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Full-Text Articles in Biology

Protocol For An Agent-Based Model Of Recombination In Bacteria Playing A Public Goods Game, Isaiah Paolo A. Lee, Omar T. Eldakar, J. Peter Gogarten, Cheryl P. Andam Dec 2023

Protocol For An Agent-Based Model Of Recombination In Bacteria Playing A Public Goods Game, Isaiah Paolo A. Lee, Omar T. Eldakar, J. Peter Gogarten, Cheryl P. Andam

Biology Faculty Articles

Agent-based models are composed of individual agents coded for traits, such as cooperation and cheating, that interact in a virtual world based on defined rules. Here, we describe the use of an agent-based model of homologous recombination in bacteria playing a public goods game. We describe steps for software installation, setting model parameters, running and testing models, and visualization and statistical analysis. This protocol is useful in analyses of horizontal gene transfer, bacterial sociobiology, and game theory.

For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Lee et al.1


The Potential Of Endophytic Bacteria As The Biocontrol Agents Of Fusarium Proliferatum, Rima Ernia, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik, Lisdar Idwan Sudirman Dec 2023

The Potential Of Endophytic Bacteria As The Biocontrol Agents Of Fusarium Proliferatum, Rima Ernia, Nisa Rachmania Mubarik, Lisdar Idwan Sudirman

Makara Journal of Science

Fusarium proliferatum decreases the productivity of shallot (Allium cepa L.). Endophytic bacteria are potential biocontrol agents in controlling the growth of F. proliferatum. This study aimed to select and characterize endophytic bacteria producing bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of F. proliferatum. The endophytic bacteria used were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and soil of shallot plants from healthy and diseased shallot farming fields. The endophytic bacteria were selected using the dual culture method and extracted using ethyl acetate solvent. The results of the 16S rRNA identification suggested that isolate ABP5.2 is similar to Pseudomonas …


Human Motion Detection Evaluated Through An Evoked Cortical Potential Frequency Spectrum, Howard E. Painter Dec 2023

Human Motion Detection Evaluated Through An Evoked Cortical Potential Frequency Spectrum, Howard E. Painter

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Electrical potentials were recorded from scalp of normal male subjects while they were viewing continuously moving sinusoidal gratings. Responses from the occipital cortex were amplified, digitized, stored and then transformed from the time domain to the frequency domain using a microcomputer based Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. High frequency components (Beta Activity) of the resulting power spectrum were analyzed for evidence on neural generators (electrical sources) in the striate cortex driven presumably by transient-cells (Y-cells or Magnocellular) responding to the continuously moving grating. Several stimulus parameters were examined: angular velocity, spatial frequency, direction (orientation), color, and intensity. A16 Hz component of …


Testing The Cavefish Model: An Organism-Focused Theory Of Biological Design, Michael J. Boyle, Scott Arledge, Brian Thomas, Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Randy J. Guliuzza Dec 2023

Testing The Cavefish Model: An Organism-Focused Theory Of Biological Design, Michael J. Boyle, Scott Arledge, Brian Thomas, Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Randy J. Guliuzza

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Poster Abstract

The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is experimentally testing an engineering-based model of rapid biological adaptation: Continuous Environmental Tracking (CET). This model infers that organisms actively track conditions within specific environments to self-adjust through internal mechanisms and initiate adaptive functionality. The animal under investigation is Astyanax mexicanus (Mexican tetra), a freshwater fish with well-differentiated, interfertile morphotypes: eyed surface-dwelling fish (surface fish) with distinct pigmentation patterns, and eyeless cave-dwelling fish (cavefish) with minimal pigmentation. Aquaria within our newly established laboratory contain breeding pairs of cavefish exposed to either (A) cyclical light/dark patterns of full-spectrum high-intensity light, (B) minimal light …


Hybridization And Genetic Distances Suggest One Large Monobaramin In The Gourd Family (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), Timothy R. Brophy, Jack R. Gregory, Brigitte Townsend Dec 2023

Hybridization And Genetic Distances Suggest One Large Monobaramin In The Gourd Family (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), Timothy R. Brophy, Jack R. Gregory, Brigitte Townsend

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The gourds form a primarily tropical and subtropical family (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae) of herbaceous climbers and woody lianas composed of approximately 960 species in 95 genera and 15 tribes. Many of these are globally important food crops and ornamentals including cucumbers, gourds, squashes, melons, pumpkins, and luffas. Utilizing published literature, there is evidence of interspecific hybridization (natural, experimental cross-pollination, and embryo/ovule culture) in five of the 15 tribes. These consist of successful crosses between 131 unique species pairs, including two intergeneric and one intertribal cross, forming eight monobaramins. In addition, species that do not hybridize directly, but hybridize with the same …


