduate population. In addition the current study aims to find differences in co-rumination in response to four different hypothetical scenarios. One hundred and thirty one students at the University ...


Forgiveness As A Mechanism Of Self-Regulation : An Ego-Depletion Model, Lindsay Myerberg Apr 2011

Forgiveness As A Mechanism Of Self-Regulation : An Ego-Depletion Model, Lindsay Myerberg

Honors Theses

Revenge is the natural human response to interpersonal transgressions. However, given the benefits of forgiveness, it is important to consider how forgiveness can be facilitated. Many factors have been shown to be associated with forgiveness, ranging from situational factors (e.g., perception of the transgression) to dispositional factors (e.g., personality traits). This study aims to extend research on the factors that are associated with forgiveness, and determine the processes on which forgiveness relies. To demonstrate that forgiveness requires self-regulation, Study 1 examines if ego-depletion decreases willingness to forgive, and Study 2 examines if glucose consumption can negate this ego-depletion ...


The Influence Of Auditory Stimuli On Judgements Of Word Valence, Chris E. Chandler May 2008

The Influence Of Auditory Stimuli On Judgements Of Word Valence, Chris E. Chandler

Honors Theses

The present study examined the link between affect and auditory stimuli in three parts. The first sought to determine the affective norms for the auditory stimuli. The second assessed the influence of a musical note’s register on the evaluation of a positive or negative word, while the third assessed the influence of harmonic musical intervals. Participants were simultaneously presented with auditory stimuli and a word, and their task was to judge as quickly as possible whether the word was positive or negative by pressing a corresponding key. It was hypothesized that congruence between auditory valence and word valence would ...


The Effects Of Target Age And Perceived Death Responsibility On Posthumous Impression Formations, Jenny Rebekah Heilborn Jan 2008

The Effects Of Target Age And Perceived Death Responsibility On Posthumous Impression Formations, Jenny Rebekah Heilborn

Master's Theses

Death positivity biases and posthumous evaluations are considered a universal normative social phenomenon which influences social judgments of the dead; we postulate that these individual biases are mediated by both sympathy and fear of mortality, or the belief in a just world. Study 1 postulated that sympathy mediates such positivity biases when target responsibility for cause of death is manipulated. We hypothesized the mediation of the just world violation on posthumous evaluatory measures when age at the time of death was manipulated in Study 2. Although results were inconclusive for both studies, alternate hypotheses and boundary conditions of death positivity ...


The Cinematic Effect Of Love Addiction On Metaphorical Preferences, Taylor Ann Daniel May 2006

The Cinematic Effect Of Love Addiction On Metaphorical Preferences, Taylor Ann Daniel

Honors Theses

The cinematic effects of Fatal Attraction, a negative depiction of love addiction, and Wuthering Heights, a positive depiction of love addiction, were used to test their effect on students' metaphorical love preferences. Eight of Robert Sternberg's love metaphors were selected and, based on participants' metaphorical choices, an unhealthy and healthy group were created. It was hypothesized that both the unhealthy and healthy group would be unaffected after watching Fatal Attraction, but that Wuthering Heights would affect a change in the healthy group towards more unhealthy, addictive metaphors, while not affecting a change in the unhealthy group. The original hypothesis ...


A Cognitive Intervention To Increase The Salience Of Intrinsic Thoughts Associated With Exercise, Katie S. Moran Aug 2005

A Cognitive Intervention To Increase The Salience Of Intrinsic Thoughts Associated With Exercise, Katie S. Moran

Master's Theses

A four-week cognitive intervention was created to increase the salience of intrinsic thoughts associated with exercise in moderately extrinsic exercisers. Participants were assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Those in the intervention condition were asked to respond to questions concerning the pleasure, enjoyment and/or satisfaction experienced during or after their exercise regimen each week. Results showed a marginally significant two-way interaction (p = .059) between the control and intervention condition over time. Those in the intervention condition showed a greater increase in intrinsic motivation than those in the control condition. These results. while only marginally significant, were in ...


"Paper Sack Brown" : Effects Of Age, Skin Tone, And Stereotype Threat On Cognitive Performance And Self-Efficacy Among African Americans, Breonte Stephan Guy Aug 2003

"Paper Sack Brown" : Effects Of Age, Skin Tone, And Stereotype Threat On Cognitive Performance And Self-Efficacy Among African Americans, Breonte Stephan Guy

Master's Theses

Divergent African American skin tones have led to negative stereotypes and outcomes regarding darker-skinned African Americans in many domains, including educational and occupational (Hill, 2002). This study assessed the effects of skin tone and stereotype threat (Steele and Aronson, 1995; Steele, 1997) on cognition in younger and older African Americans. A 2(Skin Tone: light, dark) X 2(Age: young, old) X 2(Stereotype Threat: Threat, Non-Threat) between subjects design was used. Seventy-four African American adults ranging in age from 18 to 86 years completed a battery of cognitive measures. Darker-skinned adults performed more poorly on three tests of intelligence ...


