Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Environmental Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

30024 Full-Text Articles 36809 Authors 4940046 Downloads 245 Institutions

All Articles in Environmental Sciences

Faceted Search

30024 full-text articles. Page 1 of 626.

Sustainability Education In Primary And Secondary Schools: Great Needs And Possible Solutions, Allison Watson 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Sustainability Education In Primary And Secondary Schools: Great Needs And Possible Solutions, Allison Watson

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.

First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...


Pine Needle Pyrolysis: Bio-Waste Into Biofuel, Alexandra Fuentes 2017 Dominican University of California

Pine Needle Pyrolysis: Bio-Waste Into Biofuel, Alexandra Fuentes

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2017

This project explores the alternate uses of biomass. In particular, it focuses on pine needles as a source for biofuels. Pine needles are of interest because in certain Mountain communities they are collected and removed from residential properties. By removing the pine needles, communities create a “defensible space” to prevent wild fires from destroying homes. These needles are often placed in regional landfills. The South Tahoe Refuse and Recycling Services alone has more than 4,340 tons of pine needles dumped at their facility annually. This large amount of biomass can be a potential energy source.

The focus of this ...


The Giving Trees: The (Un)Sustainability Of Palm Oil In Indonesia, Amber Rosche 2017 Pepperdine University

The Giving Trees: The (Un)Sustainability Of Palm Oil In Indonesia, Amber Rosche

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Palm oil is the main source of cooking oil for much of Africa, Asia and Brazil. Due to the increasingly high demand for palm oil, countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia have cleared millions of acres of tropical rainforests to create space for oil palm plantations. This deforestation has led to extreme environmental and social concerns such as the burning of peatlands, the endangerment of a number of species, including the Sumatran Tiger, rhinos and orangutans, and the displacement of native populations. Indonesia is the world’s largest consumer and producer of palm oil, producing almost half of the world ...


Sources To Seafood: Mercury Pollution In The Marine Environment, Celia Y. Chen, Charles T. Driscoll, Kathleen F. Lambert, Robert P. Mason, Laurie R. Rardin, Catherine V. Schmitt, N. S. Serrell, Elsie M. Sunderland 2017 Dartmouth College

Sources To Seafood: Mercury Pollution In The Marine Environment, Celia Y. Chen, Charles T. Driscoll, Kathleen F. Lambert, Robert P. Mason, Laurie R. Rardin, Catherine V. Schmitt, N. S. Serrell, Elsie M. Sunderland

Catherine Schmitt

In 2010, the Toxic Metals Superfund Research Program at Dartmouth College brought together a group of 50 scientists and policy stakeholders to form C-MERC, the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative. The goal was to review current knowledge—and knowledge gaps—relating to a global environmental health problem, mercury contamination of the world’s marine fish. C-MERC participants attended two workshops over a two-year period, and in 2012 C-MERC authors published a series of peer-reviewed papers in the journals Environmental Health Perspectives and Environmental Research that elucidated key processes related to the inputs, cycling, and uptake of mercury in ...


Adrift In A Sea Of Information About Sustainable Seafood: The Maine Consumer Perspective, Catherine V. Schmitt 2017 Maine Sea Grant

Adrift In A Sea Of Information About Sustainable Seafood: The Maine Consumer Perspective, Catherine V. Schmitt

Catherine Schmitt

The desire for a sustainable seafood industry that protects the environment and the future of fishing is certainly of interest to consumers, but even here there are conflicting standards, as Catherine Schmitt explores in this article.


Economic Evaluation Of Governor Branstad’S Water Quality Initiative, Dermot J. Hayes, Catherine L. Kling, John D. Lawrence 2017 Iowa State University

Economic Evaluation Of Governor Branstad’S Water Quality Initiative, Dermot J. Hayes, Catherine L. Kling, John D. Lawrence

Catherine Kling

Governor Branstad has proposed an initiative that would significantly increase state spending on water quality. This document examines the economic costs and benefits of such a proposal. As with previous work on this topic, this economic evaluation uses the state’s Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy to measure costs and research results on water quality benefits from Iowa State University’s Center for Agricultural and Rural Development. In doing an economic evaluation of this type, the reader should understand these important points: 1. A calculation of Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy costs with current strategies can be determined. The costs in labor ...


Willingness To Pay For Clear Lake Cleanup, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling 2017 Iowa State University

Willingness To Pay For Clear Lake Cleanup, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling

Catherine Kling

The water quality in Iowa’s lakes has been a hot topic lately. Concerns about the water quality in many of the state’s lakes have brought increased attention to the value of the lakes as a recreational resource. One lake that has experienced recent water quality problems, as well as the accompanying publicity, is Clear Lake, located in Cerro Gordo County.