Paleo-Ontogenetic Growth Curves: Evidence For Extreme Past Animal Longevity?, Leo Hebert Iii Dec 2023

Paleo-Ontogenetic Growth Curves: Evidence For Extreme Past Animal Longevity?, Leo Hebert Iii

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

One of the Bible's most ridiculed claims is its assertion that pre-Flood and immediate post-Flood humans experienced lifespans of hundreds of years. Hence, the ability to partially corroborate the Bible's claim in this regard should be of great interest to creation researchers. Paleontologists have within the last two decades become increasingly interested in using growth rings recorded in fossil forms to make inferences about past growth rates, sizes, and lifespans. Examination of these growth rings suggest that some creatures in the pre-Flood world matured quite slowly compared to similar extant forms. Also, multiple studies have shown that slower development and …


A Novel Software For Organelle Genome-Based Baraminology Studies, Matthew Cserhati Dec 2023

A Novel Software For Organelle Genome-Based Baraminology Studies, Matthew Cserhati

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Background

There are 24,165 organelle DNA sequences at the Organelle Genome webpage at the NCBI website, as of June 19, 2022. Of these, 14,799 are mitochondrial genomes and 8,050 are chloroplast genomes. Since organelle genomes are very small and very abundant within the cell, they are easy to isolate and sequence. This means that there is a very large number of organelle genome data available for baraminologists to explore and analyze. Using organelle genomes is a quick way to map a large number of species to their respective baramins in preliminary baraminology studies.

The first mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies in …


New Analyses Suggest That All Horses (Perissodactyla: Equidae) Belong To A Single Holobaramin, Timothy R. Brophy, Jack R. Gregory Dec 2023

New Analyses Suggest That All Horses (Perissodactyla: Equidae) Belong To A Single Holobaramin, Timothy R. Brophy, Jack R. Gregory

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The horse family (Perissodactyla: Equidae) is composed of approximately 35 genera, primarily extinct forms from Cenozoic sediments, that include the modern genus Equus. The equids, along with some other extinct perissodactyls (e.g., palaeotheriids) form the superfamily (or clade) Equoidea. Our previous research confirmed the conclusions of several other baraminological analyses that all members of the horse family belong to the same monobaramin. No baraminological studies, however, have detected consistent discontinuity between the horses and any outgroup taxa. The goal of this study is to investigate potential discontinuity and holobaraminic status of horses and other similar taxa using new datasets …


Messages In The Genetic Code: The Dram Form, John M. Demassa Dec 2023

Messages In The Genetic Code: The Dram Form, John M. Demassa

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Does the Genetic code contain non-structural information or even intelligible messages? The present work offers a mathematical investigation of the genetic code using a novel numeric procedure applied to both nucleobases and amino acids found in standard code tables. The numeric two step procedure amounts to an atom count of all the atoms in standard genetic code tables and shall be called Compound Numeric Triangulation. The first step called Compound Numeric Indexing (CNI) converts the DNA codon table (purines and pyrimidines),the RNA codon table (purines and pyrimidines) and the 20 standard amino acids into representative index numbers. In this step, …


Molecular And Morphological Analyses Confirm That All Loons (Aves: Gaviiformes) Form A Single Holobaramin, Timothy R. Brophy, Mary-Clark A. Matthews, Mckayla M. Guillory, Alexis M. Ramerth Dec 2023

Molecular And Morphological Analyses Confirm That All Loons (Aves: Gaviiformes) Form A Single Holobaramin, Timothy R. Brophy, Mary-Clark A. Matthews, Mckayla M. Guillory, Alexis M. Ramerth

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Loons or divers (Aves: Gaviiformes), a group of waterbirds found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, are comprised of several extinct taxa as well as an extant family (Gaviidae) with one genus (Gavia) and five species. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the Sphenisciformes (penguins) and Procellariiformes (petrels, albatrosses, and shearwaters) form a sister group to the loons. Our previous research, based on hybridization, morphological, and vocalization data, found that all extant loons form a single holobaramin (i.e., created kind). This previous study, however, was inconclusive as to the membership of fossil taxa within the kind. The goal of the …


The Exquisite Design Of Somatic Hypermutation To Enhance Antibody Diversity, Binding Affinity And Self-Tolerance, Frank Maas Dec 2023

