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Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha

Kevin Hallinan

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


The Effect Of Marine Protected Areas On Fishers' Income In The Philippines, Giselle PB. Samonte, Victoria C. Ramenzoni, Terence U. Dacles, Dominik Fortenbacher 2016 Earth Resources Technology, Inc. (ERT)

The Effect Of Marine Protected Areas On Fishers' Income In The Philippines, Giselle Pb. Samonte, Victoria C. Ramenzoni, Terence U. Dacles, Dominik Fortenbacher

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The fisheries sector is vital to the Philippine economy, providing substantial employment and income, contributing export earnings, and meeting local food security and nutrition requirements. To protect coastal and marine habitat and to sustain fisheries, over 1000 marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established, in the Philippines. This paper provides empirical evidence on the variance of net revenues linked with MPA establishment and the possible range of relocation costs for fishing effort displaced by an MPA. A total of 424 households were randomly selected from 18 barangays (villages) adjacent to MPAs in three regions in the Philippines. Results show that ...


Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis 2016 University of San Francisco

Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis

Master's Projects

Oil spill models, ecological risks, response options, and costs were assessed for a discharge of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay from a train derailment. This assessment was based on the risk of crude by rail derailments into the San Francisco Bay; in 2014, California oil refineries imported over 240 million gallons of Bakken crude oil by rail for processing. A hypothetical scenario was developed from a derailment on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge and discharging 100,000 gallons of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay. The oil trajectory impacted the Carquinez Strait, Suisun ...


Nitrogen And Phosphorus Enrichment Effects On Nutrient Supply In Reservoirs: A Small-Scale Approach, Jessalyn G. Kohn 2016 University of Arkansas

Nitrogen And Phosphorus Enrichment Effects On Nutrient Supply In Reservoirs: A Small-Scale Approach, Jessalyn G. Kohn

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Eutrophication is a problem in many lakes, but the reduction of nutrient inputs such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to combat eutrophication can lead to an oligotrophic state, which may be unable to support healthy aquatic ecosystems. This study examined how different rates of chemical fertilization with N and P during times of nutrient limitation (mid-summer) could affect particulate N and C concentrations in four lakes in northwest Arkansas. Fertilization experiments were conducted in microcosms during the month of July 2014. Water samples from each lake were collected and divided into six treatments: control, P-only, N:P 10, 20 ...


Export Of Insect Ecosystem Services From Hayed Native Prairie, Wayne J. Ohnesorg 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Export Of Insect Ecosystem Services From Hayed Native Prairie, Wayne J. Ohnesorg

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Natural areas, such as prairie, have the potential to provide the benefits of pest suppression and pollination for agricultural production. In Nebraska, prairie is often used for hay production. The impact of prairie hay production management practices on beneficial arthropods is not well understood. Four prairie hay meadows adjacent to row crop fields were selected in northeast Nebraska. The goal was to assess the impact of haying them on beneficial arthropods and the movement of natural enemies into adjacent crop fields. Three management practices were evaluated for hay harvested from prairie meadows one cut per growing season, two cuts per ...


Sustainable Solutions For Used Clothing: The Case Of Overflow Thrift Store In Ames, Ashley Tinguely 2016 Iowa State University

Sustainable Solutions For Used Clothing: The Case Of Overflow Thrift Store In Ames, Ashley Tinguely

Honors Projects and Posters

OVERFLOW is a local, privately owned thrift store in Ames, Iowa, that opened in July 2014. It is a non-profit organization that values the opportunity to provide not only a place for people to shop, but also a place for people to give and serve. Secondhand clothing is a major aspect of the business and it presents challenges regarding the ever-growing mass of unsellable donated clothing items. To help this business and similar small thrift stores to address this challenge, this study (1) examined best practices to deal with the excess of disposed textile-based products in the United States and ...


Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha 2016 First Solar

Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

The environmental sciences have been critical to identifying global environmental challenges such as climate change, but they have been less extensively utilized in deploying solutions to those challenges, such as solar energy. Environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, aerosols, clouds, soiling, and snowfall have important effects on solar PV performance, and these effects can vary regionally. The current status of large-scale solar PV deployment will be discussed along with the role of environmental variables on PV performance.


