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Improving The Accuracy Of Radiation Pneumonitis Dose Response Models, Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Improving The Accuracy Of Radiation Pneumonitis Dose Response Models, Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The prognosis for lung cancer patients remains poor. Five year survival rates have been reported to be 15%. Studies have shown that dose escalation to the tumor can lead to better local control and subsequently better overall survival. However, dose to lung tumor is limited by normal tissue toxicity. The most prevalent thoracic toxicity is radiation pneumonitis. In order to determine a safe dose that can be delivered to the healthy lung, researchers have turned to mathematical models predicting the rate of radiation pneumonitis. However, these models rely on simple metrics based on the dose-volume histogram and are not yet …


Water Ice Films In Cryogenic Vacuum Chambers, Jesse Michael Labello 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Water Ice Films In Cryogenic Vacuum Chambers, Jesse Michael Labello

Doctoral Dissertations

The space simulation chambers at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) allow for the testing and calibration of seeker sensors in cryogenic, high vacuum environments. During operation of these chambers, contaminant films can form on the components in the chamber and disrupt operation. Although these contaminant films can be composed of many molecular species, depending on the species outgassed by warm chamber components and any leaks or virtual leaks (pockets of gas trapped within a vacuum chamber) that may be present, water vapor is most common, and it will be the focus of this dissertation. In this dissertation, some properties of …


Fast Super-Resolution With Affine Motion Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter And Its Application To Airborne Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Raúl Ordóñez 2011 University of Dayton

Fast Super-Resolution With Affine Motion Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter And Its Application To Airborne Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Raúl Ordóñez

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Fast nonuniform interpolation based super-resolution (SR) has traditionally been limited to applications with translational interframe motion. This is in part because such methods are based on an underlying assumption that the warping and blurring components in the observation model commute. For translational motion this is the case, but it is not true in general. This presents a problem for applications such as airborne imaging where translation may be insufficient. Here we present a new Fourier domain analysis to show that, for many image systems, an affine warping model with limited zoom and shear approximately commutes with the point spread function …


The Role Of Cell Sterilization In Population Based Studies Of Radiogenic Second Cancers Following Radiation Therapy, Annelise Giebeler 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Role Of Cell Sterilization In Population Based Studies Of Radiogenic Second Cancers Following Radiation Therapy, Annelise Giebeler

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Advances in radiotherapy have generated increased interest in comparative studies of treatment techniques and their effectiveness. In this respect, pediatric patients are of specific interest because of their sensitivity to radiation induced second cancers. However, due to the rarity of childhood cancers and the long latency of second cancers, large sample sizes are unavailable for the epidemiological study of contemporary radiotherapy treatments. Additionally, when specific treatments are considered, such as proton therapy, sample sizes are further reduced due to the rareness of such treatments. We propose a method to improve statistical power in micro clinical trials. Specifically, we use a …


The Singular Perturbation In The Analysis Of Mode I Fracture Based Upon A New Multiscale Theory, Kai-Bin Fu 2011 Prairie View A&M University

The Singular Perturbation In The Analysis Of Mode I Fracture Based Upon A New Multiscale Theory, Kai-Bin Fu

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

A theory of fracture is presented that is based upon an extension of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale fracture through the incorporation of long-range intermolecular forces which correct bulk material descriptions near interfaces. To be consistent with the literature, constant surface energies are assigned to interfaces. In the analysis of mode I fracture for quasi-brittle material, it is observed that the incorporation of these long-range intermolecular forces predicts sharp fracture tip rather than blunt and avoids stress singularity. The details of the singular perturbation employed in this analysis are also presented.


