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Medical Biomathematics and Biometrics Commons

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All Articles in Medical Biomathematics and Biometrics

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279 full-text articles. Page 5 of 7.

Massively Parallel Nonparametrics [Hds 2011 Slides], Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang 2011 New York University

Massively Parallel Nonparametrics [Hds 2011 Slides], Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


Social Marketing, Stages Of Change, And Public Health Smoking Interventions, Paula Diehr 2011 University of Washington

Social Marketing, Stages Of Change, And Public Health Smoking Interventions, Paula Diehr

Paula Diehr

As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and secondary prevention, by targeting the Never Smoker, Maintenance, or Action segments, resulted in the highest nonsmoking life expectancy. This result is consistent with both social marketing and public health principles. Although the best thing for an individual smoker is to stop smoking, the greatest public health benefit is achieved by interventions that target ...


Flexible Dependence Of Functional Responses On Scalar Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang 2011 New York University

Flexible Dependence Of Functional Responses On Scalar Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


Prevalence Of Piscine Myocarditis Virus (Pmcv) In Marine Fish Species, Torstein Tengs Dr. 2011 Norwegian Veterinary Institute

Prevalence Of Piscine Myocarditis Virus (Pmcv) In Marine Fish Species, Torstein Tengs Dr.

Dr. Torstein Tengs

No abstract.


Compound Treatments, Transportability, And The Structural Causal Model: The Power And Simplicity Of Causal Graphs., Maya Petersen 2011 University of California, Berkeley

Compound Treatments, Transportability, And The Structural Causal Model: The Power And Simplicity Of Causal Graphs., Maya Petersen

Maya Petersen

No abstract provided.


Generalized Benjamini-Hochberg Procedures Using Spacings, Debashis Ghosh 2011 Penn State University

Generalized Benjamini-Hochberg Procedures Using Spacings, Debashis Ghosh

Debashis Ghosh

For the problem of multiple testing, the Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H) procedure has become a very popular method in applications. We show how the B-H procedure can be interpreted as a test based on the spacings corresponding to the p-value distributions. Using this equivalence, we develop a class of generalized B-H procedures that maintain control of the false discovery rate in finite-samples. We also consider the effect of correlation on the procedure; simulation studies are used to illustrate the methodology.


Software For Assumption Weighting For Meta-Analysis Of Genomic Data, Debashis Ghosh, Yihan Li 2011 Penn State University

Software For Assumption Weighting For Meta-Analysis Of Genomic Data, Debashis Ghosh, Yihan Li

Debashis Ghosh

This is the software that accompanies Li and Ghosh, "Assumption weighting for incorporating heterogeneity into meta-analysis of genomic data."


A Causal Framework For Surrogate Endpoints With Semi-Competing Risks Data, Debashis Ghosh 2011 Penn State University

A Causal Framework For Surrogate Endpoints With Semi-Competing Risks Data, Debashis Ghosh

Debashis Ghosh

In this note, we address the problem of surrogacy using a causal modelling framework that differs substantially from the potential outcomes model that pervades the biostatistical literature. The framework comes from econometrics and conceptualizes direct effects of the surrogate endpoint on the true endpoint. While this framework can incorporate the so-called semi-competing risks data structure, we also derive a fundamental non-identifiability result. Relationships to existing causal modelling frameworks are also discussed.


Propensity Score Modelling In Observational Studies Using Dimension Reduction Methods, Debashis Ghosh 2011 Penn State University

Propensity Score Modelling In Observational Studies Using Dimension Reduction Methods, Debashis Ghosh

Debashis Ghosh

Conditional independence assumptions are very important in causal inference modelling as well as in dimension reduction methodologies. These are two very strikingly different statistical literatures, and we study links between the two in this article. The concept of covariate sufficiency plays an important role, and we provide theoretical justication when dimension reduction and partial least squares methods will allow for valid causal inference to be performed. The methods are illustrated with application to a medical study and to simulated data.


Computational Analyses Of The Uptake And Distribution Of Carbon Monoxide (Co) In Human Subjects, Kinnera Chada 2011 University of Kentucky

Computational Analyses Of The Uptake And Distribution Of Carbon Monoxide (Co) In Human Subjects, Kinnera Chada

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that binds to hemoglobin with high affinity. This property underlies the use of low doses of CO to determine hemoglobin mass (MHb) in the fields of clinical and sports medicine. However, hemoglobin bound to CO is unable to transport oxygen and exposure to high CO concentrations is a significant environmental and occupational health concern. These contrasting aspects of CO—clinically useful in low doses but potentially lethal in higher doses—mandates a need for a quantitative understanding of the temporal profiles of the uptake and distribution of CO in the ...