Group Polarization And Social Norms On Normative Body Weight Misperception And Eating Disordered Symptomology, Kelly Sears Cox Jun 2001

Group Polarization And Social Norms On Normative Body Weight Misperception And Eating Disordered Symptomology, Kelly Sears Cox

Master's Theses

Group polarization, social norms, and misperceptions of normative body weight were evaluated in sorority and non-sorority (comparison) undergraduate women at the University of Richmond. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Weight Locus of Control Scale, the Rosenburg Self-esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Body- Self Relations Questionnaire, and several self-report questions. Sorority and comparison participants significantly misperceived normative body weight. One sorority differed significantly from the other groups on misperception of normative body weight and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. The comparison group had significantly lower scores than the three sororities on the Self-Esteem Scale. The four instruments did not significantly ...


Continuity Of Emotions Across Pre-Sleep State And The Content Of Dreams, Teresa M. Picciocchi Aug 1998

Continuity Of Emotions Across Pre-Sleep State And The Content Of Dreams, Teresa M. Picciocchi

Master's Theses

The relationship between unmanipulated pre-sleep states and the affective composition of dreams was investigated. Sixty college students completed the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) prior to retiring for the night and the Differential Emotion Scale {DES-IV) focusing upon any dream recalled upon awakening. In support of the Continuity Theory, which states that our personalities and experiences are reflected in our dreams, significant positive correlations were found between pre-sleep curiosity and the presence of interest in the dream, pre-sleep anger and anger in the dream and pre sleep depression and sadness within the dream. Support for the Day Residue effect was obtained ...


Neuropsychological Outcome And Player Characteristics In Amateur Soccer Players, Kyle W. Evans May 1998

Neuropsychological Outcome And Player Characteristics In Amateur Soccer Players, Kyle W. Evans

Master's Theses

A growing body of research suggests that the game of soccer causes neurophysiological damage and neuropsychological deficits in its players. This research project evaluated player characteristics, including aggression, position, heading frequency, and head injuries in an attempt to delineate the effect of traumatic head injuries from the possible detrimental effects of heading the ball. Fifty-three male, amateur soccer players participated in a brief neuropsychological evaluation and a structured interview. Findings revealed that the number of years played (r=.30, p=.03) and an index score representing the number of competitive seasons (r=.44, p=001) were the only player characteristics ...


The Relation Of Anchoring And Choice To Memory Self-Efficacy And Performance In Older Adults, Renee Annette Baldi Aug 1993

The Relation Of Anchoring And Choice To Memory Self-Efficacy And Performance In Older Adults, Renee Annette Baldi

Master's Theses

The major purposes of this study were 1) to examine the effects of self-efficacy on task choice, effort and performance on a memory task, and 2) to examine the effect of sequence anchoring on self-efficacy judgments. Forty-two older adults (25 women and 17 men) completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), a memory complaints questionnaire (MCQ) , a self-efficacy questionnaire (SEQ), and two memory recall tasks. Subjects received an SEQ that had either a descending anchor (i.e., SEQ began with most difficult task) or an ascending anchor (i.e., SEQ began with easiest task). Also, subjects were either given a choice ...


Time As A Shared Resource : The Effects Of Depression And Behavior Verifiability On Perceptions Of Temporal Investment, Jody Lynn Jones Aug 1992

Time As A Shared Resource : The Effects Of Depression And Behavior Verifiability On Perceptions Of Temporal Investment, Jody Lynn Jones

Master's Theses

People have a tendency to view themselves in a more favorable light than they do others, a phenomenon termed the egocentric bias (Messick, Bloom, Boldizar, & Samuelson, 1985). Past research has shown that people are more likely to display the bias in situations that are "nonverifiable", meaning that there is no way to accurately measure the dimension on which judgments are made (Allison, Messick, & Goethals, 1989). Two experiments tested the hypothesis that only nondepressed individuals in a nonverifiable situation would show the egocentric bias, whereas non depressed subjects in the verifiable condition and depressed subjects in both conditions would not show ...


