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Arbitrage Between Ethanol And Gasoline: Evidence From Motor Fuel Consumption In Brazil, Sebastien Pouliot 2016 Iowa State University

Arbitrage Between Ethanol And Gasoline: Evidence From Motor Fuel Consumption In Brazil, Sebastien Pouliot

Sebastien Pouliot

Unlike regular cars, ex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) allow motorists to fuel on motor blends that contain between zero and one hundred percent of ethanol. This paper investigates how motorists arbitrage between hydrous ethanol and gasoline using aggregate fuel consumption data in Brazil. The ability of FFV motorists to arbitrage between fuel blends shapes of aggregate demands for hydrous ethanol and gasoline. I estimate using nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions the demands for hydrous ethanol and gasoline in Brazil, and motorists preferences for hydrous ethanol. I find that on average, accounting for the relative energy contents of the two fuels, FFV motorists in ...


Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, mario f. teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin 2016 University of Maine

Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, Mario F. Teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin

Jonathan Rubin

As national standards require increased use of renewable transportation fuels by 2022, Maine is positioned to be a leader in wood-based cellulosic ethanol production and use. Caroline Noblet, Mario Teisl, Katherine Farrow, and Jonathan Rubin consider Mainers’ willingness to accept and use biofuels. They document the current level of consumer knowledge and behavior and identify factors (environmental, economic, and energy security) that may assist or constrain drivers from purchasing biofuels.


Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, mario f. teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin 2016 University of Maine

Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, Mario F. Teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin

Jonathan Rubin

As national standards require increased use of renewable transportation fuels by 2022, Maine is positioned to be a leader in wood-based cellulosic ethanol production and use. Caroline Noblet, Mario Teisl, Katherine Farrow, and Jonathan Rubin consider Mainers’ willingness to accept and use biofuels. They document the current level of consumer knowledge and behavior and identify factors (environmental, economic, and energy security) that may assist or constrain drivers from purchasing biofuels.


Transportation And Climate Change, Jonathan Rubin 2016 University of Maine

Transportation And Climate Change, Jonathan Rubin

Jonathan Rubin

The transportation and residential sectors in Maine use a large proportion of fossil fuels, primarily petroleum products, and are a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Jonathan Rubin’s article on transportation reviews mechanisms by which petroleum demand and greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced, emphasizing state and federal legislation to achieve these goals. He describes ways in which transportation systems will be affected by and have to adapt to climate change.


Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart 2016 University of Maine

Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart

Jonathan Rubin

No abstract provided.


Biomass And Biofuels In Maine: Estimating Supplies For Expanding The Forest Products Industry, Jonathan Rubin, Kate Dickerson, Jacob Kavkewitz 2016 University of Maine

Biomass And Biofuels In Maine: Estimating Supplies For Expanding The Forest Products Industry, Jonathan Rubin, Kate Dickerson, Jacob Kavkewitz

Jonathan Rubin

This paper estimates the renewable energy potential of Maine’s forest resources, and how much energy these resources could potentially provide the state. Using the most recent state-specific data available, and a methodology similar to the Billion Tons Report, we find that ethanol production from Maine’s forest residues could potentially provide 18% of Maine’s transportation (gasoline) fuels with a fermentation wood to ethanol process. Making Fischer-Tropsch diesel (F-T diesel) using forest residues can replace 39% of Maine’s petro-diesel consumption. Actual levels of biofuels that can be produced will depend on conversion factors and forestry residue removals that ...


Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Atvs In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris 2016 University of Maine - Main

Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Atvs In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris

Jonathan Rubin

This study was conducted by the Margaret Chase Smith Center for Public Policy (MCSC) of the University of Maine at the request of the Maine Legislature’s Commission to Study Equity in the Distribution of Gas Tax Revenues Attributable to Snowmobiles, All-Terrain Vehicles and Watercraft. The Commission was created by the Legislature with a charge to collect and analyze information to determine an equitable distribution of gas tax revenues used in the enforcement and enhancement of programs supporting off-road vehicle use in Maine. The Commission concluded that snowmobiling, boating and ATV use has increased significantly over recent years and now ...


