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The Influences Of The Public Health Care System And Education System On The Economic Growth Of Swaziland, Grace Greer 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influences Of The Public Health Care System And Education System On The Economic Growth Of Swaziland, Grace Greer

International and Global Studies Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Kingdom of Eswatini, also known as Swaziland, has one of the youngest populations in the world with over 70% of citizens being under the age of 18 years old. This creates a substantial opportunity for economic, social, and educational growth in a country previously plagued with diseases such as HIV/AIDS, poor health care infrastructure cutting off thousands from basic care, and an educational system with a very low attendance rate and an even lower graduation rate. By evaluating the root causes of such issues dating back to the colonial era there is an opportunity to reprioritize health care ...


Barriers For Small Businesses To Adopt Sustainable Practices In The Sioux Falls Area, Meredith King 2022 University of South Dakota

Barriers For Small Businesses To Adopt Sustainable Practices In The Sioux Falls Area, Meredith King

Honors Thesis

Sustainability is a broad concept that encompasses environmental, social, and economic factors to meet current and future needs. Many individuals and large businesses are becoming conscious of the effects they have on the planet and the people around them. However, despite the financial benefits and positive publicity of environmentalism, many businesses are not adopting sustainable practices. This study interviewed local business owners to answer the question “What are the main reasons that small businesses in the Sioux Falls area of South Dakota do or do not adopt sustainable practices that benefit the environment and the community?” Five business owners were ...


Variation And Efficiency Of High-Frequency Betas, Congshan ZHANG, Jia LI, Viktor TODOROV, George. TAUCHEN 2022 Singapore Management University

Variation And Efficiency Of High-Frequency Betas, Congshan Zhang, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, George. Tauchen

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper studies the efficient estimation of betas from high-frequency return data on a fixed time interval. Under an assumption of equal diffusive and jump betas, we derive the semiparametric efficiency bound for estimating the common beta and develop an adaptive estimator that attains the efficiency bound. We further propose a Hausman type test for deciding whether the common beta assumption is true from the high-frequency data. In our empirical analysis we provide examples of stocks and time periods for which a common market beta assumption appears true and ones for which this is not the case. We further quantify ...


Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam AHN, Seonghoon KIM, Kanghyock KOH 2022 University of Memphis

Associations Of The Covid-19 Pandemic With Older Individuals' Healthcare Utilization And Self-Reported Health Status: A Longitudinal Analysis From Singapore, Sangnam Ahn, Seonghoon Kim, Kanghyock Koh

Research Collection School Of Economics

Background: The COVID–19 pandemic has challenged the capacity of healthcare systems around the world and can potentially compromise healthcare utilization and health outcomes among non-COVID–19 patients. Objectives: To examine the associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with healthcare utilization, out-of-pocket medical costs, and perceived health among middle-aged and older individuals in Singapore. Method: Utilizing data collected from a monthly panel survey, a difference-in-differences approach was used to characterize monthly changes of healthcare use and spending and estimate the probability of being diagnosed with a chronic condition and self-reported health status before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Subjects ...


Improved Marginal Likelihood Estimation Via Power Posteriors And Importance Sampling, Yong LI, Nianling WANG, Jun YU 2022 Singapore Management University

Improved Marginal Likelihood Estimation Via Power Posteriors And Importance Sampling, Yong Li, Nianling Wang, Jun Yu

Research Collection School Of Economics

Power posteriors have become popular in estimating the marginal likelihood of a Bayesian model. A power posterior is referred to as the posterior distribution that is proportional to the likelihood raised to a power b∈[0,1]. Important power-posterior-based algorithms include thermodynamic integration (TI) of Friel and Pettitt (2008) and steppingstone sampling (SS) of Xie et al. (2011). In this paper, it is shown that the Bernstein–von Mises (BvM) theorem holds for power posteriors under regularity conditions. Due to the BvM theorem, power posteriors, when adjusted by the square root of the auxiliary constant, have the same limit distribution ...


What, Why And How Financial Development Matters: Evidence Of Asean-5, Asia-5 And Oecd-7 Economies, Swee Liang TAN 2022 Singapore Management University

What, Why And How Financial Development Matters: Evidence Of Asean-5, Asia-5 And Oecd-7 Economies, Swee Liang Tan

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper analyzed the association between bank and capital markets financial development with income per capita in three regions; ASEAN-5 economies (Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia), Asia-5 (Japan, China, Hong Kong SAR, South Korea and India) and OECD-7 (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, UK and US) from 2000 to 2017 using panel data regressions. A ley lesson ASEAN-5 can learn from Asia-5 and OECD-7 experience is that bank size does matter despite digital disruptions to their banking system; yet large financial structure that favors banks is negatively associated with Asia-5, and importantly, efficient banking system (not bank size alone) is ...