Reflection Of Waves In Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Solid, Raj R. Gupta 2011 M. M. University

Reflection Of Waves In Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Solid, Raj R. Gupta

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

The main objective of the present paper is to study the propagation of waves in the transversely isotropic medium in the context of thermoelasticity with GN theory of type-II and III. By imposing the boundary conditions on the components of displacement, stresses and temperature distribution, wave equation have been solved. Numerically simulated results have been plotted graphically with respect to frequency to evince the effect of anisotropy. Keywords: Thermoelasticity, transversely isotropic, reflection, plane wave AMS 2010 No.: 74JXX, 74F, 74B, 80A. 1. Introduction In last three decades, non-classical theories involving finite speed of heat transportation in elastic solids have been …


A New Algorithm For Solving Shortest Path Problem On A Network With Imprecise Edge Weight, Amit Kumar, Manjot Kumar 2011 Thapar University

A New Algorithm For Solving Shortest Path Problem On A Network With Imprecise Edge Weight, Amit Kumar, Manjot Kumar

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

Nayeem and Pal (Shortest path problem on a network with imprecise edge weight, Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making 4, 293-312, 2005) proposed a new algorithm for solving shortest path problem on a network with imprecise edge weight. In this paper the shortcomings of the existing algorithm, (Nayeem and Pal, 2005) are pointed out and to overcome these shortcomings a new algorithm is proposed. To show the advantages of the proposed algorithm over existing algorithm the numerical examples presented in (Nayeem and Pal, 2005) are solved using the proposed algorithm and obtained results are discussed.


Quantitative Comparison Of Late Effects Following Photon Versus Proton External-Beam Radiation Therapies: Toward An Evidence-Based Approach To Selecting A Treatment Modality, Rui Zhang 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Quantitative Comparison Of Late Effects Following Photon Versus Proton External-Beam Radiation Therapies: Toward An Evidence-Based Approach To Selecting A Treatment Modality, Rui Zhang

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Radiation therapy has been used as an effective treatment for malignancies in pediatric patients. However, in many cases, the side effects of radiation diminish these patients’ quality of life. In order to develop strategies to minimize radiogenic complications, one must first quantitatively estimate pediatric patients’ relative risk for radiogenic late effects, which has not become feasible till recently because of the calculational complexity. The goals of this work were to calculate the dose delivered to tissues and organs in pediatric patients during contemporary photon and proton radiotherapies; to estimate the corresponding risk of radiogenic second cancer and cardiac toxicity based …


Evaluation Of Deformable Image Registration For Improved 4d Ct-Derived Ventilation For Image Guided Radiotherapy, Richard Castillo 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Evaluation Of Deformable Image Registration For Improved 4d Ct-Derived Ventilation For Image Guided Radiotherapy, Richard Castillo

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Recent treatment planning studies have demonstrated the use of physiologic images in radiation therapy treatment planning to identify regions for functional avoidance. This image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) strategy may reduce the injury and/or functional loss following thoracic radiotherapy. 4D computed tomography (CT), developed for radiotherapy treatment planning, is a relatively new imaging technique that allows the acquisition of a time-varying sequence of 3D CT images of the patient's lungs through the respiratory cycle. Guerrero et al. developed a method to calculate ventilation imaging from 4D CT, which is potentially better suited and more broadly available for IGRT than the current standard …


High Power Systems For Dynamic Field Control And Shielding In The Mr Environment, Dustin W. Haw 2011 The University of Western Ontario

High Power Systems For Dynamic Field Control And Shielding In The Mr Environment, Dustin W. Haw

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis addresses several aspects of gradient and shim coil design and fabrication. New design techniques are coupled with experimental construction methods to expand small animal insert gradient and shim technology. The design techniques are also applied to other areas of magnetic resonance hardware.

A custom 2-axis gradient insert coil is designed and fabricated for the purpose of eddy current characterization. The construction tolerances were examined via bench top inductance measurements and eddy currents measurement inside a 7.0 T head-only MR system. A great deal of freedom is available when positioning shielding coils with respect to their corresponding primary coils …


Development In Physics Simulations With Gpu Architecture: Triumphs And Tribulations, Akito D. Kawamura 2011 University of Alabama in Huntsville

Development In Physics Simulations With Gpu Architecture: Triumphs And Tribulations, Akito D. Kawamura

Von Braun Symposium Student Posters

No abstract provided.


