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Superfluid Spin Transistor, Edward Schwartz, Bo Li, Alexey Kovalev 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Superfluid Spin Transistor, Edward Schwartz, Bo Li, Alexey Kovalev

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We propose to use the Hall response of topological defects, such as merons and antimerons, to spin currents in two-dimensional magnetic insulator with in-plane anisotropy for identification of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in a transistorlike geometry. Our numerical results relying on a combination of Monte Carlo and spin dynamics simulations show transition from spin superfluidity to conventional spin transport, accompanied by the universal jump of the spin stiffness and exponential growth of the transverse vorticity current. We propose a superfluid spin transistor in which the spin and vorticity currents are modulated by changes in density of free topological defects, e.g., …


Collective Motion And Phase Diagram Of Self-Propelled Vibrated Hard Squares, Zhejun Shen 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Collective Motion And Phase Diagram Of Self-Propelled Vibrated Hard Squares, Zhejun Shen

Doctoral Dissertations

In equilibrium, matter condenses into ordered phases due to the combined effects of inter-particle interactions and entropy. In this dissertation, we explore the self-propulsion of particles as an additional nonequilibrium consideration in the mechanisms for ordering. Our experiments employ square-shaped hard particles; in equilibrium, when particle motions are randomly directed, squares form entropically-stabilized phases in which first their orientations, and then their positions, get locked in relative to each other, depending on the density of coverage. When the square tiles are modified to have small propulsion along some body-fixed axis we find that their tendency to order is profoundly altered. …


Electrical And Mechanical Properties Of Polymer Nanocomposites, Nuwansiri N.K. Getangama 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Electrical And Mechanical Properties Of Polymer Nanocomposites, Nuwansiri N.K. Getangama

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis consists of three projects concerning the electrical and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites. We study the effect of nanoscale filler particles on the polymer dynamics at different length and time scales. In the first study, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) nanocomposites with a MWCNT concentration ranging from 0 to 5 wt\% were prepared by both melt-mixing and twin-screw extrusion. Their electrical properties were studied over a wide range of frequency and temperature using a dielectric spectrometer. A percolation transition is observed at which the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increases by several orders of magnitude. The percolation …


Magnetism Of Novel Rare-Earth-Free Intermetallic Compounds, Haohan Wang 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Magnetism Of Novel Rare-Earth-Free Intermetallic Compounds, Haohan Wang

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

Rare-earth-free magnets have drawn lots of interest because of their low cost, and the production is not limited by the shortage of rare-earth elements. This dissertation focuses on three rare-earth-free materials, Fe-Co-Ti alloys, Fe-Ni-B alloys, and Co-Si. All of them are synthesized by arc melting followed by melt-spinning. Fe3+xCo3−xTi2 (x = 0, 2, 3) alloys exhibit hexagonal crystal structures and show non-collinear spin structures according to neutron diffraction. The magnetic moments have projections on both the c-axis and basal plane, and the corresponding misalignment angle exhibits a nonlinear decrease with …


Phase Transitions, Critical Phenomena, And Correlation Functions In The 2d Ising Model And Its Applications To Quantum Dynamics: A Tensor Network Approach, Sankhya Basu 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phase Transitions, Critical Phenomena, And Correlation Functions In The 2d Ising Model And Its Applications To Quantum Dynamics: A Tensor Network Approach, Sankhya Basu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis explores several aspects of the 2D Ising Model at both real and complex temperatures utilizing tensor network algorithms. We briefly discuss the importance of tensor networks in the context of forming efficient representations of wavefunctions and partition functions for quantum and classical many-body systems respectively, followed by a brief review of the tensor network renormalization algorithms to compute the one point and two point correlation functions. We use the Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) to study critical phenomena and examine feasibility of accurate estimations of universal critical data for three critical points for three critical points in two dimensions …


Optical Studies Of Wide Bandgap Photonic Materials, Nikesh Maharjan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Optical Studies Of Wide Bandgap Photonic Materials, Nikesh Maharjan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation work, optical properties of wide bandgap materials such as hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have been studied. Deep UV photoluminescence spectroscopy was employed to study the optical properties of bulk h-BN and powder crystals using a laser of wavelength 200 nm, which is the fourth harmonic of Ti:Sapphire laser as excitation source. The properties and chemical compositions of annealed and unannealed bulk h-BN were investigated. The PL spectra from h-BN samples annealed at 900 ºC in ambient air, had strong phonon assisted band edge emissions along with a sharp atomic-like emission line at 4.09 …


Investigation Of Topological Phonons In Acoustic Metamaterials, Wenting Cheng 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Investigation Of Topological Phonons In Acoustic Metamaterials, Wenting Cheng

Dissertations

Topological acoustics is a recent and intense area of research. It merges the knowledge of mathematical topology, condensed matter physics, and acoustics. At the same time, it has been pointed out that quasiperiodicity can greatly enhance the periodic table of topological systems. Because quasiperiodic patterns have an intrinsic global degree of freedom, which exists in the topological space called the hull of a pattern, where the shape traced in this topological space is called the phason. The hull augments the physical space, which opens a door to the physics of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) in arbitrary dimensions. In …


