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Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Evaluating The Success Of Compensatory Wetland Mitigation In The California Coastal Zone, Tommy Alexander 2020 The University of San Francisco

Evaluating The Success Of Compensatory Wetland Mitigation In The California Coastal Zone, Tommy Alexander

Master's Projects and Capstones

Compensatory mitigation is a practice whereby a government agency requires the creation, restoration, enhancement, or preservation of ecological resources to offset unavoidable adverse impacts to environmentally sensitive habitat caused by some form of development. Compensatory wetland mitigation programs have slowed the rate of wetland loss in California and elsewhere, but they have largely failed to offset impacts with a sufficient amount of functional mitigation acreage. In California, more than 90% of the state’s historical wetlands have been drained, diked, filled, or dredged over the past 100 years. This report evaluates the success of compensatory wetland mitigation required by the ...


The Olympia Oyster (Ostrea Lurida) At Risk For Local Extinction: Addressing Climate Change Impacts, Nancy MoraRogers 2020 The University of San Francisco

The Olympia Oyster (Ostrea Lurida) At Risk For Local Extinction: Addressing Climate Change Impacts, Nancy Morarogers

Master's Projects and Capstones

Olympia oysters are a native bivalve to the Pacific Northwest. The abundance of oysters has declined over the 20th century. The Olympia oyster population in the San Francisco Bay has improved with restoration efforts in the most recent years, however not near historical levels. Climate change abiotic factors will impact the remaining populations and the restoration efforts that have taken place. This paper examines the abiotic and biotic factors that affect the oysters’ survival within the current and climate change context with a focus on the resiliency of the Olympia oyster with consideration of the abiotic factors influencing oyster survival ...


A Review Of Methods To Better Predict And Reduce The Risk Of Hurricane Damage To The Energy Sector, Zackary Litalien 2020 The University of San Francisco

A Review Of Methods To Better Predict And Reduce The Risk Of Hurricane Damage To The Energy Sector, Zackary Litalien

Master's Projects and Capstones

In the event of a hurricane, electricity is the most important utility as it provides heat, water, food, light, communication, and medical care to communities. Research predicts an increase in frequency and strength of hurricanes with time due to climate change, which requires communities and electric utility companies to be prepared for the inevitable. This paper assesses existing methods of hurricane preparation and restoration of the electric power grid in hurricane prone locations with regards to the electric utility companies and electric distribution systems. In this study, I perform a comparative analysis between different methods of planning and forecasting electrical ...


A Review Of The Methods And Metrics In Research, Implementation, And Management Of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture, Cassandra Erickson 2020 The University of San Francisco

A Review Of The Methods And Metrics In Research, Implementation, And Management Of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture, Cassandra Erickson

Master's Projects and Capstones

As seafood demand rises with the growing population, methods of providing sustainable and reliable protein are needed. Wild fishery stocks have decreased so aquaculture is seen as the way to meet these growing demands. The aquaculture industry has continued to grow 8.3% every year since 1970 primarily through using intensive cultivation of a single species creating negative effects on the marine environment. An increase in nutrients from these intensive cultivations can lead to eutrophication, a decrease in oxygen, and alter the ecosystem structure and biodiversity. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) aims to offset the increased input of nutrients through fish ...


A Comparison Of Fuel Reduction Methods For Wildfire Risk Management And Climate Change Resiliency In Mixed Conifer Forests In The Sierra Nevada, Heather Navle 2020 The University of San Francisco

A Comparison Of Fuel Reduction Methods For Wildfire Risk Management And Climate Change Resiliency In Mixed Conifer Forests In The Sierra Nevada, Heather Navle

Master's Projects and Capstones

Wildfires in the mixed conifer forests of California’s Sierra Nevada have been a common and natural disturbance for thousands of years, historically occurring every 3 to 30 years. The flora and fauna of the mixed conifer forest have evolved to depend on low to moderate severity wildfires for reproduction, foraging, and habitat. However, the Sierra Nevada has experienced dramatic environmental changes over the past ~150 years as a result of three main factors: wildfire suppression, climate change, and habitat loss. Because of the threat wildfires pose to human lives, property and timber harvest, they have been suppressed to an ...


Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson 2020 The University of San Francisco

Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Northern California’s coastal marine ecosystems support one of the most productive and biodiverse habitats on the planet. Bull kelp forests (Nereocystic lutkeana) form habitats for an abundance of marine mammals, sea bird, fish, and invertebrates. In recent years, compounding ecological and climatic factors have disrupted the balance of the bull kelp forests and led to an unprecedented loss of bull kelp biomass and canopy cover. These areas that are typically teeming with marine life have shifted into a stable state of sea urchin barrens due to over grazing of bull kelp by purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus pupuratus). These sea ...


What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

The USDA uses the map as a trigger for programs that help agricultural producers recover from drought and other natural disasters:

Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP)

Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm Raised Fish Program (ELAP)

Fast-Track Secretarial Disaster Declarations

Emergency Loans Program


The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

WHAT IS THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK?

WHO ARE THE OBSERVERS?

WHAT BENEFITS?

The network in action

HOW DOES IT WORK?

WHO CREATES THE MAP?


Massive Peatland Carbon Banks Vulnerable To Rising Temperatures, A. M. Hopple, R. M. Wilson, M. Kolton, Cassandra A. Zalman, J. P. Chanton, J. Kostka, P. J. Hanson, Jason K. Keller, S. D. Bridgham 2020 University of Oregon

Massive Peatland Carbon Banks Vulnerable To Rising Temperatures, A. M. Hopple, R. M. Wilson, M. Kolton, Cassandra A. Zalman, J. P. Chanton, J. Kostka, P. J. Hanson, Jason K. Keller, S. D. Bridgham

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of the world’s soil carbon (C). If destabilized, decomposition of this vast C bank could accelerate climate warming; however, the likelihood of this outcome remains unknown. Here, we examine peatland C stability through five years of whole-ecosystem warming and two years of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2). Warming exponentially increased methane (CH4) emissions and enhanced CH4 production rates throughout the entire soil profile; although surface CH4 production rates remain much greater than those at depth. Additionally, older deeper C sources played a larger role in decomposition following prolonged warming. Most troubling ...


Water As A Therapeutic Landscape And The Inspiration For A Collection Of Short Essays About The Physical, Mental, And Spiritual Effects Water Embodies, Allison Schwarm 2020 Washington State University

Water As A Therapeutic Landscape And The Inspiration For A Collection Of Short Essays About The Physical, Mental, And Spiritual Effects Water Embodies, Allison Schwarm

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

For those who have been exposed to bodies of water, lakes, ponds, puddles, swimming pools, forest waterfalls, oceans, creeks and cricks, streams, rivers, or even bubble baths, there is a case to be made for the correlation between water and personal restoration. People are drawn to water just as animals flock to it for survival, or as sediment runs from a mountain stream to the powerful waves of the ocean that will carry it even further to its new resting place. Wallace J. Nichols, marine biologist and author of bestselling book, "Blue Mind" which presents a persuasive case for water ...


Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis In Traffic Safety, Amin Azimian, Dimitra Pyrialakou 2020 West Virginia University

Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis In Traffic Safety, Amin Azimian, Dimitra Pyrialakou

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

This paper presents an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) of road traffic crashes at different severity levels in West Virginia (WV). Although ESDA can support transportation safety decision-making by helping planners understand and summarize crash data, it is underutilized in practice. This paper describes the application of five representative easy-to-use method to identify crash patterns and high crash-risk counties in WV. Analysis of crash data from 2010 to 2015 indicated that traffic crashes in WV were not spatially correlated. However, crash severities were found to be positively correlated.


Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam 2020 Purdue University

Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power ...


