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Pervasive Nonarbitrariness: Meaning From Form In Natural Language, David J. Neely 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Pervasive Nonarbitrariness: Meaning From Form In Natural Language, David J. Neely

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It is generally assumed that the expressions of a natural language are largely arbitrary. That is, any expressions that display a nonarbitrary connection between what their utterances sound like and what they mean are small in number and of no real theoretical importance.

This thesis challenges such a position. I argue that nonarbitrariness is a pervasive feature of natural language and that understanding the sound/meaning connections that exist in language is necessary if to appreciate how languages work.

I begin, in Chapter 1, by showing that many theorists are committed to the idea that nonarbitrary sound/meaning connections are ...


The Effects Of Floral Attributes And Conspecifics On Bumble Bee Forager Memory, Lucas Lauter, Tiffany Dinh 2022 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Effects Of Floral Attributes And Conspecifics On Bumble Bee Forager Memory, Lucas Lauter, Tiffany Dinh

Undergraduate Research Symposium

What do bees remember about flowers? These memories are important for both bees and flowers. The bees have better foraging success and gain more nectar and pollen from flowers when they remember the most rewarding flower types. More memorable flowers will be visited more frequently, resulting in more successful pollination for the plant. At the same time, bees can also learn about flowers from other bees and may remember this information differently. We are training and testing three floral cues and a single social cue to see how the different types of cues affect their learning and memory of rewarding ...


Neurocardiovascular Instability (Ncvi) Risk As A Predictor Of Cognitive Function In The Long Life Family Study, Rebecca Abraham 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neurocardiovascular Instability (Ncvi) Risk As A Predictor Of Cognitive Function In The Long Life Family Study, Rebecca Abraham

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In aging populations, the abnormal neural control of the cardiovascular system has been examined within the construct of neurocardiovascular instability (NCVI). The main research aim addressed whether baseline features of NCVI could predict cognitive function (i.e., decline) at follow-up within long-lived families. Across 941 subjects, baseline NCVI risk was indexed by two features: (1) self-reported syncopal or fall events and (2) average seated BP. The Low NCVI risk group included those who were normotensive (e.g., within normal BP range) and reported no NCVI features (n=379). The Moderate NCVI risk group included those who elicited pre-hypertensive (elevated BP ...


Pupil Responses To Emotional Images And Relations With Alexithymic And Autistic Traits, Margaret Grinshtein 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Pupil Responses To Emotional Images And Relations With Alexithymic And Autistic Traits, Margaret Grinshtein

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Comprehending emotional states in others and oneself is a complex cognitive process. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication and interaction difficulties. Autistic individuals often show socio-emotional difficulties specifically in emotion recognition and understanding. However, it has been posited that these emotion processing difficulties may be due to alexithymia, a distinct co-occurring phenomenon typified by difficulty in identifying and describing feelings. Autism, alexithymia, and emotion understanding have been studied through behavioral, neural, and psychophysiological methods, and the current study examines how these characteristics are related in a non-autistic sample. Pupil diameter was measured in response ...


Possibility Is Not A Luxury: The Role Of Identity In Representations Of Possibility, Hannah M. LeBaron 2022 Dartmouth College

Possibility Is Not A Luxury: The Role Of Identity In Representations Of Possibility, Hannah M. Lebaron

Dartmouth College Undergraduate Theses

In what ways are our expectations of others and their behaviors limited by the ways they are identified? Broadly, this project asks how identity traits are considered across judgments about which social roles people can assume. This work is an interdisciplinary project that exists within the fields of both Cognitive Science and Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. As such, the first chapter explores the central issues of identity conception from the perspective of feminist theory, including a discussion of category destabilization, intersectionality, and knowledge production in the context of feminist science studies. 4 empirical studies were launched with methods ...