Type And Timing Of Stream Flow Changes In Urbanizing Watersheds In The Eastern U.S., Kristina G. Hopkins, Nathaniel B. Morse, Daniel J. Bain, Neil D. Bettez, Nancy B. Grimm, Jennifer L. Morse, Monica M. Palta 2016 University of Pittsburgh

Type And Timing Of Stream Flow Changes In Urbanizing Watersheds In The Eastern U.S., Kristina G. Hopkins, Nathaniel B. Morse, Daniel J. Bain, Neil D. Bettez, Nancy B. Grimm, Jennifer L. Morse, Monica M. Palta

Jennifer L. Morse

Linking the type and timing of hydrologic changes with patterns of urban growth is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms that drive declines in urban aquatic ecosystems. In six urbanizing watersheds surrounding three U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, and Pittsburgh, PA), we reconstructed the history of development patterns since 1900 and assessed the magnitude and timing of stream flow changes during watershed development. Development reconstructions indicated that the majority of watershed development occurred during a period of peak population growth, typically between 1950 and 1970. Stream flow records indicated significant increases in annual frequency of high-flow events in ...


Ecosystem Services In Managing Residential Landscapes: Priorities, Value Dimensions, And Cross-Regional Patterns, Kelli L. Larson, Jennifer L. Morse, Peter M. Groffman, Neil D. Bettez, Tara Trammell 2016 Arizona State University

Ecosystem Services In Managing Residential Landscapes: Priorities, Value Dimensions, And Cross-Regional Patterns, Kelli L. Larson, Jennifer L. Morse, Peter M. Groffman, Neil D. Bettez, Tara Trammell

Jennifer L. Morse

Although ecosystem services have been intensively examined in certain domains (e.g., forests and wetlands), little research has assessed ecosystem services for the most dominant landscape type in urban ecosystems—namely, residential yards. In this paper, we report findings of a cross-site survey of homeowners in six U.S. cities to 1) examine how residents subjectively value various ecosystem services, 2) explore distinctive dimensions of those values, and 3) test the urban homogenization hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that urbanization leads to similarities in the social-ecological dynamics across cities in diverse biomes. By extension, the thesis suggests that residents’ ecosystem service ...


Climate Change Decreases Nitrogen Pools And Mineralization Rates In Northern Hardwood Forests, Jorge Durán, Jennifer L. Morse, Peter M. Groffman, John L. Campbell, Lynn M. Christenson, Charles T. Driscoll, Timothy J. Fahey, Melany C. Fisk, Gene E. Likens, Jerry M. Melillo, Myron J. Mitchell, Pamela H. Templer, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur 2016 Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Climate Change Decreases Nitrogen Pools And Mineralization Rates In Northern Hardwood Forests, Jorge Durán, Jennifer L. Morse, Peter M. Groffman, John L. Campbell, Lynn M. Christenson, Charles T. Driscoll, Timothy J. Fahey, Melany C. Fisk, Gene E. Likens, Jerry M. Melillo, Myron J. Mitchell, Pamela H. Templer, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur

Jennifer L. Morse

Nitrogen (N) supply often limits the productivity of temperate forests and is regulated by a complex mix of biological and climatic drivers. In excess, N is linked to a variety of soil, water, and air pollution issues. Here, we use results from an elevation gradient study and historical data from the long-term Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (New Hampshire, USA) to examine relationships between changes in climate, especially during winter, and N supply to northern hardwood forest ecosystems. Low elevation plots with less snow, more soil freezing, and more freeze/thaw cycles supported lower rates of N mineralization than high elevation ...


How Do Connection And Hopeful Action Support Resilient Community?, Catherine Gormley 2016 SIT Graduate Institute

How Do Connection And Hopeful Action Support Resilient Community?, Catherine Gormley

Capstone Collection

This capstone arises from the course, Initiatives in Peacebuilding (IPB). As a graduate student focusing on Peacebuilding and Conflict Transformation, IPB was a required course whose content propelled me toward the study of resource conflicts. Advancing from that study, I chose to practice strategies to lessen these conflicts by means of positive action. Facing two challenges—that Earth’s natural resources are finite and that excessive use of fossil fuels has caused destructive climate change—I wondered how to help transform human awareness to value the conservation of resources and the abatement of climate change. My research brought me to ...