Powering The Planet: The Role Chemistry Plays In Solar Energy Technology, Amy M. Scott 2016 University of Miami

Powering The Planet: The Role Chemistry Plays In Solar Energy Technology, Amy M. Scott

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

Global energy demands are projected to double by 2050, according to the U.S. Department of Energy, and solar energy has the greatest potential as the most benign, universal resource for generating electricity. However, harnessing the solar energy efficiently and converting it towards useful forms of power that are compatible with our current infrastructure remains an elusive goal. Today’s solar energy utilization relies on silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, which converts photon energy to electrical energy. The efficiency of these devices remains low (< 30%) and the cost of processing silicon and installing solar panels in homes makes PV uneconomical compared to the current price of electricity. Research efforts towards developing new inorganic and organic materials for thin film PV to replace silicon are currently underway. Organic materials are particularly interesting from the standpoint of developing simple, cheap materials that can be easily tailored for future PV devices. The future of solar energy utilization relies on developing solar paints for vehicles, solar shingles for rooftops, and spray-on solar ink for small device applications, but continued fundamental research is needed for decreasing cost and improving efficiency for next generation devices.


From The Orderly World Of Frameworks To The Messy World Of Data: Canada’S Experience Measuring The Economic Contribution Of Maritime Industries, Alejandro De Maio, Christine Irwin 2016 Center for the Blue Economy

From The Orderly World Of Frameworks To The Messy World Of Data: Canada’S Experience Measuring The Economic Contribution Of Maritime Industries, Alejandro De Maio, Christine Irwin

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This paper extends the frameworks developed by Park and Kildow (2014) to explore the use of supply chains to classify and organize ocean industries. Canada’s experience with measuring the economic contribution of ocean related sectors is discussed; with particular emphasis on illustrating the supply chain approach and of highlighting the multiple practical challenges that arise in defining and measuring the ocean economy. The overall conclusion is that Canada has succeeded in developing a methodological framework that allows it to report, on an annual basis high level estimates of gross domestic product, employment and labour income generated directly and indirectly ...


The New Blue Economy: The Future Of Sustainability, Mark J. Spalding 2016 The Ocean Foundation

The New Blue Economy: The Future Of Sustainability, Mark J. Spalding

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The world’s ocean is the world’s life support. Many human activities have defined a negative relationship with the ocean. Simply put: we dump too much bad stuff in, and we take too much good stuff out. The traditional ocean economy—those ocean-based and ocean-related activities from which humans derive economic benefit— did not acknowledge or honor the ocean’s natural services, nor its finite capacity to take human abuse without undermining those services on which we depend. The “new blue economy” is the term of art for identifying those activities that improve the human relationship with the ocean ...


Economic Assessment Of Oceans For Sustainable Blue Economy Development, Maria Corazon M. Ebarvia 2016 Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia

Economic Assessment Of Oceans For Sustainable Blue Economy Development, Maria Corazon M. Ebarvia

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This paper presents the common approach on blue economy assessment adopted by selected countries in the East Asian Seas region, and results of initial assessment studies. There are many discourses on the definition and scope of blue economy as the ocean space is evolving, driven by innovations, shifting demands, and pressures from changing environment and climate. The ocean economy contributes to the GDP of the EAS countries in varying degrees: 3 % in RO Korea, 4.5 % in the Philippines, 9 % in China, and 13 % in Indonesia. In addition to the ocean economic activities, the ocean also generates ecosystem services that ...


Accounting For The Ocean Economy Using The System Of National Accounts, Raymundo J. Talento 2016 Philippine Statistics Authority

Accounting For The Ocean Economy Using The System Of National Accounts, Raymundo J. Talento

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The increasing importance to measure the ocean economy cannot be discounted. A number of countries attempted to measure the ocean economy based on their needs and perceptions. At this point, however, there is no agreed scope and coverage of the ocean economy nor is there an agreed operational definition of the variables needed for its measurement. Moreover, there is no internationally endorsed framework that will guide and lead to comparable estimates across countries or regions.

