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Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral changes which follow a 24-hour cycle. Drosophila Melanogaster’s circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN) has been identified and several subpopulations have been characterized based on previous studies; the classifications of subpopulations of neurons within the CCNN are based on a return of anticipatory locomotor activity preceding the two daily light transitions (Lights on = dawn/Lights off = dusk). The neurons responsible for the return of anticipatory morning locomotor activity have been referred to as the M-cells, the group of neurons known to rescue evening anticipatory locomotor activity have been termed the E-cells. In this study ...


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. DeSmet 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Feral hogs are an invasive species found in 35 U.S. states without an effective control method to limit their population growth. According to a 2019 survey of 467 landowners in Arkansas, feral hogs caused an estimated $12 million in damages (Cook, 2019). While there are current control methods such as hunting and trapping, 65% of the feral hog population must be eliminated in a specific area to prohibit population growth (Cook, 2019). It is theorized that gossypol, a phenolic compound known to negatively impact reproductive function in other species, could cause sterility in boars. In this preliminary research study ...


The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the effect of temperature on physiological and digestive processes, such as voluntary consumption rate, is critical for assessing the impact of climate change. Food consumption is required for lizard survival and reproduction and its rate is dependent on temperature. For ectotherms, as temperatures increase, the amount of food consumed to meet the energy requirements related to survival and reproduction must also increase. Information on the amount of food voluntarily consumed may aid in determining if lizards can meet energy requirements. Such information could also aid in predicting survival of lizard populations, through construction of predictive climate change models. In ...


How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of environments and ecosystems is a highly valued area of research. This study focuses on the interactions between the biotic component of predation and foraging of certain stream fish species and the abiotic component of the flow regime that those species reside in. Gut content analysis followed by statistical calculations in the form of t-tests and chi -quared tests were performed on two fish species who both inhabited a stream with a groundwater flashy flow regime as well as a stream with a runoff flashy flow regime. The research showed that ...


The Last Leg: A Social Sustainability Assessment Of Ovine Agriculture, Sydney Golding 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Last Leg: A Social Sustainability Assessment Of Ovine Agriculture, Sydney Golding

International and Global Studies Undergraduate Honors Theses

Post-war agricultural transformations and the rise of Sustainability discourses have dictated the trajectory of sector industries. The implications of agriculture in lateral policy schemes have neglected the careful consideration of the social health of farmers in decision-making processes, creating a greater divide between the interests of the state and our once revered providers. This study aims to capture the complexity of social matters in agriculture within the specific context of sheep farming in the United Kingdom and the United States and how the concurrent systems have adapted considering the impacts of relevant contemporary historical contexts. The principles of Janker, Mann ...


Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pet ownership has always been thought to be beneficial, but some recent studies have not been consistent with this statement. A possible explanation for this is an unhealthy overdependence that pets and pet owners have developed as a result of the Coronavirus pandemic. In this paper, I examine whether separation anxiety from pets, people, and separation behavior of pets could be predictors of anxiety and physical health. The first prediction was that pet and non pet owners differed demographically. Also, it was hypothesized that separation anxiety from humans, separation anxiety from pets, but not pet separation behaviors predicted anxiety and ...


Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert

Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship

Buprenorphine, a semi-synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), has been suggested as a potential pharmacological treatment for anxiety. Some preclinical and clinical studies provide support for the anxiolytic effects of buprenorphine, but research in this area is scarce, and findings to date have been mixed. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that buprenorphine alters anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/IJ (B6) mice measured using the elevated zero maze (EZM). Adult, male mice (n=10) were given subcutaneous injections of saline (control) and three doses of buprenorphine (0.3, 1, and 10 mg/kg ...