Labor Transitions Between Formal And Informal Employment In Egypt, Alaa Mahmoud Al-Barrawi 2022 American University in Cairo

Labor Transitions Between Formal And Informal Employment In Egypt, Alaa Mahmoud Al-Barrawi

Theses and Dissertations

Informal employment is the hallmark of developing economies. Egypt is no exception to this trend. Those who are informally employed are exceptionally vulnerable as they lack social protection. Moreover, large informal sectors are symptomatic of underdevelopment and have negative repercussions on the economy. Few studies examine the determinants of labor market transitions in Egypt with a focus on transitions between formal and informal labor market states. This study focuses on determinants of labor market transitions in Egypt, relying on the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Surveys of 2012 and 2018. It develops four multinomial logistic regression models to achieve this goal ...


Essays In Macroeconomic Policy, Meng-Ting Chen 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Essays In Macroeconomic Policy, Meng-Ting Chen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters that cover topics on macroeconomic policies.

Chapter 1 - Markups, Labor Share, and Wage Dispersion.

Increasing market power has an impact on labor market behavior. This paper argues that the decline in the aggregate wage after 1980 comes from both increasing aggregate product markup and decreasing aggregate labor markdown. Most of the decline is driven by the sharp decline in lower wage percentiles, which also contributes to the increasing wage dispersion. Further, both firms’ monopoly and monopsony power play important roles in explaining the decline in the aggregate labor share. I build a heterogeneous firm ...


Modelling And Forecasting Methods In Financial Economics, Shuo Gao 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Modelling And Forecasting Methods In Financial Economics, Shuo Gao

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters.

Chapter 1: Behavioral heterogeneity among investors has been shown to explain the volatile nature of stock markets. In this chapter, I investigate the different behaviors of investors by proposing a heterogeneous agent model based on Chiarella et al. (2012) which involves fundamentalists, chartists, and noise traders with two-state hidden-Markov regime switching expectations. By applying the S&P 500 and CPI data from January 1990 to December 2020, the model shows strong evidence of behavioral heterogeneity among different groups of traders. After an in-sample backtesting and out-of-sample forecasting which further evaluate the capability of the ...


Financial Openness And Economic Growth, Doo Kyun Wang 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Financial Openness And Economic Growth, Doo Kyun Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

An ongoing controversy in economics relates to the effect of financial openness on economic growth. Despite their longstanding nature, these questions are not easily resolved. Theoretically, capital market liberalization can lower the cost of capital. Given perfect international capital mobility, this can cause factor price equalization and finally accelerate economic growth. In contrast with the strong theoretical argument, empirical studies on the effect financial openness have on growth are still inconclusive.

Given the diverse perspective, the goal of this paper is to further investigate the role and effect of financial openness on economic growth in different time periods and at ...


Essays On Intergenerational Mobility In Education, Ercio A. Munoz Saavedra 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Essays On Intergenerational Mobility In Education, Ercio A. Munoz Saavedra

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters that investigate intergenerational mobility in education in Chile, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Chapter 1: In this chapter, I estimate intergenerational mobility (IGM) in education using data from 91 censuses that span 24 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) over half a century. I measure upward mobility as the likelihood of obtaining at least a primary education for individuals whose parents did not finish primary school, whereas downward mobility as the likelihood of failing to complete primary education for individuals whose parents completed at least primary school. In addition, I explore ...


Testing The Dimensionality Of Policy Shocks, Jia LI, Viktor TODOROV, Qiushi. ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Testing The Dimensionality Of Policy Shocks, Jia Li, Viktor Todorov, Qiushi. Zhang

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper provides a nonparametric test for deciding the dimensionality of a policy shock as manifest in the abnormal change in asset returns' stochastic covariance matrix, following the release of a macroeconomic announcement. We use high-frequency data in local windows before and after the event to estimate the covariance jump matrix, and then test its rank. We find a one-factor structure in the covariance jump matrix of the yield curve resulting from the Federal Reserve's monetary policy shocks prior to the 2007-2009 financial crisis. The dimensionality of policy shocks increased afterwards due to the use of unconventional monetary policy ...


Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina 2022 CUNY School of Public Health

Episode Based Payment Models And The Hospital Safety-Net: An Evaluation Of The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program, John A. Gravina

Dissertations and Theses

Episode Based Payment Models and the Hospital Safety-net: An Evaluation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Comprehensive Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program

By John Anthony Gravina

Advisor: Alexis Pozen, Ph.D.

Introduction: Payments for Healthcare services are increasingly being tied to clinical quality, patient experience, health outcomes, and efficiency through value-based payment arrangements (VBP). VBP presents a potential opportunity to reduce healthcare expenditures by requiring providers to take on financial risk associated with the cost and quality of care, therefore aligning payment incentives with the goals of providing higher quality and efficient care. As of 2020, 80 percent ...


