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Self-Construal And Insight Problem Solving, Junaid Salim Merrchant 2010 Seton Hall University

Self-Construal And Insight Problem Solving, Junaid Salim Merrchant

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Self-construal research has shown that the way people view themselves impacts a variety of cognitive processes. Research has focused on two levels of self-construal: the interdependent self-construal, or when the self is represented in relation to others, and the independent self­ construal, or when the self is represented independently of others. Findings from the self­ construal and cognition research suggest that the interdependent self is associated with diffuse attention, while findings from the self-construal and creativity research indicate that the independent self is associated with divergent thinking important for creativity. The present study examined the effect of self-construal priming in ...


An Experimental Analysis Of Couple Aggression Using A Response Choice Paradigm, Claudia R. Viggiano 2010 Old Dominion University

An Experimental Analysis Of Couple Aggression Using A Response Choice Paradigm, Claudia R. Viggiano

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Research suggests that a majority of the violence reported by couples involves mutual, low-level acts of aggression; however, there is a dearth of research examining this "common couple violence" using a true experimental paradigm. The current study was designed to more closely approximate a naturalistic situation involving common couple violence by allowing participants to choose whether to retaliate in the face of provocation by their partner. Couples were randomly assigned to four conditions representing different patterns of provocation. Based on the assigned condition, participants received varying amounts of bad tasting juice allegedly poured for them by their partners across 5 ...


Behaving As Expected: Public Information And Fairness Norms, Cristina Bicchieri, Alex Chavez 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Behaving As Expected: Public Information And Fairness Norms, Cristina Bicchieri, Alex Chavez

Goldstone Research Unit

What is considered to be fair depends on context-dependent expectations. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game, we demonstrate that both fair behavior and perceptions of fairness depend upon beliefs about what one ought to do in a situation—that is, upon normative expectations. We manipulate such expectations by creating informational asymmetries about the offer choices available to the Proposer, and find that behavior varies accordingly. Proposers and Responders show a remarkable degree of agreement in their beliefs about which choices are considered fair. We discuss how these results fit into a theory of social norms.


Locus Of Control And The Age Difference In Free Recall From Episodic Memory, Paul Amrhein, Judith K. Bond, Derek Hamilton 2010 Montclair State University

Locus Of Control And The Age Difference In Free Recall From Episodic Memory, Paul Amrhein, Judith K. Bond, Derek Hamilton

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The authors investigated the relation of locus of control (LOC) to age differences in free-recall memory performance. Older and younger participants completed P. C. Duttweiler's (1984) Internal Control Index (ICI) and subsequently performed free-recall memory tasks. Compared with the younger participants, the older participants exhibited poorer recall with more intrusions and uncorrected repetition errors as well as reduced categorical clustering. For the older participants with less internal LOC, recall proportion and item-pair associative recall clustering were lower than for the older participants with more internal LOC. By contrast, the younger participants did not exhibit any LOC effects in their ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Psychopathic Personality Inventory In A Non-Criminal Population, Julie Madeleine Woltil 2010 Loma Linda University

Psychometric Properties Of The Psychopathic Personality Inventory In A Non-Criminal Population, Julie Madeleine Woltil

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a self-report measure which was created to identify the personality traits of psychopathy in noncriminal populations. These personality traits were grouped into eight subscales in the PPI including Machiavellian Egocentricity, Social Potency, Coldheartedness, Carefree Nonplanfulness, Fearlessness, Blame Externalization, Impulsive Nonconformity and Stress Immunity. The hypothesized relationships and factor structure of this study follow the theory of psychopathy as being a disorder rooted in antisocial behaviors (often aggressive and impulsive in nature) and inappropriate emotional reactivity (characterized as a lack in empathy and anxiety). A confirmatory factor analysis was done with an ethnically diverse undergraduate ...


Markers Of Marijuana Use Outcomes Within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment, Paul Amrhein, Brett Engle, Mark Macgowan, Eric Wagner 2010 Montclair State University

Markers Of Marijuana Use Outcomes Within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment, Paul Amrhein, Brett Engle, Mark Macgowan, Eric Wagner

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8—10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. Group leader empathy was measured globally, while two new constructs, group commitment, and peer response, were measured using discourse analysis. All variables were measured at the group level. Results: Associations among these process variables were tested and supported, as were the hypothesized associations between both group member language constructs and marijuana use outcomes. Conclusions: These findings were ...


Prevalence Of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Ad/Hd) In Primary School Children In Tehran, Ali shaker 2010 university of science & culture

Prevalence Of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Ad/Hd) In Primary School Children In Tehran, Ali Shaker

university of science & culture

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AD/HD in Primary School Children in Tehran. For this reason, we have selected 2615 children (girls and boys) as sample with multi-stage cluster sampling. SWAN Questionnaire was used for collecting of data. Result showed that the prevalence of predominantly inattentive subtype, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype and combined subtype of ADHD are between ./.6 to ./.9/1. As well, the findings showed that prevalence of predominantly inattentive subtype and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype at age 9 increased and then decreased after age 9. In boys, prevalence of predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype and ...