Daytime Variation Of Urban Heat Islands: The Case Study Of Doha, Qatar, Yasuyo Makido, Vivek Shandas, Salim Ferwati, David J. Sailor 2016 Portland State University

Daytime Variation Of Urban Heat Islands: The Case Study Of Doha, Qatar, Yasuyo Makido, Vivek Shandas, Salim Ferwati, David J. Sailor

Vivek Shandas

Recent evidence suggests that urban forms and materials can help to mediate temporal variation of microclimates and that landscape modifications can potentially reduce temperatures and increase accessibility to outdoor environments. To understand the relationship between urban form and temperature moderation, we examined the spatial and temporal variation of air temperature throughout one desert city—Doha, Qatar—by conducting vehicle traverses using highly resolved temperature and GPS data logs to determine spatial differences in summertime air temperatures. To help explain near-surface air temperatures using land cover variables, we employed three statistical approaches: Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Regression Tree Analysis (RTA), and ...


Alternative Cropping Systems With Limited Irrigation, A. Schlegel 2016 Kansas State University

Alternative Cropping Systems With Limited Irrigation, A. Schlegel

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A limited irrigation study involving six cropping systems was initiated at the Southwest Research-Extension Center near Tribune, KS, in 2012. The cropping systems were two annual systems (continuous corn [C-C] and continuous grain sorghum [GS-GS]) and four 2-year systems (corn-sorghum [C-GS]), corn-sunflower [C-SF], corn-winter wheat [C-W], and corn-wheat/double sunflower [C-W/SF]). In 2015, corn yields were lower following corn than other crops while wheat and grain sorghum yields were similar for all rotations. This tended to agree with the 3-year average yields except for average sorghum yields being higher following corn than sorghum. Sunflowers were destroyed by rodents and ...


Response Of Drought Tolerant And Conventional Corn To Limited Irrigation, I. Kisekka, F. Lamm 2016 Kansas State University

Response Of Drought Tolerant And Conventional Corn To Limited Irrigation, I. Kisekka, F. Lamm

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of two commercial hybrids (DKC 62-27 DGVT2PRO [drought tolerant trait (DT)] and DKC 62-98 VT2PRO [conventional]) to limited irrigation. Preliminary results from the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons at Southwest Research-Extension Center near Garden City, Kansas, indicate the effect of irrigation capacity on corn yield was significant (P < 0.001) for both hybrids. The effect of the drought tolerance trait on yield was not significant (P > 0.05) in both years. The effect of the interaction between irrigation capacity and corn hybrid on yield was also not significant (P > 0.05). Hybrid ...


Mobile Drip Irrigation Evaluation In Corn, I. Kisekka, T. Oker, G. Nguyen, J. Aguilar, D. Rogers 2016 Kansas State University

Mobile Drip Irrigation Evaluation In Corn, I. Kisekka, T. Oker, G. Nguyen, J. Aguilar, D. Rogers

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Mobile Drip Irrigation (MDI) involves attaching driplines to center pivot drops. MDI has potential to eliminate water losses due to spray droplet evaporation, water evapo­ration from the canopy, and wind drift. MDI also may reduce soil water evaporation due to limited surface wetting. A study was conducted with the following objectives: 1) compare soil water evaporation under MDI and in-canopy spray nozzles; 2) evalu­ate soil water redistribution under MDI at 60 inch dripline lateral spacing; 3) compare corn grain yield, water productivity, and irrigation water use efficiency; and 4) compare end-of-season profile soil water under MDI and in-canopy ...


Sorghum Yield Response To Water Supply And Irrigation Management, I. Kisekka, F. Lamm, A. Schlegel 2016 Kansas State University

Sorghum Yield Response To Water Supply And Irrigation Management, I. Kisekka, F. Lamm, A. Schlegel

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Grain sorghum yield, under full and limited irrigation, was evaluated at three locations in western Kansas (Colby, Tribune, and Garden City). The top-end yield under full ir­rigation was 190 bu/a. However, there were no significant differences among irrigation treatments at all the three locations due to the above normal rainfall received during the 2015 growing season. These preliminary results indicate that there is potential to improve grain sorghum yields under limited irrigation. Additionally, best management practices to maximize kernels per head could have the greatest effect on grain yields.