A Consistent Specification Test For Dynamic Quantile Models, Peter HORVATH, Jia LI, Zhipeng LIAO, Andrew PATTON 2022 Singapore Management University

A Consistent Specification Test For Dynamic Quantile Models, Peter Horvath, Jia Li, Zhipeng Liao, Andrew Patton

Research Collection School Of Economics

Correct specification of a conditional quantile model implies that a particular conditional moment is equal to zero. We nonparametrically estimate the conditional moment function via series regression and test whether it is identically zero using uniform functional inference. Our approach is theoretically justified via a strong Gaussian approximation for statistics of growing dimensions in a general time series setting. We propose a novel bootstrap method in this nonstandard context and show that it significantly outperforms the benchmark asymptotic approximation in finite samples, especially for tail quantiles such as Value-at-Risk (VaR). We use the proposed new test to study the VaR ...


Yearly Changes In Education Expenditure And Changes In Student Performance, Dale A. Manzo 2022 Harvard University

Yearly Changes In Education Expenditure And Changes In Student Performance, Dale A. Manzo

Undergraduate Economic Review

Using data from the state of Florida in the 2000s, we dispute the findings of the Coleman report. We find that there is a positive relationship between changes in expenditure per pupil and changes in academic performance. This study takes advantage of changes in expenditure resulting from the Great Recession to formulate a quasi-experimental analysis of the relationship between expenditure per pupil and academic performance. Our conclusion is consistent with the theory of decreasing marginal returns to expenditure on education.


Convergence Of Gdp Per Capita Levels Within The Countries Of The European Union, Hayk Mardanyan 2022 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Convergence Of Gdp Per Capita Levels Within The Countries Of The European Union, Hayk Mardanyan

Undergraduate Economic Review

The process of economic convergence in the EU has been a hotly debated issue since the formation of this organization. In fact, one of the main “operational priorities” of the EU is to “[promote] sustained convergence of the economic performance” of its Member States. This paper examines how effective the EU has been in ensuring upward economic convergence among its member countries: more specifically, the paper uses linear regression analysis to check whether poorer EU member countries, concentrated in Eastern Europe, have been growing at faster rates than their richer counterparts, which are concentrated in Western and Southern Europe.


Butterfly Pattern: Innovative Exploration Of Scientific Research Paradigm In Era Of Big Science—Based On 15-Year Practice Of Integrated Development Of Science And Industry In Shenzhen Institute Of Advanced Technology (Siat), Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Jianping FAN 2022 Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China

Butterfly Pattern: Innovative Exploration Of Scientific Research Paradigm In Era Of Big Science—Based On 15-Year Practice Of Integrated Development Of Science And Industry In Shenzhen Institute Of Advanced Technology (Siat), Chinese Academy Of Sciences, Jianping Fan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

In the era of big science, the innovation chain and the industry chain are deeply integrated, promoting the continuous evolution of the underlying logic of the "linear model" and the "Pasteur's quadrant". The world scientific research is gradually evolving to the collaborative interaction of innovative subjects and the system integration of various elements. On the basis of in-depth exploration of the linear model and Pasteur's quadrant, SIAT focuses on creating a closed-loop ecology of the innovation chain and industrial chain. By integrating science and industry from design to advancing, SIAT has built a "butterfly pattern", which integrates and ...


The Economic Impact Of The North Central West Virginia Airport Expansion, Eric Bowen 2022 WVU Bureau of Business and Economic Research

The Economic Impact Of The North Central West Virginia Airport Expansion, Eric Bowen

Bureau of Business & Economic Research

The North Central West Virginia (NCWV) Airport in Clarksburg/Bridgeport has experienced rapid growth over the last decade. The number of airline passengers through the airport increased nearly four-fold between 2010 and 2019. The airport was also chosen as the primary US hub for the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries airplane refurbishment facility, which services airplanes from most major airlines.

Because of this rapid growth, the NCWV Airport has begun construction on a new terminal building in order to handle the increased traffic through the area. In this report, we provide an economic impact estimate of the terminal’s expansion and associated ...


The Kalamazoo Promise “Sweet 16," Summary Study Results: 16 Key Findings From 16 Years Studying The Kalamazoo Promise, Kathleen Bolter, Isabel McMullen 2022 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

The Kalamazoo Promise “Sweet 16," Summary Study Results: 16 Key Findings From 16 Years Studying The Kalamazoo Promise, Kathleen Bolter, Isabel Mcmullen

Reports

No abstract provided.


Transit Equity In Southeast Brooklyn, Noam J. Gal 2022 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

Transit Equity In Southeast Brooklyn, Noam J. Gal

Student Theses and Dissertations

Over the years, planners have considered numerous proposals to expand the subway system further into Southeast Brooklyn including the Utica Avenue Line and the Interborough Express. It remains to be seen whether any of these megaprojects will come to fruition. This honors thesis analyzes the equity impact that Brooklyn’s largest transit desert has had upon its inhabitants. I use an interdisciplinary approach to analyze both qualitative and quantitative data to explain why the subway does not extend into the focus area, how residents have adapted to the status quo, and what policymakers can do to improve transit equity in ...


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