Evaluations Of Apologies: The Effects Of Apology Sincerity And Acceptance Motivation, Ida Hatcher 2010 Marshall University

Evaluations Of Apologies: The Effects Of Apology Sincerity And Acceptance Motivation, Ida Hatcher

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The present study examined the effects of apology sincerity and acceptance motivation on the facilitation of forgiveness of a transgression. Eighty-five undergraduates (26 males, 59 females) were randomly assigned to an Accepted Apology or a Rejected Apology condition. Participants wrote a detailed description of a situation in which they had experienced a transgression, the transgressor apologized, and they decided to accept or reject the apology. After completing their written descriptions, participants responded to a series of questions about the incident including their relationship with the transgressor, the time elapsed between the transgression and apology, the method of communication used to ...


Aggression To Gain Social Status: An Examination Of Middle And High School Females, Neely Snead Harvey 2010 Marshall University

Aggression To Gain Social Status: An Examination Of Middle And High School Females, Neely Snead Harvey

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The current study examined which type of aggression middle and high school females used most: indirect or direct aggression. Popularity (social standing) was also examined in order to help determine whether or not a female’s popularity was increased or decreased by which type of aggression, if any, she used the most. It was hypothesized that popular females used indirect aggression more than non-popular peers. Thirty participants were selected from grades seven through twelve at a rural combined middle/high school in Monongalia County, West Virginia. Participants were asked to nominate two popular and two unpopular females. Next, participants completed ...


Cross-Informant Agreement Among Parents And Children, Staci S. Mullins 2010 Marshall University

Cross-Informant Agreement Among Parents And Children, Staci S. Mullins

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Rating scales are often used by school psychologists to assess for emotional and behavioral disorders in students. While one advantage of rating scales is that data can be collected and assessed from multiple informants, research has shown that agreement between multiple informants is usually low to moderate, with the lowest being between parents and youth. The Conners Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scale (CBRS) is a new multi- dimensional rating scale claiming to have moderate parent/youth agreement. The purpose of this study was to analyze the cross-informant agreement between youth and parents using the Conners CBRS and then compare the correlations ...


Gendered Perceptions Of Batterer Intervention Co-Facilitation, Dorothy Lynne Boston 2010 Marshall University

Gendered Perceptions Of Batterer Intervention Co-Facilitation, Dorothy Lynne Boston

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the experience of co-facilitating male batterer intervention groups as reported by male and female facilitators and to identify how that experience differs along gender lines, given that dual-gender facilitation is an expectation of licensing standards that has not been researched. The following research questions were asked: 1) are there notable differences in how co-facilitation of male batterer intervention groups is experienced by males and females, 2) are females more sensitive to and affected by issues of power and control within the facilitation process than their male peers, and 3) is it more ...


Sogs Scores Correlate With Rates Fo Delay Discounting Of Hypothetical Monetary Amounts, But Not Non-Monetary Outcomes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, Adamn Derenne 2010 University of North Dakota

Sogs Scores Correlate With Rates Fo Delay Discounting Of Hypothetical Monetary Amounts, But Not Non-Monetary Outcomes, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, Adamn Derenne

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Although several studies have reported that gamblers display steeper rates of delay discounting than non-gamblers, other research has failed to find a systematic relationship between self-reported frequency of gambling and discounting of different outcomes. One hundred fifty six college students self-reported their frequency of gambling, completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and then completed a delay-discounting task involving five different outcomes. Self-reported frequency of gambling was correlated with discounting of one outcome (finding an ideal dating partner) and the correlation was in the opposite direction of what would be expected from the literature. SOGS scores were significantly and positively ...


A Review Of Petry & Madden’S Chapter Discounting And Pathologicalgambling In Impulsivity: The Behavioral And Neurologicalscience Of Discounting, Becky L. Nastally 2010 Southern Illinois University

A Review Of Petry & Madden’S Chapter Discounting And Pathologicalgambling In Impulsivity: The Behavioral And Neurologicalscience Of Discounting, Becky L. Nastally

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Petry and Madden contribute a revealing chapter on the relationship between discounting and pathological gambling to Madden and Bickel’s (2010) Impulsivity: The Behavioral and Neurological Science of Discounting. Within the chapter, the authors note the increased interest in the topic of delay discounting and gambling while presenting some obscurities in the existing body of literature further research will need to address, including the co-occurring role of substance abuse in pathological gamblers. Additionally, the chapter outlines theoretical interpretations of discounting as they relate to gambling behavior as well as highlights the need for further research in the area of probability ...