Correlations Between The Rotations And Magnetospheres Of The Terrestrial Planets And The Sun's Formation In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu 2022 CUNY Queens College

Correlations Between The Rotations And Magnetospheres Of The Terrestrial Planets And The Sun's Formation In Our Solar System, Fred J. Cadieu

Publications and Research

Correlations between the rotations of the terrestrial planets in our solar system and the magnetic field of the Sun have been previously noted. These correlations account for the opposite rotation of Venus as a result of the magnetic field of the Sun being dragged across the conducting core of Venus. Currently the Sun’s magnetic field is not sufficiently strong to account for the proposed correlations. But recently meteorite paleomagnetism measurements have indicated that during the Sun’s formation the magnetic field of the Sun was of sufficient strength to have resulted in the observed correlations. As a part of these correlations …


The Interaction Of Topological Defects In Anisotropically-Elastic Nematic Liquid Crystals, Carter J. Swift 2022 Macalester College

The Interaction Of Topological Defects In Anisotropically-Elastic Nematic Liquid Crystals, Carter J. Swift

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Topological defects are very well understood so long as the medium in which they exist is isotropically-elastic. They lead to director fields which are easy to calculate and superpose linearly so that a system with any number of defects is analytically treatable. They also have an interaction which is simple in form and can be accurately described by the Peach-Koehler force. In an anisotropically-elastic medium, however, such defects are very poorly understood outside of the single-defect case which was solved by Dzyaloshinskii. In this project, numerical and approximate analytical techniques are applied in order to better understand the interaction between …


Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Simulation Of Ultrafast Experiments, Alpha Ma 2022 Macalester College

Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Simulation Of Ultrafast Experiments, Alpha Ma

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method is a numerical method that calculates electric fields or magnetic fields by interleaving them in space and time. Using a python package called “MEEP”, I was able to write optical simulations of ultrafast experiments, especially the Terahertz Pump-Probe experiments. The goal of this project was to use FDTD simulation to measure the transmission of an electro-magnetic pulse passing through a thin film of conducting material on a dielectric substrate in order to study the characteristic conductivity of potential solar cell materials.


Approaching Quantum-Limited Electrometry In The Single-Photon Regime, Sisira Kanhirathingal 2022 Dartmouth College

Approaching Quantum-Limited Electrometry In The Single-Photon Regime, Sisira Kanhirathingal

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Mesoscopic quantum systems currently serve as essential building blocks in many quantum information and metrology devices. This thesis investigates the potential of quantum-limited detection in a mesoscopic electrometer named the cavity-embedded Cooper pair transistor (cCPT). As one application, this charge detector can act as the basis for an optomechanical system in the single-photon strong coupling regime. The realization of this scheme would entail near quantum-limited, ultra-sensitive electrometry at the single-photon level, the feasibility of which is studied at length in this thesis.

On the one hand, we approach this question using a fundamental, first-principles study, where an operator scattering model …


Emergent Phenomenon In Jeff=1/2 Iridate, Junyi Yang 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Emergent Phenomenon In Jeff=1/2 Iridate, Junyi Yang

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent work on various quantum materials has led to fruitful result including unconventional magnetic states, topological properties, and exotic emergent phenomenon. High Tc superconductivity is one of the prominent properties discovered in quantum materials like strong correlated systems. Though the efforts on understanding this exotic behavior have lasted for years, the mechanism remains elusive owing to the many-body nature of the system and the research scope limitation within cuprates. Recent unravel of Jeff=1/2 state in the iridate square lattice offers alternative to study the complicated many body physics and potentially achieve high Tc superconductivity. In addition, …


Ab Initio Studies Of Structure And Properties Of Group-Iv Monochalcogenide Monolayers, Shiva Prasad Poudel 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ab Initio Studies Of Structure And Properties Of Group-Iv Monochalcogenide Monolayers, Shiva Prasad Poudel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation is to study the structure of ferroelectric group-IV monochalcogenide monolayers (MMLs) and their material properties. This work also established a new buckled honeycomb phase of these monolayers. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction where the motivation for these studies is established. In chapter 2, I used eight different exchange-correlation functionals (XC) to study the structure of these 2D ferroelectrics and found that their properties are independent of the choice of XC functionals. These findings reveal that the ground-state ferroelectric unit cell can be described by only five independent parameters, whereas their paraelectric (square or rectangular) …


Synthesis, Characterization, And Functionality Of Novel 2d Material Sn3p2, Cory Stephenson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Synthesis, Characterization, And Functionality Of Novel 2d Material Sn3p2, Cory Stephenson

Physics Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have gained a lot of attention due to their potential applications in devices and their promise to revolutionize technology. In our group, we are capable of synthesizing such materials and study their properties. I have discovered a new material of the tin-phosphorus family that displays the 2D layered structure and therefore shows potential to be used in future devices due to this reduced dimensionality from the typical three-dimensional counterpart. This 2D structure may allow for new phenomena to emerge as there is no longer any interatomic interactions along the z- axis. Under this motivation, …


