Quantifying The Role Of Riparian Management To Control Non-Point Source Pollution Of Pasture And Cropland Streams, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, John Kovar, Daryl R. Strohbehn, John D. Lawrence, Mathew M. Haan, Shelly Lee Nellesen, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard Schultz
Thomas M. Isenhart
Grazing management practices have the potential to mitigate some problems with sediment and phosphorus loading in pasture streams. The project demonstrated possible strategies to lessen grazing impacts on streams.
Bio-Economies Of Scope And The Discard Problem In Multiple Species Fisheries, 2017 Iowa State University
Bio-Economies Of Scope And The Discard Problem In Multiple Species Fisheries, Rajesh Singh, Quinn Weninger
This paper considers the problem of multi-species fisheries management when targeting individual species is costly and at-sea discards of fish by fishermen are unobserved by the regulator. Stock conditions, ecosystem interaction, technological specification, and relative prices under which at sea discards are acute are identified. A dynamic model is developed to balance ecological interdependencies among multiple fish species, and scope economies implicit in a costly targeting technology. Three regulatory regimes, species-specific harvest quotas, landing taxes, and revenue quotas, are contrasted against a hypothetical sole owner problem. An optimal plan under all regimes precludes discarding. For both very low and very ...
Across-Ecoregion Analysis Suggests A Hierarchy Of Ecological Filters That Regulate Recruitment Of A Globally Invasive Fish, Przemek G. Bajer, Timothy K. Cross, Joseph D. Lechelt, Christopher J. Chizinski, Michael J. Weber, Peter W. Sorensen
Michael J Weber Dr
Aim -- Even successful invaders are abundant only in a fraction of locales they inhabit. One of the main challenges in invasion ecology is explaining processes that drive these patterns. We investigated recruitment of a globally invasive fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio), across three ecoregions to determine the role of environmental characteristics, predatory communities and propagule pressure on the invasion process at coarse and fine spatial scales. Location -- Lakes across Northern Forest, Temperate Forest and Great Plains ecoregions of North America. Methods -- We used data from 567 lakes to model presence or absence of carp recruitment using environmental conditions (lake clarity ...
Carbon Sequestration In Agriculture: Value And Implementation, 2017 Iowa State University
Carbon Sequestration In Agriculture: Value And Implementation, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling
Examining the value of carbon sequestration in a dynamic model, the authors demonstrate that unless the sequestration is permanent, it is only a fraction of the value of emission abatement. The magnitude of the fraction increases in the duration of sequestration, the natural decay rate of carbon, and the discount rate. The authors also show that sinks should be used as early as possible in order to optimally reduce the carbon stock. Finally, the authors propose and assess three mechanisms for efficiently introducing sequestration into a carbon permit trading market: a pay-as-you-go system, a variable-length-contract system, and a carbon-annuity-account system ...
The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Alternative Carbon Accounting, With An Application To The Upper Mississippi River Basin, Hongli Feng
Carbon sequestration is a temporal process in which carbon is continuously being stored/released over time. Different methods of carbon accounting can be used to account for this temporal nature, including annual average carbon, annualized carbon, and ton-year carbon. In this paper, starting by exposing the underlying connections among these methods, we examine how the comparisons of sequestration projects are affected by these methods and the major factors affecting them. We explore the empirical implications for carbon sequestration policies by applying these accounting methods to the Upper Mississippi River Basin, a large and important agriculture area in the United States ...
The Costs And Benefits Of Conservation Practices In Iowa, 2017 Iowa State University
The Costs And Benefits Of Conservation Practices In Iowa, Hongli Feng, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman, Manoj Jha, Joshua Parcel
Over the last two decades, conservation on cropland to improve water quality and provide other environmental benefi ts has been of growing interest. Federal government expenditures on conservation and environmental programs have been 80 percent higher under the current (2002) farm act than under the previous one, and several new programs, including the Conservation Security Program and the Grassland Reserve Program, were also introduced in 2002. As the expiration date for the current act draws near, it is apparent that the total expenditures and priorities of conservation programs will again be at the heart of legislative debates. The likelihood of ...