Modelling Eurasian Beaver Foraging Habitat And Dam Suitability, For Predicting The Location And Number Of Dams Throughout Catchments In Great Britain, Hugh A. Graham, Alan Puttock, William W. Macfarlane, Joseph M. Wheaton, Jordan T. Gilbert, Róisín Campbell-Palmer, Mark Elliott, Martin J. Gaywood, Karen Anderson, Richard E. Brazier 2020 University of Exeter

Modelling Eurasian Beaver Foraging Habitat And Dam Suitability, For Predicting The Location And Number Of Dams Throughout Catchments In Great Britain, Hugh A. Graham, Alan Puttock, William W. Macfarlane, Joseph M. Wheaton, Jordan T. Gilbert, Róisín Campbell-Palmer, Mark Elliott, Martin J. Gaywood, Karen Anderson, Richard E. Brazier

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) populations are expanding across Europe. Depending on location, beaver dams bring multiple benefits and/or require management. Using nationally available data, we developed: a Beaver Forage Index (BFI), identifying beaver foraging habitat, and a Beaver Dam Capacity (BDC) model, classifying suitability of river reaches for dam construction, to estimate location and number of dams at catchment scales. Models were executed across three catchments, in Great Britain (GB), containing beaver. An area of 6747 km2 was analysed for BFI and 16,739 km of stream for BDC. Field surveys identified 258 km of channel containing beaver ...


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling 2020 Seattle University School of Law

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell 2020 Sustainability Program, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

In the future, the city of Knoxville, Tennessee will be impacted by climate warming due to anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the ecosystem services provided by urban tree canopy in Knoxville’s urban forest can help mitigate the effects of climate warming. In addition to improving air quality, regulating water flow, and reducing noise pollution, Knoxville’s urban forest serves as a carbon sink and sequesters carbon dioxide on an annual basis. Utilizing methods for calculating carbon sequestration by trees in urban and suburban settings developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the sequestration potential and its uncertainty is calculated ...


How Farms Make Money, Caroline Parlee 2020 Salem State University

How Farms Make Money, Caroline Parlee

Research Day

One of the challenges confronting Massachusetts is how to feed its population with local resources. It takes a lot of food to feed these people and a lot of this food is coming from out of state. This means that the state's food supply requires fossil fuels for transport and this contributes to the state's carbon footprint and climate change. Numerous studies have recommended that food should be eaten and produced in the same area to increase sustainability and resilience and reduce its environmental impacts. So, the question is how to promote local agriculture? To do this we ...


Kodiak Island, Alaska And The 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Cora Van Hazinga 2020 Salem State University

Kodiak Island, Alaska And The 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Cora Van Hazinga

Research Day

Tanker ships have transported Alaskan crude oil through Prince William Sound since 1975. In March of 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground on the Bligh Reef, spilling 10.8 million gallons of crude oil into the Prince William Sound (Figure 1). The timing of the spill, remote location, thousands of miles of rugged and wild shoreline, and the abundance of wildlife in the region combined to make it an environmental disaster. Approximately 1,300 miles of Alaskan shoreline was impacted, and effects are still being felt today.


The Future Of Geography In The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework, Michelle Mazares-Monga 2020 Salem State University

The Future Of Geography In The Massachusetts Curriculum Framework, Michelle Mazares-Monga

Research Day

The National Assessment of Education Progress evaluated eighth grade students on their geographic literacy in 2014 and in 2018, and found a decrease in average scores. One reason is that Geography has historically not been taught as a separate subject in most K-12 public schools. Certain states are updating their frameworks to be more inclusive of a diverse array of subjects. In Massachusetts, Geography is addressed under the History and Social Science Frameworks. Unfortunately, the teaching of Geography is given short shrift under these frameworks. The overarching goal of this project is to assess the status of Geographical education in ...


Fagus Sylvatica (European Beech) Id #1025, Michaela Cartier 2020 Salve Regina University

Fagus Sylvatica (European Beech) Id #1025, Michaela Cartier

BIO 140 Arboretum Project

Location: between McKillop Library and Shepard Avenue


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