The Cardiac Atlas Project--An Imaging Database For Computational Modeling And Statistical Atlases Of The Heart, Carissa G. Fonseca, Michael Backhaus, David A. Bluemke, Randall D. Britten, Jae Do Chung, Brett R. Cowan, Alan H. Kadish 2011 Touro College

The Cardiac Atlas Project--An Imaging Database For Computational Modeling And Statistical Atlases Of The Heart, Carissa G. Fonseca, Michael Backhaus, David A. Bluemke, Randall D. Britten, Jae Do Chung, Brett R. Cowan, Alan H. Kadish

Office of the President Publications and Research

MOTIVATION: Integrative mathematical and statistical models of cardiac anatomy and physiology can play a vital role in understanding cardiac disease phenotype and planning therapeutic strategies. However, the accuracy and predictive power of such models is dependent upon the breadth and depth of noninvasive imaging datasets. The Cardiac Atlas Project (CAP) has established a large-scale database of cardiac imaging examinations and associated clinical data in order to develop a shareable, web-accessible, structural and functional atlas of the normal and pathological heart for clinical, research and educational purposes. A goal of CAP is to facilitate collaborative statistical analysis of regional heart shape ...


Extracting Information From Functional Connectivity Maps Via Function-On-Scalar Regression, Philip T. Reiss, Maarten Mennes, Eva Petkova, Lei Huang, Matthew J. Hoptman, Bharat B. Biswal, Stanley J. Colcombe, Xi-Nian Zuo, Michael P. Milham 2010 New York University

Extracting Information From Functional Connectivity Maps Via Function-On-Scalar Regression, Philip T. Reiss, Maarten Mennes, Eva Petkova, Lei Huang, Matthew J. Hoptman, Bharat B. Biswal, Stanley J. Colcombe, Xi-Nian Zuo, Michael P. Milham

Lei Huang

Functional connectivity of an individual human brain is often studied by acquiring a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and mapping the correlation of each voxel's BOLD time series with that of a seed region. As large collections of such maps become available, including multisite data sets, there is an increasing need for ways to distill the information in these maps in a readily visualized form. Here we propose a two-step analytic strategy. First, we construct connectivity-distance profiles, which summarize the connectivity of each voxel in the brain as a function of distance from the seed, a functional ...


National Estimates Of The Prevalence Of Alzheimer's Disease In The United States, Ron Brookmeyer, Denis Evans, Liesi Hebert, Langa Kenneth, Heeringa Steven, Plassman Brenda, Kukull Kenneth 2010 University of California, Los Angeles

National Estimates Of The Prevalence Of Alzheimer's Disease In The United States, Ron Brookmeyer, Denis Evans, Liesi Hebert, Langa Kenneth, Heeringa Steven, Plassman Brenda, Kukull Kenneth

Ron Brookmeyer

Several methods of estimating prevalence of dementia are presented in this article. For both Brookmeyer and the Chicago Health and Aging project (CHAP), the estimates of prevalence are derived statistically, forward calculating from incidence and survival figures. The choice of incidence rates on which to build the estimates may be critical. Brookmeyer used incidence rates from several published studies, whereas the CHAP investigators applied the incidence rates observed in their own cohort. The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) and the East Boston Senior Health Project (EBSHP) were sample surveys designed to ascertain the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and ...


Statistical Considerations In Determining Hiv Incidence From Changes In Hiv Prevalence, Ron Brookmeyer, Jacob Konikoff 2010 University of California, Los Angeles

Statistical Considerations In Determining Hiv Incidence From Changes In Hiv Prevalence, Ron Brookmeyer, Jacob Konikoff

Ron Brookmeyer

The development of methods for estimating HIV incidence is critical for tracking the epidemic and for designing, targeting and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. One method for estimating incidence is based on changes in HIV prevalence. That method is attracting increased attention because national population-based HIV prevalence surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, are being conducted throughout the world. Here, we consider some statistical issues associated with estimating HIV incidence from two population-based HIV prevalence surveys conducted at two different points in time. We show that the incidence estimator depends on the relative survival rate. We evaluate the sensitivity of ...