Economic And Environmental Co-Benefits Of Carbon Sequestration In Agricultural Soils: Retiring Agricultural Land In The Upper Mississippi River Basin, Hongli Feng, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman
This study investigates the carbon sequestration potential and co-benefits from policies aimed at retiring agricultural land in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, a large, heavily agricultural area. We extend the empirical measurement of co-benefits from the previous focus on environmental benefits to include economic transfers. These transfers have often been mentioned as a co-benefit, but little empirical work measuring the potential magnitude of these transfers has previously been undertaken. We compare and contrast five targeting schemes, each based on maximizing different physical environmental measures, including carbon sequestration, soil erosion, nitrogen runoff, nitrogen leaching, as well as the area enrolled in ...
The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Measures Of Cost-Effectiveness, 2017 Iowa State University
The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Measures Of Cost-Effectiveness, Hongli Feng
The cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration alternatives has often been discussed in the economics literature on sequestration. Average or marginal costs and annual carbon supply curves are often used as measures of cost-effectiveness. Sequestration is inherently a temporal process and how time is accounted for in the various measures of cost-effectiveness is critical for appropriate cross-study comparisons. I examine three factors that affect the magnitude of measured cost-effectiveness: the study period, the sequestration path, and the discount rate if discounting is used. The extent to which these factors affect the consistency of cross-study comparisons is empirically illustrated.
The Designation Of Co-Benefits And Its Implication For Policy: Water Quality Versus Carbon Sequestration In Agricultural Soils, Silvia Secchi, Manoj K. Jha, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Catherine L. Kling
This study investigates the implications of treating different environmental benefits as the primary target of policy design. We focus on two scenarios, estimating for both of them in-stream sediment, nutrient loadings, and carbon sequestration. In the first, we assess the impact of a program designed to improve water quality in Iowa on carbon sequestration, and in the second, we calculate the water quality impact of a program aimed at maximizing carbon sequestration. In both cases, the policy instrument is the retirement of land from agricultural production. Our results, limited to the state of Iowa, and to the case of set-aside ...
The Consequences Of Co-Benefits For The Efficient Design Of Carbon Sequestration Programs, 2017 Iowa State University
The Consequences Of Co-Benefits For The Efficient Design Of Carbon Sequestration Programs, Hongli Feng, Catherine L. Kling
In this paper, we study the social efficiency of private carbon markets that include trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration when there are significant co-benefits (positive environmental externalities) associated with the practices that sequester carbon. Likewise, we investigate the efficiency of government-run conservation programs that are designed to promote a broad array of environmental attributes (both carbon sequestration and its co-benefits) for the supply of carbon. Finally, policy design and efficiency issues associated with the potential interplay between a private carbon market and a government conservation program are studied. Empirical analyses for an area that represents a significant potential source ...
Greenhouse Gas Impacts Of Ethanol From Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis Versus System-Wide Accounting, 2017 Iowa State University
Greenhouse Gas Impacts Of Ethanol From Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis Versus System-Wide Accounting, Hongli Feng, Ofir D. Rubin, Bruce A. Babcock
Life cycle analysis (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, it is increasingly recognized that LCA results do not account for some impacts—including land use changes—that have important implications on GHGs. Thus, an alternative accounting system that goes beyond LCA is needed. In this paper, we contribute to the literature by laying out the basics of a system-wide accounting (SWA) method that takes into account all potential changes in GHGs resulting from biofuel expansion. We applied both LCA and SWA to assess the GHG impacts of ethanol based on ...
Green Payments And Dual Policy Goals, 2017 Iowa State University
Green Payments And Dual Policy Goals, Hongli Feng
We use a mechanism design framework to analyze the optimal design of green payment policies with the dual goals of conservation and income support for small farms. Each farm is characterized by two dimensions of attributes: farm size and conservation efficiency. Policymakers may not be able to use the attributes as an explicit criterion for payments. We characterize optimal policy when conservation efficiency is unobservable to policymakers, and when farm size is also unobservable. An income support goal is shown to reduce the conservation distortion caused by asymmetric information. The cost of optimal green payment mechanisms is shown to depend ...