Crystal Growth And Property Tuning Of Layered Magnetic Topological Semimetals, Krishna Pandey 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Crystal Growth And Property Tuning Of Layered Magnetic Topological Semimetals, Krishna Pandey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The demand for energy-efficient devices has been growing rapidly due to the need for data-driven technologies and the global energy crisis. As device size approaches the atomic scale, the miniaturization of electronic devices may stop in the near future unless fundamentally new materials or device concepts are developed. The emergent topological materials with exotic properties show remarkable robustness against crystal lattice defects, which are promising for next-generation technology. These materials host exotic properties such as high mobility, large magnetoresistance, chiral anomaly, and surface Fermi arcs, etc. Among various topological materials, the ZrSiS-family materials exhibit two types of Dirac states, which …


Towards Highly Sensitive Capacitance Measurements Of A Quantum Anomalous Hall Phase In Van Der Waal Heterostructures, Kayla Cerminara 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Towards Highly Sensitive Capacitance Measurements Of A Quantum Anomalous Hall Phase In Van Der Waal Heterostructures, Kayla Cerminara

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

One of the pioneering achievements in condensed matter physics of the 20th century is the observation of the quantum Hall e↵ect (QHE) in which the Hall resistance in a two-dimensional (2D) sample takes on quantized values in the presence of a strong perpendicular magnetic field. The precise quantization of the hall resistance to one part in a billion has provided a practical, worldwide resistance standard. A long-standing goal has been to realize a similar state of matter but without the need of a strong quantizing magnetic field. The quantum anomalous Hall e↵ect (QAHE) is such a state that is predicted …


Exploring Tunable Magnetization And High-Temperature Ferromagnetism In Ternary Transition Metal-Based Chalcogenides, Hector Iturriaga 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Exploring Tunable Magnetization And High-Temperature Ferromagnetism In Ternary Transition Metal-Based Chalcogenides, Hector Iturriaga

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The discovery of long-range magnetic ordering in ultrathin transition metal-based compounds shows great promise for the development of nanoscale memory and spintronic devices. Composed of cost-effective materials and boasting from strong chemical and thermal stability at low dimensions, van der Waals (vdW) ternary transition metal chalcogenide magnets like CrSiTe3 (CST), Fe2.7GeTe2 (FGT), and Mn3Si2Te6 (MST), provide not only possible energy solutions, but also a broad platform to explore the versatile magnetic character of this family of compounds. Although they have great potential, it has been found that their long-range magnetic ordering exists at temperatures far too low (the highest of …


Evolution Of The Magnetic Properties On Van Der Waals Layered Magnets Via Pressure And Proton Irradiation, Rubyann Olmos 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Evolution Of The Magnetic Properties On Van Der Waals Layered Magnets Via Pressure And Proton Irradiation, Rubyann Olmos

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Probing the magnetism in quasi two-dimensional materials has the potential in driving their properties towards future use in spin electronic based devices. Studying such layered magnets will enable the scientific community to uncover tunable exotic phases such as superconductivity, quantum paramagnetism, etc. This work examines the influence of two types of external perturbations, namely, the pressure and proton irradiation, on the magnetic properties of several compounds in the van der Waals crystal family.

Pressure has been found to induce structural and magnetic phase transitions in many of these materials. Using hydrostatic pressure as a disorderless approach to manipulate the interlayer …


Synthesis And Characterization Of Chiral Magnetic Oxide: Mnmoteo6, Chase Hames, August Meads 2022 Kennesaw State University

Synthesis And Characterization Of Chiral Magnetic Oxide: Mnmoteo6, Chase Hames, August Meads

Symposium of Student Scholars

The chiral materials lack mirror reflection symmetry in their crystal structures like right and left hands. Such materials often host unique non-collinear or topological magnetic textures such as magnetic skyrmions. If such magnetic textures are formed in insulating oxides with coupled electric and magnetic properties, then such magnetic structures can be controlled and manipulated using electric fields rather than electric current. With this motivation, we are synthesizing and characterizing chiral materials belonging to MMoTeO6 (M=Mn, Co, Fe, Cu, Ni) family. I will discuss about the phase formation and solid-state synthesis of MnTeMoO6 along with its structural, electrical and …


Exploring Magneto-Excitons In Bulk And Mono-Layer Semiconductors Using Non-Linear Spectroscopy Techniques, Varun Mapara 2022 University of South Florida

Exploring Magneto-Excitons In Bulk And Mono-Layer Semiconductors Using Non-Linear Spectroscopy Techniques, Varun Mapara

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The research in two-dimensional (2D) materials has evolved from ``traditional" quantum wells based on group III-V and II-VI semiconductors to atomically thin sheets of van der Waals materials such as 2D semiconducting Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs). These 2D materials remain a stimulating field that continues to introduce new challenges. From both a fundamental physics and technological perspective, magneto-optical spectroscopy has been an essential tool in this research field. TMDs, for example, pose the challenge of characterizing their spin-valley-resolved physics and deriving implications in quantum computation and information research. With the discovery of valley Zeeman effects, the spin-valley physics of TMDs …


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