Examining The Cross-Cultural Competence Of United States Christian Missionaries Engaged In Developing Indigenous Leaders: A Mixed Methods Study, Craig W. Goodman 2022 University of San Diego

Examining The Cross-Cultural Competence Of United States Christian Missionaries Engaged In Developing Indigenous Leaders: A Mixed Methods Study, Craig W. Goodman

Dissertations

For the past two millennia, missionaries have crossed from one culture to another to bring the Christian message to all cultures of the world. Questions about the effectiveness of these mission efforts have been asked and researched by many; however, one key question remains unanswered: what personal attributes help a person to be more competent at crossing cultures as they interact with people from other cultures? Although cross-cultural competence has been studied in a variety of fields over the past 50 years, the models and assessments used have never been applied to Christian missionaries.

To address this deficiency, this parallel ...


Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat 2022 Florida International University

Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Influence Of Perceptual Noise On Visual Flanker Effects Through Bayesian Model Fitting, Jordan Deakin, Dietmar Heinke 2022 University of Birmingham

Understanding The Influence Of Perceptual Noise On Visual Flanker Effects Through Bayesian Model Fitting, Jordan Deakin, Dietmar Heinke

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni 2022 University of California, San Diego

Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni

MODVIS Workshop

We report on preliminary results of an anatomically-inspired deep learning model of the visual system and its role in explaining the face inversion effect. Contrary to the generally accepted wisdom, our hypothesis is that the face inversion effect can be accounted for by the representation in V1 combined with the reliance on the configuration of features due to face expertise. We take two features of the primate visual system into account: 1) The foveated retina; and 2) The log-polar mapping from retina to V1. We simulate acquisition of faces, etc., by gradually increasing the number of identities the network learns ...


Monocular 3d Reconstruction Of Polyhedral Shapes Via Neural Network, Mark Beers, Zygmunt Pizlo 2022 University of California, Irvine

Monocular 3d Reconstruction Of Polyhedral Shapes Via Neural Network, Mark Beers, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Increasing Perceived Realism Of Objects In A Mixed Reality Environment Using 'Diminished Virtual Reality', Logan Scott Parker 2022 University of Mississippi

Increasing Perceived Realism Of Objects In A Mixed Reality Environment Using 'Diminished Virtual Reality', Logan Scott Parker

Honors Theses

With the recent explosion of popularity of virtual and mixed reality, an important question has arisen: “Is there a way to create a better blend of real and virtual worlds in a mixed reality experience?” This research attempts to determine whether a visual filter can be created and applied to virtual objects to better convince the brain into interpreting a composite of virtual and real views as one seamless view. The method devised in this thesis is being called 'Diminished Virtual Reality'. The results found in this study show that when presented with a scene composed of a combination of ...


Nature-Based Education For Elementary Students With Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Kayleigh Morrison 2022 California State University, Monterey Bay

Nature-Based Education For Elementary Students With Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Kayleigh Morrison

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

There are several advantages to including a nature-based curriculum and outdoor learning into state standards, and the consequences of students who do not have access to outside learning and activities can be severe. The term “Attention Restoration Theory” (ART) was coined by psychology professors Rachel and Stephen Kaplan in 1989 and claims that exposure to nature can improve mental fatigue and concentration. This senior capstone examines Kaplan’s Attention Restoration Theory and academic studies rooted in its philosophy as it applies to nature-based curriculum and outdoor learning. There are certain advantages for students who are exposed to a nature-based curriculum ...


The Trauma Of Premature Exposure To Violence: The Destruction Of Innocence In The Hunger Games, Riley Woody 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Trauma Of Premature Exposure To Violence: The Destruction Of Innocence In The Hunger Games, Riley Woody

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Enter The Battleverse: China's Metaverse War, Josh Baughman 2022 University of South Florida

Enter The Battleverse: China's Metaverse War, Josh Baughman

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Economic Development Status And Eco-Product On Consumption Values: From The Perspective Of Us Consumers, Mostafa Zaman 2022 University of Tennessee

Effects Of Economic Development Status And Eco-Product On Consumption Values: From The Perspective Of Us Consumers, Mostafa Zaman

Doctoral Dissertations

Consumers select a product based on numerous product characteristics. Numerous studies conducted earlier revealed that consumers in developing countries preferred products made in western or developed countries because their product quality is better than the quality of local products (Lee & Nguyen, 2017; Dao & Heidt, 2018; Rodrigo et al., 2019). Moreover, consumers are increasingly concerned about manufacturers’ environmental issues. Although ethical consumers believe that eco-products could save the environment, some consumers are not concerned about the eco-products and thus select products based on other product attributes (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). Hence, it becomes very challenging for retailers to select a country among developed or developing countries ...