Towards Implementing Carbon Markets In Agriculture, 2017 Iowa State University
Towards Implementing Carbon Markets In Agriculture, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling
Despite the interest in carbon markets or programs for which agriculture could be rewarded for storing carbon, there are still substantive questions about how such mechanisms could be designed to meet this task and be generally acceptable to the international community. One of the most problematic of these issues is the fact that, unlike reductions in emissions, carbon sinks may only temporarily hold carbon out of the atmosphere. Until policy mechanisms that appropriately incorporate the potentially temporary nature of sinks are developed, it is unlikely that agricultural sequestration will gain widespread acceptance. In this paper, the authors introduce and discuss ...
Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, And Conservation Programs, 2017 Iowa State University
Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, And Conservation Programs, Hongli Feng, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman
Land use changes to sequester carbon also provide "co-benefits," some of which (for example, water quality) have attracted at least as much attention as carbon storage. The non-separability of these co-benefits presents a challenge for policy design. If carbon markets are employed, then social efficiency will depend on how we take into account co-benefits, that is, externalities, in such markets. If carbon sequestration is incorporated into conservation programs, then the weight given to carbon sequestration relative to its co-benefits will partly shape these programs. Using the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) as an example, we show that CRP has been sequestering ...
Native Grassland Conversion: The Roles Of Risk Intervention And Switching Costs, 2017 Iowa State University
Native Grassland Conversion: The Roles Of Risk Intervention And Switching Costs, Ruiqing Miao, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng
We develop a real option model of the irreversible native grassland conversion decision. Upon plowing, native grassland can be followed by either a permanent cropping system or a system in which land is put under cropping (respectively, grazing) whenever crop prices are high (respectively, low). Switching costs are incurred upon alternating between cropping and grazing. The effects of risk intervention in the form of crop insurance subsidies are studied, as are the effects of cropping innovations that reduce switching costs. We calibrate the model by using cropping return data for South Central North Dakota from 1989 to 2012. Simulations show ...
Optimal Design Of Permit Markets With An Ex Ante Pollution Target, 2017 Iowa State University
Optimal Design Of Permit Markets With An Ex Ante Pollution Target, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Hongli Feng, Catherine L. Kling
In this paper, we examine the design of permit trading programs when the objective is to minimize the cost of achieving an ex ante pollution target, that is, one that is defined in expectation rather than an ex post deterministic value. We consider two potential sources of uncertainty, the presence of either of which can make our model appropriate: incomplete information on abatement costs and uncertain delivery coefficients. In such a setting, we find three distinct features that depart from the well-established results on permit trading: (1) the regulator’s information on firms’ abatement costs can matter; (2) the optimal ...
Optimizing Buffer Strips For Improved Ecosystem Services, 2017 Iowa State University
Optimizing Buffer Strips For Improved Ecosystem Services, Matthew E. O'Neal, Lisa A. Schulte Moore
Lisa A. Schulte Moore
The project objective is to enhance delivery of insect-derived ecosystem services provided by perennial buffers through a strategy of combining research and outreach.
Subfield Profitability Analysis Reveals An Economic Case For Cropland Diversification, 2017 Iowa State University
Subfield Profitability Analysis Reveals An Economic Case For Cropland Diversification, Elke Brandes, Gabriel Sean Mcnunn, Lisa A. Schulte, Ian J. Bonner, D. J. Muth, Bruce A. Babcock, Bhavna Sharma, Emily A. Heaton
Lisa A. Schulte Moore
Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ∼3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for ...
New Isu Research May Help Farmers Make More Informed Decisions About Land Use, 2017 Iowa State University
New Isu Research May Help Farmers Make More Informed Decisions About Land Use, Elke Brandes, Emily A. Heaton, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Fred Love
Lisa A. Schulte Moore
A new study from a multidisciplinary team led by Iowa State University agronomists shows that significant portions of Iowa farmland consistently lose money and could influence many farmers to change how they use some of the acres they devote to corn and soybeans.
Agronomic, Environmental And Economic Performance Of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems, 2017 Iowa State University
Agronomic, Environmental And Economic Performance Of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems, Lisa A. Schulte Moore, Kenneth J. Moore, Richard B. Hall, Arne Hallam, Matt Helmers
Lisa A. Schulte Moore
If cellulosic biomass is to play a significant role in America's energy future, research needs to be conducted on the optimal production and placement practices. This project looked at a portfolio of biomass cropping systems that might be adopted for Iowa.