When The Equality Rule Is Violated : Factors Affecting Consumption Of Physical, Spatial And Temporal Resources, Caryn E. Herlocker Jan 1990

When The Equality Rule Is Violated : Factors Affecting Consumption Of Physical, Spatial And Temporal Resources, Caryn E. Herlocker

Honors Theses

Three studies explored the processes by which different types of shared resources were consumed by group members. Subjects shared physical, spatial, and temporal resources. The resources were arranged in either a partitioned or nonpartitioned form. Subjects did so with an implied withdrawal of either onethird or one-twelfth and while participating in either a sharing or an accuracy instruction. Results for each resource provided partial support for a deliberate motive of greed and an inadvertent overestimation bias affecting subjects' withdrawals. The results also suggest that different types of resources may be consumed according to different criteria. Suggestions are made for methodological ...


Psychosocial Effects Of Juvenile Rheumatic Disease : The Family And Peer Systems As A Context For Coping, Jennifer Ann Harris May 1989

Psychosocial Effects Of Juvenile Rheumatic Disease : The Family And Peer Systems As A Context For Coping, Jennifer Ann Harris

Master's Theses

The psychosocial effects of juvenile rheumatic diseases and disease activity were examined among 24 families (12 with a rheumatic disease child, 12 with no chronic illness). Rheumatic disease children were paired with a healthy control child nominated by their classroom teacher. Family and child functioning was assessed through measures of stress, competence, coping, and adjustment while observations in the classroom were made to assess peer relations. MANOVA's and ANOVA's were performed to determine significant differences. Families with a child with inactive rheumatic disease tended to be less likely to seek out and accept help, more likely to put ...


Activation Of Social Heuristics In Social Decision Making Tasks As A Function Of Leadership Role Assignment, Amber B. Keating Jan 1989

Activation Of Social Heuristics In Social Decision Making Tasks As A Function Of Leadership Role Assignment, Amber B. Keating

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of assigning leadership roles implying varying degrees of social responsibility along with examining lay peoples' perceptions of these roles. Using 105 subjects, a 3 (leadership role) x 2 (resource type) design was used to examine how leaders make decisions about sharing resources in groups. First, 41 subjects rated the perceived degree of social responsibility for each of the 32 roles. In the next phase, another 64 subjects were assigned one of three leadership roles (supervisor, guide, or leader) and were asked to take that type of leader's deserved amount ...


The Effect Of Parental Pressure On Athletic Performance, Jessica A. Bumsted Jan 1987

The Effect Of Parental Pressure On Athletic Performance, Jessica A. Bumsted

Honors Theses

The current study will focus on the role of the parent in the child's youth sport involvement, concentrating primarily on the socialization process into sport, the effects of parental pressure and expectations (perceived by both parent and child), conceptions of ability, and a child's attributions to success and/or failure in terms of locus of control and self-efficacy.


Self Efficacy, Locus Of Control, And Physical Ability, E. Catherine Edmiston Jan 1987

Self Efficacy, Locus Of Control, And Physical Ability, E. Catherine Edmiston

Honors Theses

This research investigated the relationship among two personality variables- locus of control (LOC) and self efficacy (SE)- and perceptions of physical ability for a specific sport. In the first phase of the research, tennis players (12-14 year old males), their parents, their coaches, and three objective raters were asked to rate the players' physical talent. In phase two the players were ranked by a computer that based the rankings on their overall performance for a year. After these rankings were published the same groups were again asked to rate the players' physical talent. The ratings are compared to each other ...


Self Efficacy, Locus Of Control, And Task Difficulty As Predictors In Athletic Competition, Glen F. Cox Jan 1987

Self Efficacy, Locus Of Control, And Task Difficulty As Predictors In Athletic Competition, Glen F. Cox

Honors Theses

With the increasingly competitive nature of athletics today there has been a great deal of interest in the various factors contributing to athletic success. Athletes are bigger and faster, stronger and more physically fit than ever before. Yet there is another factor, a psychological one, that seems to be a key ingredient in the ultimate success of any athlete.


The Self-Concept Of Pregnant And Nonpregnant Adolescents And Changes That Occur Between Trimesters, Linda Aileen Furlani Aug 1985

The Self-Concept Of Pregnant And Nonpregnant Adolescents And Changes That Occur Between Trimesters, Linda Aileen Furlani

Master's Theses

Twenty-two nonpregnant adolescents and 14 pregnant adolescents selected from Chesterfield Health Department's clinic population participated in a study to determine if the self-concept of a nonpregnant adolescent is higher than that of a pregnant adolescent. Each group was further subdivided into a middle adolescent and a late adolescent category to determine if there is any difference in the self-concept of a pregnant adolescent in the middle adolescent stage versus that of a pregnant adolescent in the late adolescent stage. Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), School Form, was administered to test the subject's perception of herself and to measure ...


Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia Lane Marshall May 1985

Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia Lane Marshall

Master's Theses

This project was designed to study the effect of certain personality factors on pseudoseizure patients. It was hypothesized that Factors C and O in the 16 Personality Questionnaire could serve as predictor variables for the criterion variable, positive diagnosis of pseudoseizure versus true epileptic seizures. It was also hypothesized that these two groups, pseudoseizure versus epileptic seizure, would differ significantly on a test titled the Sickness Impact Profile. The two scales in this test, psychosocial and physical, were examined. Two discriminant analyses were performed with these two tests being the predictor variables and group membership being the criterion variable. Non-significant ...


Interpersonal Consequences Of Expressing Concern About Nuclear War, Ann Angell Dew May 1985

Interpersonal Consequences Of Expressing Concern About Nuclear War, Ann Angell Dew

Master's Theses

The effects of sex role expectations within the context of the nuclear war issue were examined in this study. Sixty males and sixty females, ranging in age from 18 to 22 years, participated in this study. They were obtained from the introductory psychology courses at the University of Richmond. Each subject read a questionnaire, supposedly completed by another University of Richmond undergraduate, and answered two Likert-type questions measuring the degree to which the subject would like to meet and become friends with the target. The independent variables were sex of the target, sex of subject, and expression of concern about ...


Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia L. Marshall May 1985

Personality Variables That Discriminate Pseudoseizures Patients And Epileptic Patients Used In The 16 Pf, Patricia L. Marshall

Master's Theses

This project was designed to study the effect of certain personality factors on pseudoseizure patients. It was hypothesized that Factors C and 0 in the 16 Personality Questionnaire could serve as predictor variables for the criterion variable, positive diagnosis of pseudoseizure versus true epileptic seizures. It was also hypothesized that these two groups, pseudoseizure versus epileptic seizure, would differ significantly on a test titled the Sickness Impact Profile. The two scales in this test, psychosocial and physical, were examined. Two discriminant analyses were performed with these two tests being the predictor variables and group membership being the criterion variable. Non-significant ...


The Effects Of Positive And Negative Mental Rehearsal Upon Adolescent Boy's Performance On Mirror Drawing, Jeffrey Alan Betman May 1983

The Effects Of Positive And Negative Mental Rehearsal Upon Adolescent Boy's Performance On Mirror Drawing, Jeffrey Alan Betman

Master's Theses

Forty-five adolescent males were divided into three groups of imagery ability based on Marks' Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire. Within the groups of low, medium, and high ability each subject was randomly assigned to one of three mental rehearsal conditions: positive mental rehearsal, negative mental rehearsal or neutral mental rehearsal. Subjects were given the appropriate mental rehearsal instructions and then completed a mirror drawing task. A 3 x 3 (ability level x type of instructions) analysis of variance was performed on the number of errors and elapsed time for the mirror drawing task. Although specific hypotheses had been predicted no ...


Personality And Behavioral Characteristics Important To The Coach/Athlete Relationship, Michael A. Zacharias Apr 1982

Personality And Behavioral Characteristics Important To The Coach/Athlete Relationship, Michael A. Zacharias

Honors Theses

Research in the area of sport psychology has grown tremendously over the past twenty years. One area, in particular, that has been researched a great deal is the idea of the typical athletic personality. (Fletcher and Dowell, 1971; Foster, 1977; Morgan and Johnson, 1978; and Morris, Vaccaro and Clarke, 1979 are examples.) Does the personality of the athlete differ from that of the non-athlete? Of particular concern are the areas of personality dealing with locus control and self-esteem. Locus of control is distributed along the internal/external dimension. Internal control was defined by Rotter, Livenant and Seeman (1962) as the ...


The Influence Of The Perceived Emotions Anger And Fear On Leadership Ratings, Helen M. Mcfalls Jan 1981

The Influence Of The Perceived Emotions Anger And Fear On Leadership Ratings, Helen M. Mcfalls

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Coping Abilities Of High And Low Jealous Individuals In A Stressful Situation, Elizabeth Roxanne Lindsey Jan 1978

Coping Abilities Of High And Low Jealous Individuals In A Stressful Situation, Elizabeth Roxanne Lindsey

Master's Theses

The major purpose of this study was to examine the coping abilities of high and low jealous individuals in a stressful laboratory situation involving self-dis­ closure. The hypothesis that high jealous individuals would not cope with the threat of self disclosure as well as low jealous individuals was not confirmed.

Eighty college students were given a battery of personality questionnaires to complete which measured jealousy., anxiety, locus of control, self esteem, self preoccupation and social desirability. The correlations revealed certain differences in characteristics of high and low jealous subjects including the fact that high jealous subjects had a significantly lower ...