Self-Referent Pronouns, Self-Focus, And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescence, Olivia F. Petersen 2022 University of Maine - Main

Self-Referent Pronouns, Self-Focus, And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescence, Olivia F. Petersen

Honors College

Youth with elevated depressive symptoms tend to engage in self-focusing behaviors, such as rumination and conversational self-focus. Past adult research also suggests that these self-focusing behaviors relate to depressive symptoms and may further be related to behavioral, implicit self-referent word use. Specifically, adults with higher depressive symptoms typically use more self-referent pronouns (e.g., ‘I,’ ‘me,’ ‘my’). The current adolescent study (N = 186, M = 15.68 years) utilized Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2015) software to test whether depressive symptoms, rumination, and conversational self-focus related to self-referent pronoun use during an observational task. Results indicated that ...


Peripheral Storytelling: Cinematic Structures And Audience Agency, Carlos Tkacz 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Peripheral Storytelling: Cinematic Structures And Audience Agency, Carlos Tkacz

Far West Popular Culture Association Annual Conference

A cultural phenomenon we are all unfortunately familiar with is terrible movies. By terrible movies I mean the kind that lack any semblance of structure, movies in which the characters are flatly drawn, the storylines are predictable, and the writing is especially bad. More specifically, I am interested in why these movies seem to be breeding without end and are no longer relegated to (maybe they never were) the low budget genre films some of us love to hate. I am talking here about the relatively new phenomena of the high-budget, popular-yet-terrible film.

Specifically, I am interested in applying Structuralism ...


Recognition Memory For Auditory And Visual Objects, Sharica Lee, Alexa Salomon, Kevin Mohawk, Laura Werner 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Recognition Memory For Auditory And Visual Objects, Sharica Lee, Alexa Salomon, Kevin Mohawk, Laura Werner

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Visual object memory is superior to auditory object memory. Our past research showed that auditory memory was less sensitive to divide attention during study, which may be attributable to representational differences between auditory memory and visual memory.

In the present study, we attempted to equate auditory and visual memory representations in order to adequately investigate the impact of dividing attention on recognition memory.

Recognition memory is thought to rely on two distinct processes, recollection and familiarity. Recollection involves the retrieval of precise qualitative detail and is the most sensitive to dividing attention.


Infants' Intermodal Knowledge Of Gender Using Faces And Voices, Bijoux Cheun, Christina Saliba, Alexis Rice, Marian Espina 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Infants' Intermodal Knowledge Of Gender Using Faces And Voices, Bijoux Cheun, Christina Saliba, Alexis Rice, Marian Espina

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Infants begin to use intermodal knowledge to match male and female faces to the corresponding voice, in their first year of life.

Infants have more experience with female faces which should lead to greater intermodal knowledge of female faces.

Previous studies have found inconsistent results. This could be due to the type of stimuli used.

This study uses several pairs of static and dynamic faces to investigate how methodological differences may impact infants' performance.


Forgetting In Item Recognition And Pattern Separation, Mateo Marquez, Rhiannon Soriano Smith 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Forgetting In Item Recognition And Pattern Separation, Mateo Marquez, Rhiannon Soriano Smith

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Forgetting is commonly defined as the inability to access information that was once successfully encoded and could be retrieved with a cue, but now leads to memory failure (Frankland et al. 2013).

Memory representations based in the hippocampus engage in pattern separation and are more prone to decay than interference (Sadeh & Pertrzov, 2020).

Extra-hippocampal representations are more prone to interference than decay (Hardt et al. 2013).

Pattern Separation refers to keeping memory representations distinct from one another.

Is there more decay in pattern separation and more interference in item recognition?


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