Utilizing the 2008 System of National Accounts (SNA) as a framework, this paper endeavors to estimate the contribution of the ocean economy in the Philippines ...


A Statistical Assessment Of Maritime Socioeconomic Indicators For The European Atlantic Area, Javier Fernandez-Macho 2016 University of the Basque Country, Bilbao

A Statistical Assessment Of Maritime Socioeconomic Indicators For The European Atlantic Area, Javier Fernandez-Macho

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Ever since the introduction into marine and maritime policy strategies worldwide of the relatively new concept of Blue Growth there has been an increasing interest in developing integrated systems of indicators for the maritime economy.

The Marnet project has been a recent attempt to develop a comparative maritime socioeconomic framework for the European Atlantic area and its database contains a large number of socioeconomic indicators for many maritime activities at different territorial levels that provide the information needed to help analyze and compare the maritime economy of the European Atlantic regions.

However, there are still many gaps with respect to ...


The Role Of Economics In Ecosystem Based Management: The Case Of The Eu Marine Strategy Framework Directive; First Lessons Learnt And Way Forward., Soile Oinonen, Tobias Börger, Stephen Hynes, Ann Katrin Buchs, Anna-Stiina Heiskanen, Kari Hyytiäinen, Tiziana Luisetti, Rob van der Veeren 2016 Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland

The Role Of Economics In Ecosystem Based Management: The Case Of The Eu Marine Strategy Framework Directive; First Lessons Learnt And Way Forward., Soile Oinonen, Tobias Börger, Stephen Hynes, Ann Katrin Buchs, Anna-Stiina Heiskanen, Kari Hyytiäinen, Tiziana Luisetti, Rob Van Der Veeren

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) sets out a plan of action relating to marine environmental policy and in particular to achieving ‘good environmental status’ (GES) in European marine waters by 2020. Article 8.1 (c) of the Directive calls for ‘an economic and social analysis of the use of those waters and of the cost of degradation of the marine environment’. The MSFD is ‘informed’ by the Ecosystem Approach to management, with GES interpreted in terms of ecosystem functioning and services provision. Implementation of the Ecosystem Approach is expected to be by adaptive management policy and practice. The ...


Maritime Accounts In The European Union: Coping With Limited Information, Regis Kalaydjian 2016 Ifremer

Maritime Accounts In The European Union: Coping With Limited Information, Regis Kalaydjian

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The European Commission's effort to define the scope and components of the maritime economy was initially motivated by the "Integrated Maritime Policy" (2007). This policy package, principally based on coastal environment protection, maritime safety and security, and the European marine observation and data network, also included the development of an EU-wide economic and social database on maritime activities. The IMP database (2009) used experience from EU member states in terms of maritime database development, and conversely was an opportunity to update national contributions.

Later, two other packages contributed to broadening EC's approach. 1) The "Marine Strategy Framework Directive ...


Introduction To Special Edition: The Oceans And National Income Accounts: An International Perspective, Charles S. Colgan 2016 Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Introduction To Special Edition: The Oceans And National Income Accounts: An International Perspective, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Introduction to articles in the special edition.


Bats Serves As Nebraska's Natural Pest Control Agents, Michael Whitby, Craig R. Allen 2016 Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit

Bats Serves As Nebraska's Natural Pest Control Agents, Michael Whitby, Craig R. Allen

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

You don't notice them flying in the night sky as you drive home, or in the trees above you as you walk your dog or under the bark of the dead tree at your fishing hole, but bats are everywhere in Nebraska. In fact, there are 13 species of bats inhabiting our state. They exhibit a wide variety of shapes, sizes and colors. Some migrate to unknown locations each winter. others stay in Nebraska and hibernate in caves, mines and occasionally homes. You probably won't notice them unless you happen to catch a glimpse of one eating insects ...


Emissions Scenarios In The Face Of Fossil-Fuel Peaking, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Emissions Scenarios In The Face Of Fossil-Fuel Peaking, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Emissions scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. We propose in this paper that it is useful to look at a qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, to gain a sense of carbon emission bounds. Here we look at what may be considered a lower bound for 21st century emissions given two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the ...


The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent ...


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