Forage Sorghum And Corn Silage Response To Full And Deficit Irrigation, I. Kisekka, J. D. Holman, J. W. Waggoner, J. Aguilar, R. Currie 2016 Kansas State University

Forage Sorghum And Corn Silage Response To Full And Deficit Irrigation, I. Kisekka, J. D. Holman, J. W. Waggoner, J. Aguilar, R. Currie

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

There is limited information on forage sorghum and corn silage yield response to full and deficit irrigation in Kansas. The objective of this study was to generate information on forage sorghum (brown mid-rib hybrids (BMR and non-BMR)) and corn silage yield response to different levels of irrigation as influenced by irrigation capacity in southwest Kansas. Preliminary results indicate the effect of irrigation capacity on forage yield was significant (P = 0.0009) in 2014 but not 2015, probably due to high growing season rainfall received in 2015. Corn silage produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher biomass at all irrigation capacities compared to forage sorghum hybrids in 2015. BMR forage sorghum produced significantly lower biomass compared to non-BMR hybrid in both 2014 and 2015 (P < 0.05). The highest amounts of forage produced for corn silage, BMR, and non-BMR forage sorghum were 24.6, 17.4, and 21.1 tons/a adjusted to 65%, moisture respectively. Water productivity ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 dry matter tons/a/in. More research is needed under normal and dry years to quantify forage sorghum and corn silage yield and forage quality response to full and deficit irrigation.


Portland-Vancouver Ultra-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance And Environmental Quality In Urban Ecosystems, J. Alan Yeakley, Sally Duncan, Steve Bollens, Connie P. Ozawa, Vivek Shandas, Heejun Chang, Marion Dresner, Sean N. Gordon, John A. Harrison, Jeffrey D. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo, Noelwah R. Netusil, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Mark Stephan, Paul R. Thiers 2016 Portland State University

Portland-Vancouver Ultra-Ex: Evaluating Relationships Between Governance And Environmental Quality In Urban Ecosystems, J. Alan Yeakley, Sally Duncan, Steve Bollens, Connie P. Ozawa, Vivek Shandas, Heejun Chang, Marion Dresner, Sean N. Gordon, John A. Harrison, Jeffrey D. Kline, Anita T. Morzillo, Noelwah R. Netusil, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Mark Stephan, Paul R. Thiers

J. Alan Yeakley

The Portland-Vancouver Urban Long Term Research Area (ULTRA-Ex) is a multidisciplinary project aimed at understanding the feedbacks between human and natural systems in urban settings. The ULTRA-Ex project is seeking to answer the overarching question: How do human governance and biophysical systems respond interactively to both press and pulse disturbances in urban socio-ecological systems?

This presentation provides early observations and findings from the PV ULTRA-Ex project.


Investigating Opportunities For Enhancing Farmer Adoption Of Strategically Targeted Prairie Strips In Iowa, J. Gordon Arbuckle R., Drake Larsen, Tricia G. Knoot, John Tyndall, Emily Sorensen 2016 arbuckle@iastate.edu

Investigating Opportunities For Enhancing Farmer Adoption Of Strategically Targeted Prairie Strips In Iowa, J. Gordon Arbuckle R., Drake Larsen, Tricia G. Knoot, John Tyndall, Emily Sorensen

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Project researchers conducted in-depth interviews with a broad range of stakeholders from state agricultural and environmental groups and agencies. The research identified perceived barriers to adoption and gained stakeholder feedback on practical steps that might be taken to surmount those barriers and broaden awareness of and support for the technology.


Farmer Perspectives On Ecosystems Service Management, Land Use Targeting And The Future Of Cornbelt Agriculture, John Tyndall, Tricia G. Knoot, Matt Helmers, Drake Larsen, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Brian K. Gelder 2016 Iowa State University

Farmer Perspectives On Ecosystems Service Management, Land Use Targeting And The Future Of Cornbelt Agriculture, John Tyndall, Tricia G. Knoot, Matt Helmers, Drake Larsen, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Brian K. Gelder

J. Gordon Arbuckle

The development and use of targeted conservation practices was the subject of modeling, interviews and support tools researched by the project investigators.


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