The Exquisite Design Of Somatic Hypermutation To Enhance Antibody Diversity, Binding Affinity And Self-Tolerance, Frank Maas

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody genes is commonly cited as preeminent evidence of the Darwinian “survival of the fittest” in nature. Just as SHM generates antibodies with the strongest binding affinity through a process of random mutation and selection in somatic cells of an individual, the same process occurring in germ cells on a population level can result in macroevolution according to proponents of the latter theory. Although SHM appears to produce point mutations randomly, such mutations are actually generated by a well-designed intricate mechanism contributing to species preservation. Non-random characteristics of SHM are summarized as well as recent findings …


Microplastics, Macro-Problems: Abundance Of Man-Made Materials In The Waters And Sediments Of Florida State Parks, Luciana M. Banquero, Kate Mclendon, Andres Alatorre, Mackenzie Daniels, Savanna Freeman, Cassidy Starke, Katherine Harris, Sidney J. Busch Dec 2023

Microplastics, Macro-Problems: Abundance Of Man-Made Materials In The Waters And Sediments Of Florida State Parks, Luciana M. Banquero, Kate Mclendon, Andres Alatorre, Mackenzie Daniels, Savanna Freeman, Cassidy Starke, Katherine Harris, Sidney J. Busch

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Man-made materials (MMM) are pollutants introduced to the environment by human activity. Microplastics (MP) are a type of MMM that threaten living organisms through bioaccumulation. The term MMM also encompasses pollutants produced from natural materials, such as rayon and microfibrillated cellulose, which are used in food packaging. This study aims to determine the extent of MMM pollution within estuaries in two of Florida’s state parks, as well as the effectiveness of using restored vegetation on shorelines to reduce MMM pollution. Tomoka State Park and Gamble Rogers State Park were selected at the request of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. …


Determining The Extent Of Pioneer Mangrove Acidification On Intertidal Oyster Reefs, Cindy Whitten, Andres Alatorre, Nicole Campbell, Savanna Freeman, Sydney Henderson, Kate Mclendon, Connor Wright, June Davison, Madison Ganci, Katherine Harris Dec 2023

Determining The Extent Of Pioneer Mangrove Acidification On Intertidal Oyster Reefs, Cindy Whitten, Andres Alatorre, Nicole Campbell, Savanna Freeman, Sydney Henderson, Kate Mclendon, Connor Wright, June Davison, Madison Ganci, Katherine Harris

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) stretches 251 kilometers along Florida’s east coast and is one of the most biodiverse estuaries in North America. Mosquito Lagoon, the northernmost portion of the IRL, is home to mangroves and intertidal oyster reefs that provide numerous ecosystem services. These two habitats are overlapping as climate change drives mangroves poleward. Scientists have documented mangrove expansion and the transition of oyster reef habitat to mangrove islands. Past studies have shown large, adult mangrove stands drive soil acidification. The goal of this study was to understand if stand-alone, or pioneer, Rhizophora mangle (red mangroves) and Avicennia germinans …


Modeling A Parkinson’S Disease Like State In Zebrafish Larvae Utilizing 6-Hydroxydopamine, Adrian Romero Dec 2023

Modeling A Parkinson’S Disease Like State In Zebrafish Larvae Utilizing 6-Hydroxydopamine, Adrian Romero

Biology Theses

Parkinson's’ disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons that currently has no cure. It is primarily characterized in patients by motor symptoms that include but are not limited to: tremor at rest, rigidity, akinesia, and postural instability affecting the quality of life for over 8.5 million people worldwide. The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been used to induce a Parkinson’s disease-like state in several animal models; however, assessment of 6-OHDA use in zebrafish demonstrated a lack of consensus on method and utility. We determined an optimized protocol utilizing 6-OHDA to produce a PD-like …


Molecular Baraminology Of Marine And Freshwater Fish, Matthew Cserhati Dec 2023

Molecular Baraminology Of Marine And Freshwater Fish, Matthew Cserhati

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Background

How did freshwater and saltwater fish survive the Flood? Is it even possible for fish to adapt rapidly between saltwater and freshwater? What kind of biological mechanism make this process possible? What is the distribution of freshwater and saltwater fish species in different fish baramins?