Upward And Onward, Jeffrey N. Weatherly 2010 University of North Dakota

Upward And Onward, Jeffrey N. Weatherly

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Relational Training On The Near-Miss Effect In Slot Machine Platers, Becky L. Nastally, Mark R. Dixon 2010 Southern Illinois University

The Effect Of Relational Training On The Near-Miss Effect In Slot Machine Platers, Becky L. Nastally, Mark R. Dixon

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

In the current study, six slot machine players were exposed to two concurrently available computer simulated slot machines (one yellow and one blue). The blue slot machine produced a high frequency of near-miss outcomes and the yellow slot produced no such outcomes. Both machines produced reinforcement on a random-ratio 10 schedule and response options were presented in a free operant paradigm. After a 50-trial exposure, participants completed multiple exemplar training and testing as well as a stimulus-sort task to form a relation between the color blue and ‘worse-than’ and then were re-exposed to the slot machine task for another 50 ...


Concurrent Validity Of The Gambling Functional Assessment (Gfa):Correlations With The South Oaks Gambling Screen (Sogs)And Indicators Of Diagnostic Efficiency, Joseph C. Miller, Mark R. Dixon, Amanda Parker, Ashley M. Kulland, Jeffrey N. Weatherly 2010 University of North Dakota

Concurrent Validity Of The Gambling Functional Assessment (Gfa):Correlations With The South Oaks Gambling Screen (Sogs)And Indicators Of Diagnostic Efficiency, Joseph C. Miller, Mark R. Dixon, Amanda Parker, Ashley M. Kulland, Jeffrey N. Weatherly

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Concurrent validity of the recently introduced Gambling Functional Assessment (GFA) was assessed by comparison with the long-used South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) in two nonclinical adult samples (N = 201, 49% female; N=101, 74% female). Correlations between GFA total scores and its four content scores with SOGS scores were promising (r = .04 to .61), with the content score relating to Escape yielding the highest correlations (.45, .61) and the score relating to Attention yielding the lowest. Performance in the second sample, where the SOGS-defined base rate of pathological gambling (28.7%) was high, was best for Escape scores, which efficiently ...


Behavioral Gerontology And Gambling: The Jackalope Of Behavior Analysis, Jonathan C. Baker 2010 Southern Illinois University

Behavioral Gerontology And Gambling: The Jackalope Of Behavior Analysis, Jonathan C. Baker

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Older adults constitute over one third of all gamblers in the United States. As the baby-boom generation continues to reach older adulthood, this proportion is likely to grow. To date, behavior-analytic research on gambling has focused on younger populations. Although such research is necessary and important, the present account will suggest that additional research should focus on studying older gamblers. The purpose of the present account is to review the literature that exists on typical behavior changes observed in older-adult populations and the implications for those changes related to current behavior-analytic research in gambling.


Temporal Discounting And Gambling: A Meaningful Relationship?, Jeffrey N. Weatherly 2010 University of North Dakota

Temporal Discounting And Gambling: A Meaningful Relationship?, Jeffrey N. Weatherly

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Pathological gambling is an important and large societal problem. Theorists and researchers have linked pathological gambling to rates of temporal discounting, although not all attempts to do so have been successful. Unfortunately, popular measures of temporal discounting each have weaknesses, and studies of discounting have tended to focus on one particular commodity – hypothetical monetary rewards. Evidence exists to suggest that problem and pathological gambling is also linked to escape contingencies. If so, these findings could potentially explain the link that has been found between temporal discounting and gambling. Implications and predictions of this possibility are discussed.


The Impact Of Derived Relational Responding On Gambling Behavior, Simon Dymond, Bryan Roche 2010 University of Wales, Swansea

The Impact Of Derived Relational Responding On Gambling Behavior, Simon Dymond, Bryan Roche

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

The present article describes existing research on the impact of derived relational responding on gambling behavior. First, it is argued that a greater understanding of the role of verbal behavior in gambling behavior is made possible by research findings and theoretical advances in research on derived relational responding generally, and the transformation of stimulus functions in particular. Second, the findings of several recent studies are described in order to describe the key features of this contemporary approach for verbal events. Finally, implications for the verbally based treatment of disordered gambling are outlined.


Investigating The Relationship Between Escape And Gambling Behavior, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, Kevin S. Montes, Danielle M. Christopher 2010 University of North Dakota

Investigating The Relationship Between Escape And Gambling Behavior, Jeffrey N. Weatherly, Kevin S. Montes, Danielle M. Christopher

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

Recent research suggests that there is a potentially strong relationship between gambling as a means of escape and the presence of pathological gambling. The goal of the present study was to establish whether there was a correlation between endorsing gambling as a means of escape and how participants played video poker in a laboratory setting. Forty eight participants completed several questionnaires and then played video poker. Results demonstrated that endorsement of gambling as a means of escape, as measured by the Gambling Functional Assessment (Dixon & Johnson, 2007), was significantly positively correlated with number of credits risked during video-poker play. It ...


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