Impact Of Interleukin-34 On The Promotion Of Bone Osteolysis And Neuroinflammation In Experimental Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anny Ho 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impact Of Interleukin-34 On The Promotion Of Bone Osteolysis And Neuroinflammation In Experimental Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anny Ho

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing health concern and is the most common type of dementia worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, one of the hallmark features of AD neuropathology, can increase RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity leading to the prevalence and severity of inflammatory osteolysis, e.g., osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Conversely, osteolytic lesions are associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis indicating that there is a direct link between dementia and inflammatory osteolysis. It was demonstrated that the neuronal cells primarily produce interleukin-34 (IL-34) and microglia, macrophages, and osteoclast precursors express colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor ...


Classifying Dogs’ Facial Expressions: Implications For Human Cognitive Social Evolution And Cross-Species Communication, Lauren Mitchell 2022 Kennesaw State University

Classifying Dogs’ Facial Expressions: Implications For Human Cognitive Social Evolution And Cross-Species Communication, Lauren Mitchell

Symposium of Student Scholars

Facial expressions have been considered outward expressions of internal behavioral states. There is evidence that both dogs and humans subscribe to the social learning theory to acquire contextual information from past experiences in connecting facial expressions to behaviors. Previous research has shown that people are able to read dog facial expressions; however, the research is inconsistent on whether this behavior is innate or learned, as well as if this ability extends to dogs of different facial morphologies. The goal of this study was to understand the extent of humans’ ability to read facial expressions of dog breeds with different facial ...


Effects Of Exercise On Fear Behavior In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Tyler Kuni 2022 University of Lynchburg

Effects Of Exercise On Fear Behavior In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Tyler Kuni

Student Scholar Showcase

The experiment shows the response of zebrafish when they are exposed to environments stimulating fear and how exercise will affect the behaviors of the fish in those environments. It is predicted that the behavior of fish receiving exercise before fear conditioning will show less behaviors associated with fear and anxiety. The subjects were exercised in a large water pump apparatus that creates a current for the fish to swim against, and then they were used in a classical fear conditioning protocol. Zebrafish behavior is recorded before and after fear conditioning is conducted. The speed of the subject’s swimming along ...


The Impact Of Diet & Different Animal Advocacy Tactics, Andrea Polanco, Jo Anderson 2022 Faunalytics

The Impact Of Diet & Different Animal Advocacy Tactics, Andrea Polanco, Jo Anderson

Diet

Many different approaches to advocacy exist within the animal protection movement, from talking to people you know about animal suffering, to sharing social media posts, to protesting in public spaces. Currently, we do not fully understand how these approaches affect people’s behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes towards farmed animals, or even how common they are.

We conducted two studies in the U.S. to address this topic as fully and accurately as possible. The first was a retrospective survey. It explored people’s experiences with different advocacy types within the last five years and measured their current behaviors and attitudes ...


Persistence In The North Pacific: The Makah People And Their Fight To Protect Their Cultural Heritage, Jeff Cocci 2022 Ursinus College

Persistence In The North Pacific: The Makah People And Their Fight To Protect Their Cultural Heritage, Jeff Cocci

Richard T. Schellhase Essay Prize in Ethics

In the Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of North America a whale swims blissfully unaware of its own significance. It is a Gray Whale; scientists would call it Eschrichtius robustus and at nearly forty feet long, it is large enough that it does not have to worry about sharks or other carnivorous animals. Yet there are those that are brave enough to hunt the whale. They are the Makah People of the Olympian Peninsula, in upper Washington state. By doing so, they place themselves at the center of a complex ethical debate amongst activists, scientists, and the general public ...


Constructing The Eastern Coyote: A Temporal Analysis Of The Scientific And Social Production Of A Controversial Northeastern Canid, Kayleigh Moses 2022 Trinity College

Constructing The Eastern Coyote: A Temporal Analysis Of The Scientific And Social Production Of A Controversial Northeastern Canid, Kayleigh Moses

Senior Theses and Projects

Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans var) have confounded the scientific and social boundaries established by postcolonial United States. The first eastern coyote specimen on record comes from Otis, Massachusetts in 1957. At the time, this unknown and unnamed wolf-like creature sparked fear amongst human residents of the Northeastern United States. Threatened by the presence of this predator, Northeasterners launched coyote killing efforts similar to the eradication campaigns that had previously failed in the Western United States. Today, Massachusetts officials estimate that 11,500 eastern coyotes occupy the state, living amongst people and pets in every county. This abundance of eastern coyotes ...