Erosion and volcanic activity would have made the post-Flood waters saltier than the pre-Flood waters. Species richness in freshwater is currently estimated to be 14 times greater than in saltwater (Carrete Vega and Wiens, 2012), and the approximate number of freshwater and saltwater fish is about the same: around 15,000 (Seehausen and Wagner, 2014). …


Hominin Baraminology Reconsidered With Postcranial Characters, Todd Charles Wood, P. S. Brummel Dec 2023

Hominin Baraminology Reconsidered With Postcranial Characters, Todd Charles Wood, P. S. Brummel

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Statistical baraminology studies of the fossil hominins began in 2010 with a provocative paper that identified a tentative holobaramin of humans that included such surprising taxa as Homo habilis and Australopithecus sediba. Subsequent research on Homo naledi reinforced the membership of this holobaramin, and recent studies with an expanded dataset and additional clustering methods also confirmed the original results. Nevertheless, the last decade of research has focused almost entirely on craniodental characteristics, which fall short of the holistic ideal of baraminology research. Past work with postcranial characters suffered from a small sample size, a small number of characters, and …


A Review Of Crs Ekinds Predictive Success And Known Genetic Mechanisms Affecting The Prevalence Of Alleles In A Population: Meiotic Drive As A Competing Explanation For Patterns Attributed To Natural Selection, Jean K. Lightner Dec 2023

A Review Of Crs Ekinds Predictive Success And Known Genetic Mechanisms Affecting The Prevalence Of Alleles In A Population: Meiotic Drive As A Competing Explanation For Patterns Attributed To Natural Selection, Jean K. Lightner

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

I propose a full paper the begins by introducing the Creation Research Society’s eKINDS (examination of kinds in natural diversification and speciation) project. Then, I will narrow the focus to one key topic of this initiative: finding the mechanisms that underly the rapid diversification and speciation evident in various created kinds of creatures as they reproduced and filled the earth. This can be divided into two categories: (1) the origin of alleles and (2) factors affecting the frequencies of those alleles, especially in the context of adaptation. In the standard neo-Darwinian paradigm, random mutation is claimed to account for the …


A Preliminary Evaluation Of Ape Baramins, P. S. Brummel, Todd Charles Wood Dec 2023

A Preliminary Evaluation Of Ape Baramins, P. S. Brummel, Todd Charles Wood

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Creationists sometimes casually refer to “the ape baramin” as a distinction from human beings, but careful examinations of primate and ape baramins have been rare. Walker places 279 species of primates into 77 genera and 15 families, ranging from the large Cercopithecidae family with 21 genera and 96 species to the tiny lemuroid Daubentoniidae with just two species. Previous creationist analysis has proposed eight families as holobaramins: Galagonidae, Picrodontidae, Plesiadapidae, Lemuridae, Lepilemuridae, Carpolestidae, Omomyidae, and Cebidae. Based on hybridization, we can recognize Cercopithecidae as a monobaramin. None of those proposed baramins are great apes. Within the Hominoidea, analyses have offered …


Allometric And Metabolic Scaling: Arguments For Design... And Clues To Explaining Pre-Flood Longevity?, Leo Hebert Iii Dec 2023

Allometric And Metabolic Scaling: Arguments For Design... And Clues To Explaining Pre-Flood Longevity?, Leo Hebert Iii

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Within the creationist community, there has been recent interest in applying engineering principles to the study of living things. Engineers routinely attempt to maximize certain qualities, such as efficiency and durability, while minimizing others, such as cost of construction, within certain design limits or constraints. Biologists have long suspected that living things are in some sense “optimized” and there is a long history of attempting to understand biological systems in terms of this optimization. This is strong prima facie evidence of intelligent design, yet evolutionists attribute this optimization to evolution and natural selection.

Biological optimization is closely related to allometry, …


Testing The Cavefish Model: An Organism-Focused Theory Of Biological Design, Michael J. Boyle, Brian Thomas, Jeffery P. Tomkins, Randy J. Guliuzza Dec 2023

Testing The Cavefish Model: An Organism-Focused Theory Of Biological Design, Michael J. Boyle, Brian Thomas, Jeffery P. Tomkins, Randy J. Guliuzza

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The significance of this research is multifaceted. At the 8th ICC, Guliuzza and Gaskill (2018) introduced a novel paradigm: Continuous Environmental Tracking (CET). This theory infers that organisms actively and continuously track conditions within their specific environments to self-adjust through internal mechanisms that integrate molecular, biochemical, physiological and behavioral functionality of the whole organism. These mechanisms are predicted to operate by the same integrative principles that govern human-engineered control systems, suggesting that fish and other animals make highly-regulated responses in order to compensate for changes in external conditions that may exceed their routine efforts to maintain homeostasis. Moreover, the …