Paleomagnetism And Investigation Of 40 Ma Lavas, Liverpool Range, New South Whales, Australia, Nathan M. Padilla 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Paleomagnetism And Investigation Of 40 Ma Lavas, Liverpool Range, New South Whales, Australia, Nathan M. Padilla

Physics

The main focus of this project is the continued study of a reversal of the earth’s magnetic field recorded from lavas in the Liverpool Range of New South Whales, Australia. This reverse-to-normal transition, recently dated at ~40 Ma, was first reported in Nature in 1986. [2] In March 2011 some 200+ cores were drilled from several sections about the volcanic range—Jemmy’s Creek, Bald Hill, Rock Creek, Yarraman, and Coolah Tops Road. Here we focus on paleomagnetic findings from samples drilled from the most extensive section, that being along the trail near Jemmy’s Creek. Results from alternating field demagnetization show the …


A Model Of So-Called "Zebra" Emissions In Solar Flare Radio Burst Continua, R. A. Treumann, R. Nakamura, W. Baumjohann 2011 Dartmouth College

A Model Of So-Called "Zebra" Emissions In Solar Flare Radio Burst Continua, R. A. Treumann, R. Nakamura, W. Baumjohann

Dartmouth Scholarship

A simple mechanism for the generation of elec- tromagnetic “Zebra” pattern emissions is proposed. “Zebra” bursts are regularly spaced narrow-band radio emissions on the otherwise broadband radio continuum emitted by the ac- tive solar corona. The mechanism is based on the generation of an ion-ring distribution in a magnetic mirror geometry in the presence of a properly directed field-aligned electric po- tential field. Such ion-rings or ion-conics are well known from magnetospheric observations. Under coronal condi- tions they may become weakly relativistic. In this case the ion-cyclotron maser generates a number of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron harmonics which modulate the electron maser …


Ionic Alkalihalides As Pressure Media In Dac Experiments, Julius Monello 2011 Reed College

Ionic Alkalihalides As Pressure Media In Dac Experiments, Julius Monello

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

In Diamond Anvil Cells (DACs), usually a pressure transmitting medium functions to transform the uniaxial pressure supplied by the opposing diamond anvils into uniform hydrostatic pressure acting on the sample. Conventionally, a 4-1 methanol-ethanol solution, or a 16-3-1 methanol-ethanol-water solution is used as pressure transmitting medium. However, these two solutions transform into a glass with high elastic shear strength at pressures around 12-14 GPa and no longer function as hydrostatic medium. Our goal was to determine if liquid ionic alkalihalide alkanolate complexes will provide more uniform pressure in the cell up to 20 GPa. Ruby (Cr-doped AlP,) produces two Cr"+ …


The Development And Implementation Of An Anthropomorphic Head Phantom For The Assessment Of Proton Therapy Treatment Procedures, Paige A. Summers 2011 The University od Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Development And Implementation Of An Anthropomorphic Head Phantom For The Assessment Of Proton Therapy Treatment Procedures, Paige A. Summers

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Proton therapy has become an increasingly more common method of radiation therapy, with the dose sparing to distal tissue making it an appealing option, particularly for treatment of brain tumors. This study sought to develop a head phantom for the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), the first to be used for credentialing of institutions wishing to participate in clinical trials involving brain tumor treatment of proton therapy. It was hypothesized that a head phantom could be created for the evaluation of proton therapy treatment procedures (treatment simulation, planning, and delivery) to assure agreement between the measured dose and calculated dose within …


Exploring Methods For Earthquake Prediction: The Effects Of Water On The Flow Of Stress-Activated Electric Currents In Igneous Rocks, Aaron M. Jahoda, Friedemann T. Freund 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Exploring Methods For Earthquake Prediction: The Effects Of Water On The Flow Of Stress-Activated Electric Currents In Igneous Rocks, Aaron M. Jahoda, Friedemann T. Freund