Taking The Bull By The Horns: Gender Analysis In A Cattle Project In Indonesia, Febrina Prameswari 2022 Clark University

Taking The Bull By The Horns: Gender Analysis In A Cattle Project In Indonesia, Febrina Prameswari

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Women play a crucial role in agriculture, especially in cattle farming. However, gender inequality in livestock production remains a critical issue, as women usually have less engagement with livestock production, less control over finances, and less access to markets. The IndoBeef program in Indonesia was one of the first livestock projects to incorporate gender-specific activities in its implementation. The project used women-only focus groups, utilizing the Women’s Empowerment in Livestock Index (WELI) combined with farm production data to address women’s needs in the cattle industry. I conducted a gender analysis of one of IndoBeef’s subsidiary projects, CropCow ...


Attachment And Perceived Stress Among Pet Owners Before And During The Lockdown In China, Sara Platto, Agathe Serres, Simona R C Normando, Yanqing Wang, Dennis C. Turner 2022 Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Jianghan University, Wuhan P.R. China

Attachment And Perceived Stress Among Pet Owners Before And During The Lockdown In China, Sara Platto, Agathe Serres, Simona R C Normando, Yanqing Wang, Dennis C. Turner

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

The current pandemic has brought a lot of social and economic strains to families worldwide, as well as making a huge impact on the long- term care of companion animals. The current study explored differences in the attachment level of owners toward their pets and their perceived stress before and during the pandemic in China. The questionnaire, besides demographic information, included a modified version of the Companion Animal Bonding Scale (CABS) and the original form of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A total of 261 questionnaires were collected. The respondents did not show any significant differences in attachment level toward ...


Banning The Unethical Practices Of Puppy Mills In Every State, Carolyn Dering 2022 College of DuPage

Banning The Unethical Practices Of Puppy Mills In Every State, Carolyn Dering

2022 HCIR

My presentation brings to light the inhumane and unethical practices within the commercial dog breeding industry. It is legal in most U.S. states for puppy mills to force dogs to live in deplorable conditions. The government takes little action in implementing and enforcing regulations regarding the care of the animals. I state the need for the Puppy Protection Act of 2021 to be added to the Animal Welfare Act. This bill would enforce that dogs in the commercial dog breeding industry be given proper care, therefore, bettering the lives of the animals.


Animal Abuse In Egypt: An Assessment Of Attitudes, Behaviors And Protective Factors Among University Students And Graduates., Salma El Saedy 2022 American University in Cairo

Animal Abuse In Egypt: An Assessment Of Attitudes, Behaviors And Protective Factors Among University Students And Graduates., Salma El Saedy

Theses and Dissertations

Animal abuse is an understudied problem in Egypt with possible ramifications on both non-human and human animals and links to interpersonal violence and conduct problems. This study aims to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Egyptian university students and graduates towards the treatment and use of animals in society and to test if exposure to animal abuse is associated with abusive behavior. The study also aims to identify possible protective factors against animal abuse among a group of positive deviants. A mixed-methods approach was used to study these questions; an online survey was disseminated over social media platforms, and 99 ...


Adapting Small Unmanned Aerial Systems For Behavioral Research With Coastal Marine Mammals, Eric Angel Ramos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Adapting Small Unmanned Aerial Systems For Behavioral Research With Coastal Marine Mammals, Eric Angel Ramos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Marine mammals inhabit aquatic worlds where their subsurface behavior, cryptic surface profiles, and movements make them difficult to study. New tools are needed to study coastal marine mammals in a world increasing impacted by climate change related shifts in weather and animal distribution patterns. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are important remote-sensing tools for studying a range of wildlife including terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna. These systems offer flexible platforms for adding sensor packages needed for different applications, for example, most are equipped with high-resolution cameras and GPS sensors. The vantage point from an aerial platform dramatically improves the ability ...


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