Genealogical Vs Phylogenetic Mutation Rates: Answering A Challenge, Robert Carter Dec 2023

Genealogical Vs Phylogenetic Mutation Rates: Answering A Challenge, Robert Carter

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

There is a discrepancy between the mutation rate we can measure today and the rate at which evolution is supposed to have proceeded. The former is sometimes called the genealogical mutation rate, for it is obtained by comparing individuals whom we know to be related. The latter is sometimes called the phylogenetic mutation rate. It is calculated by counting the fixed differences between two species and dividing by the estimated time since their common ancestor. Genealogical mutation rates are generally several orders of magnitude faster than phylogenetic estimates. This causes problems for the evolutionary model. For example, using the genealogical …


A Creation Model Of Design: Application Of An Interface Systems Model In Key Global Symbiotic Relationships, Tom Hennigan, Randy Guliuzza, Matthew E. Ingle, Grace Lansdell Dec 2023

A Creation Model Of Design: Application Of An Interface Systems Model In Key Global Symbiotic Relationships, Tom Hennigan, Randy Guliuzza, Matthew E. Ingle, Grace Lansdell

Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Philosophical naturalists explain the origins of symbiotic relationships through initial random natural processes of evolution as these relationships evolved, and co-evolved through struggle and competition in simple organisms. This led to greater complexity and cooperation through system self-organization. We propose a new young-age creation model for the origin of symbioses using human engineered interface systems as analogues for understanding and describing globally important symbiotic mutual, commensal, and parasitic relationships. The relationships we will investigate in detail include, but are not limited to, mycorrhizae, nitrogen fixation, lichens, key parasites, and commensals (though commensal relationships are not fully understood). An interface model …


Determining The Effects Of Glycocalyx Modifications On The Electrophysical Properties Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rominna E. Valentine Ico Dec 2023

Determining The Effects Of Glycocalyx Modifications On The Electrophysical Properties Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rominna E. Valentine Ico

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have gained popularity in clinical trials due to their multipotent differentiation characteristics, ability to secrete bioactive molecules, migrate into diseased or damaged tissues, and their immunosuppressive properties. HMSC cultures are heterogeneous, containing stem cells, partially differentiated progenitor cells, and fully differentiated cells. One of the major challenges with hMSCs therapeutic potential is the inability to select specific cell subpopulations due to an insufficient number of biomarkers. Often the biomarkers used, like those for fluorescence-activated cell sorting, are not sufficient to define hMSCs because they overlap with other cell types. Consequently, there is a need to …


Geographic Variation In Blue Orchard Bee (Osmia Lignaria) Development And Performance As A Managed Pollinator In The Western United States, Morgan B. Scalici Dec 2023

Geographic Variation In Blue Orchard Bee (Osmia Lignaria) Development And Performance As A Managed Pollinator In The Western United States, Morgan B. Scalici

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Most flowering plants, including many cultivated food crops, will only produce well-developed fruits and seeds if pollen is transferred from one flower to another with the help of an animal pollinator. Honey bees are the most well-known and ubiquitous but are poor pollinators of some commercially important crops, or are in poor supply during crop bloom. In such cases, farmers will employ other managed pollinators such as bumble bees or solitary bees like mason and leafcutting bees. The blue orchard bee is North America's most agriculturally important native mason bee as effective pollinators of spring-blooming fruit crops. Differences in developmental …


Phenology Of The Invasive Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges Piceae (Ratz.) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), On Subalpine Fir In Northern Utah, Elizabeth L. Rideout Dec 2023

Phenology Of The Invasive Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges Piceae (Ratz.) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), On Subalpine Fir In Northern Utah, Elizabeth L. Rideout

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) is an invasive true fir pest in North America. Native to Europe, BWA was first discovered in Utah attacking subalpine fir in 2017. Recent BWA-caused subalpine fir mortality in northern Utah has prompted the need for baseline biological research to support pest management. Small-bodied and blending easily with its environment, BWA is a challenging pest to detect and study. Phenology, or the timing and characteristics of life stages through the year, of BWA varies depending on elevation and climate and is unstudied in Utah. This research focuses on defining aspects of BWA’s phenology, including the number …


The Impacts Of Maturation And Experience On Volumetric Neuroplasticity In Solitary And Social Bees, Mallory A. Hagadorn Dec 2023

The Impacts Of Maturation And Experience On Volumetric Neuroplasticity In Solitary And Social Bees, Mallory A. Hagadorn