STAR Program Research Presentations

Much of the devastation and damage of earthquakes can be attributed to the fact that they occur suddenly and without much warning, which limits the ability of people to evacuate and/or properly prepare. One method, however, that might be used to predict seismic events is the generation of electric currents in rocks when stresses are applied. It is observed in this research that the application of direct force onto samples of igneous rock causes the rocks to generate a measurable current, which is attributed to positive-hole charges moving within the oxygen sub-lattice. Because large and changing forces are acted upon …


Evaluation Of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (Imrt) Delivery Error Due To Imrt Treatment Plan Complexity And Improperly Matched Dosimetry Data, Jacqueline R. Tonigan 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Evaluation Of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (Imrt) Delivery Error Due To Imrt Treatment Plan Complexity And Improperly Matched Dosimetry Data, Jacqueline R. Tonigan

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a technique that delivers a highly conformal dose distribution to a target volume while attempting to maximally spare the surrounding normal tissues. IMRT is a common treatment modality used for treating head and neck (H&N) cancers, and the presence of many critical structures in this region requires accurate treatment delivery. The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) acts as both a remote and on-site quality assurance agency that credentials institutions participating in clinical trials. To date, about 30% of all IMRT participants have failed the RPC’s remote audit using the IMRT H&N phantom. The purpose …


Dual Energy Computed Tomography For Proton Therapy Treatment Planning, Ming Yang 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Dual Energy Computed Tomography For Proton Therapy Treatment Planning, Ming Yang

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Proton radiation therapy is gaining popularity because of the unique characteristics of its dose distribution, e.g., high dose-gradient at the distal end of the percentage-depth-dose curve (known as the Bragg peak). The high dose-gradient offers the possibility of delivering high dose to the target while still sparing critical organs distal to the target. However, the high dose-gradient is a double-edged sword: a small shift of the highly conformal high-dose area can cause the target to be substantially under-dosed or the critical organs to be substantially over-dosed. Because of that, large margins are required in treatment planning to ensure adequate dose …


Variable Renewable Energy In Modeling Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert J. Brecha, Gunnar Luderer, Patrick Sullivan, Eva Schmid, Nico Bauer, Diana Böttger 2011 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Variable Renewable Energy In Modeling Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert J. Brecha, Gunnar Luderer, Patrick Sullivan, Eva Schmid, Nico Bauer, Diana Böttger

Physics Faculty Publications

This paper addresses the issue of how to account for short‐term temporal variability of renewable energy sources and power demand in long‐term climate change mitigation scenarios in energy‐economic models. An approach that captures in a stylized way the major challenges to the integration of variable renewable energy sources into power systems has been developed. As a first application this approach has been introduced to REMIND‐D, a hybrid energy‐economy model of Germany. An approximation of the residual load duration curve is implemented. The approximating function endogenously changes depending on the penetration and mix of variable renewable power. The approach can thus …


Super-Resolution For Imagery From Integrated Microgrid Polarimeters, Russell C. Hardie, Daniel A. LeMaster, Bradley Michael Ratliff 2011 University of Dayton

Super-Resolution For Imagery From Integrated Microgrid Polarimeters, Russell C. Hardie, Daniel A. Lemaster, Bradley Michael Ratliff

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Imagery from microgrid polarimeters is obtained by using a mosaic of pixel-wise micropolarizers on a focal plane array (FPA). Each distinct polarization image is obtained by subsampling the full FPA image. Thus, the effective pixel pitch for each polarization channel is increased and the sampling frequency is decreased. As a result, aliasing artifacts from such undersampling can corrupt the true polarization content of the scene. Here we present the first multi-channel multi-frame super-resolution (SR) algorithms designed specifically for the problem of image restoration in microgrid polarization imagers. These SR algorithms can be used to address aliasing and other degradations, without …


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