Extracting Information From Functional Connectivity Maps Via Function-On-Scalar Regression, Philip T. Reiss, Maarten Mennes, Eva Petkova, Lei Huang, Matthew J. Hoptman, Bharat B. Biswal, Stanley J. Colcombe, Xi-Nian Zuo, Michael P. Milham 2010 New York University

Extracting Information From Functional Connectivity Maps Via Function-On-Scalar Regression, Philip T. Reiss, Maarten Mennes, Eva Petkova, Lei Huang, Matthew J. Hoptman, Bharat B. Biswal, Stanley J. Colcombe, Xi-Nian Zuo, Michael P. Milham

Philip T. Reiss

Functional connectivity of an individual human brain is often studied by acquiring a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and mapping the correlation of each voxel's BOLD time series with that of a seed region. As large collections of such maps become available, including multisite data sets, there is an increasing need for ways to distill the information in these maps in a readily visualized form. Here we propose a two-step analytic strategy. First, we construct connectivity-distance profiles, which summarize the connectivity of each voxel in the brain as a function of distance from the seed, a functional ...


Causal Inference With Two-Stage Logistic Regression - Accuracy, Precision, And Application, Bing Cai 2010 School of Medicine

Causal Inference With Two-Stage Logistic Regression - Accuracy, Precision, And Application, Bing Cai

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Two-stage predictor substitution (2SPS) and the two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) are two approaches to instrumental variable (IV) analysis. While 2SPS and 2SRI with linear models are well-studied methods of causal inference, the properties of 2SPS and 2SRI for logistic binary outcomes have not been thoroughly studied. We study the bias and variance properties of 2SPS and 2SRI for a logistic outcome model so that we can apply these IV approaches to the causal inference of binary outcomes. We also propose and implement an extension of generalized structure mean model originally developed for a randomized trial. We first present closed form ...


A Novel Totivirus And Piscine Reovirus (Prv) In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) With Cardiomyopathy Syndrome (Cms), Torstein Tengs 2010 Norwegian Veterinary Institute

A Novel Totivirus And Piscine Reovirus (Prv) In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) With Cardiomyopathy Syndrome (Cms), Torstein Tengs

Dr. Torstein Tengs

BACKGROUNDCardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe disease affecting large farmed Atlantic salmon. Mortality often appears without prior clinical signs, typically shortly prior to slaughter. We recently reported the finding and the complete genomic sequence of a novel piscine reovirus (PRV), which is associated with another cardiac disease in Atlantic salmon; heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In the present work we have studied whether PRV or other infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of CMS.RESULTSUsing high throughput sequencing on heart samples from natural outbreaks of CMS and from fish experimentally challenged with material from fish diagnosed with ...


Fast, Flexible Function-On-Scalar Regression, With An Application To Brain Development, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang 2010 New York University

Fast, Flexible Function-On-Scalar Regression, With An Application To Brain Development, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


Health Benefits Of Increased Walking For Sedentary, Generally Healthy Older Adults: Using Longitudinal Data To Approximate An Intervention Trial, Paula Diehr 2010 University of Washington

Health Benefits Of Increased Walking For Sedentary, Generally Healthy Older Adults: Using Longitudinal Data To Approximate An Intervention Trial, Paula Diehr

Paula Diehr

BACKGROUND: Older adults are often advised to walk more, but randomized trials have not conclusively established the benefits of walking in this age group. Typical analyses based on observational data may have biased results. Here, we propose a "limited-bias," more interpretable estimate of the health benefits to sedentary healthy older adults of walking more, using longitudinal data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. METHODS: The number of city blocks walked per week, collected annually, was classified as sedentary (<7 blocks per>week), somewhat active, or active (>or=28). Analysis was restricted to persons sedentary and healthy in the first 2 years. In Year 3 ...


Improving Quantitative Treatment Response Monitoring With Deformable Image Registration, Blake A. Cannon 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Improving Quantitative Treatment Response Monitoring With Deformable Image Registration, Blake A. Cannon

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Quantitative imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT has the potential to provide an in vivo assessment of response to radiotherapy (RT). However, comparing tissue tracer uptake in longitudinal studies is often confounded by variations in patient setup and potential treatment induced gross anatomic changes. These variations make true response monitoring for the same anatomic volume a challenge, not only for tumors, but also for normal organs-at-risk (OAR). The central hypothesis of this study is that more accurate image registration will lead to improved quantitation of tissue response to RT with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Employing an in-house developed “demons” based deformable image ...


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