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Fall 2023 to Present

Some animals are incredibly social, living and working together as one cohesive group. Alternatively, many animals are solitary, never living with and rarely interacting with others. A large body of biological research has focused on understanding the role that brains play in promoting these behavioral differences across species. Even so, it remains unclear why some brains facilitate social behavior while others do not. My dissertation aims to advance our understanding of this concept by characterizing bees’ brains and how they change over a lifetime. Bees are beneficial for investigating relationships between the brain and social behavior because some species are …


First Genomic Resource For An Endangered Neotropical Mega-Herbivore: The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Of The Forest-Dweller (Baird's) Tapir (Tapirus Bairdii), Caroline C. Ennis Dec 2023

First Genomic Resource For An Endangered Neotropical Mega-Herbivore: The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Of The Forest-Dweller (Baird's) Tapir (Tapirus Bairdii), Caroline C. Ennis

Honors College Theses

Baird's tapir, or the Central American Tapir Tapirus bairdii (family Tapiridae), is one of the largest mammals native to the forests and wetlands of southern North America and Central America and is categorized as `endangered' on the 2014 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This study reports, for the first time, the complete mitochondrial genome of T. bairdii and examines the phylogenetic position of T. bairdii amongst closely related species in the same family and order to which it belongs using mitochondrial protein-coding genes (PCG's). The circular, double-stranded, A-T rich mitochondrial genome of T. bairdii is 16,697 bp in length …


Mesenchymal Stem Cells In The Treatment Of Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Erica Lang, Julie A. Semon Dec 2023

Mesenchymal Stem Cells In The Treatment Of Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Erica Lang, Julie A. Semon

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a Disease Caused by Mutations in Different Genes Resulting in Mild, Severe, or Lethal Forms. with No Cure, Researchers Have Investigated the Use of Cell Therapy to Correct the Underlying Molecular Defects of OI. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Are of Particular Interest Because of their Differentiation Capacity, Immunomodulatory Effects, and their Ability to Migrate to Sites of Damage. MSCs Can Be Isolated from Different Sources, Expanded in Culture, and Have Been Shown to Be Safe in Numerous Clinical Applications. This Review Summarizes the Preclinical and Clinical Studies of MSCs in the Treatment of OI. Altogether, the …


Phylogenomics Reveals The History Of Host Use In Mosquitoes, John Soghigan, Charles Sither, Silvia Andrade Justi, Gen Morinaga, Brian K. Cassel, Christopher J. Vitek, Todd P. Livdahl, Siyang Xia, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Jeffrey R. Powell, Thomas Zavortink, Christopher M. Hardy, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Lawrence E. Reeves, Richard C. Wilkerson, Robert R. Dunn, David K. Yeates, Maria Anice Sallum, Brian D. Byrd, Michelle D. Trautwein, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Michael H. Reiskind, Brian M. Wiegmann Dec 2023

Phylogenomics Reveals The History Of Host Use In Mosquitoes, John Soghigan, Charles Sither, Silvia Andrade Justi, Gen Morinaga, Brian K. Cassel, Christopher J. Vitek, Todd P. Livdahl, Siyang Xia, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Jeffrey R. Powell, Thomas Zavortink, Christopher M. Hardy, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Lawrence E. Reeves, Richard C. Wilkerson, Robert R. Dunn, David K. Yeates, Maria Anice Sallum, Brian D. Byrd, Michelle D. Trautwein, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Michael H. Reiskind, Brian M. Wiegmann

Biology

Mosquitoes have profoundly affected human history and continue to threaten human health through the transmission of a diverse array of pathogens. The phylogeny of mosquitoes has remained poorly characterized due to difficulty in taxonomic sampling and limited availability of genomic data beyond the most important vector species. Here, we used phylogenomic analysis of 709 single copy ortholog groups from 256 mosquito species to produce a strongly supported phylogeny that resolves the position of the major disease vector species and the major mosquito lineages. Our analyses support an origin of mosquitoes in the early Triassic (217 MYA [highest posterior density region: …


Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin Dec 2023

Impacts Of Environmental Stressors On Native South Dakota Amphibian Physiology And Survival, Danielle Jean Galvin

Dissertations and Theses

Amphibian populations around the world are declining, with some of the most likely drivers behind these declines including emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. To address major gaps in the current literature, I sought to evaluate the effect of two major environmental stressors on various aspects of amphibian physiology: emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. Emerging infectious diseases of amphibians include fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens which have expanded in host range, either geographically or in competent host species. Environmental contaminants include chemicals which may be naturally occurring in the environment, or which may be introduced to the environment, often …