Valuing Water Quality In Midwestern Lake Ecosystems, Kevin J. Egan, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling, John A. Downing 2017 Iowa State University

Valuing Water Quality In Midwestern Lake Ecosystems, Kevin J. Egan, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling, John A. Downing

Catherine Kling

As increased attention is focused on the issue of water quality in the state of Iowa, policymakers must grapple with the pressures of balancing federal water quality requirements, tight conservation budgets, and citizen concern for environmental preservation and restoration of Iowa’s water resources. Efforts to improve water quality typically entail significant costs, either in the form of state resources to fund cleanup efforts or private costs associated with altering land uses, farming practices, municipal treatment facility expansions, or other investments.


Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew VanLoocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew Vanloocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang

Catherine Kling

On October 12–13, a workshop funded by the National Science Foundation was held at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa with a goal of identifying research needs related to coupled economic and biophysical models within the FEW system. Approximately 80 people attended the workshop with about half representing the social sciences (primarily economics) and the rest from the physical and natural sciences. The focus and attendees were chosen so that findings would be particularly relevant to SBE research needs while taking into account the critical connectivity needed between social sciences and other disciplines. We have identified several major gaps ...


The Optimality Of Using Marginal Land For Bioenergy Crops: Tradeoffs Between Food, Fuel, And Environmental Services, Adriana M. Valcu-Lisman, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman 2017 Iowa State University

The Optimality Of Using Marginal Land For Bioenergy Crops: Tradeoffs Between Food, Fuel, And Environmental Services, Adriana M. Valcu-Lisman, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman

Catherine Kling

We assess empirically how agricultural lands should be used to produce the highest valued outputs, which include food, energy, and environmental goods and services. We explore efficiency tradeoffs associated with allocating land between food and bioenergy and use a set of market prices and nonmarket environmental values to value the outputs produced by those crops. We also examine the degree to which using marginal land for energy crops is an approximately optimal rule. Our empirical results for an agricultural watershed in Iowa show that planting energy crops on marginal land is not likely to yield the highest valued output.


Valuing Preservation And Improvements Of Water Quality In Clear Lake, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine Kling 2017 Iowa State University

Valuing Preservation And Improvements Of Water Quality In Clear Lake, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine Kling

Catherine Kling

This report presents summary statistics and other results of a survey of Clear Lake visitors and residents. Drawing on survey results, the authors present information on recreational usage of the lake, attitudes of recreators and local residents toward possible watershed management changes, and estimates of visitors' and residents' willingness to pay for water quality improvements at the lake. Support for the survey was provided by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources.


Least-Cost Control Of Agricultural Nutrient Contributions To The Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Todd Campbell, Manoj K. Jha, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Sylvia Secchi, Catherine L. Kling 2017 University of Washington

Least-Cost Control Of Agricultural Nutrient Contributions To The Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Todd Campbell, Manoj K. Jha, Hongli Feng, Philip W. Gassman, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Sylvia Secchi, Catherine L. Kling

Catherine Kling

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold 2017 Iowa State University

Impacts Of Climate Change On Hydrology, Water Quality And Crop Productivity In The Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Philip W. Gassman, Raymond W. Arritt, Daryl E. Herzmann, Todd D. Campbell, Adriana Valcu, Manoj K. Jha, Catherine L. Kling, Raghavan Srinivasan, Michael White, Jeffrey G. Arnold

Catherine Kling

Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. The eastern part of this region is comprised of the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which is considered a key contributing area for water pollution and the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. A point of crucial importance in this basin is therefore how intensive corn-based cropping systems for food and fuel production can be sustainable and coexist with a healthy water environment, not only under existing climate but also under climate change conditions in ...


Incentives To Boost Conservation Tillage Adoption, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Catherine L. Kling 2017 Iowa State University

Incentives To Boost Conservation Tillage Adoption, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Catherine L. Kling

Catherine Kling

With increasing public demand for clear air and clean water, many inside and outside Washington, D.C., have suggested that federal farm income support should be tied to enhanced conservation practices.


Iowa’S Wetlands: Who Will Pay For Preservation?, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling 2017 Iowa State University

Iowa’S Wetlands: Who Will Pay For Preservation?, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling

Catherine Kling

It is estimated that before the 1750s, Iowa had around 2.3 million acres of wetlands. Today, Iowa has about 35,000 acres, with over 98 percent of the original wetlands converted to other uses—primarily agricultural production.


Iowa Wetlands: Perceptions And Values, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine Kling 2017 Iowa State University

Iowa Wetlands: Perceptions And Values, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine Kling

Catherine Kling

Understanding how Iowans view the benefits and costs of wetlands preservation is key to making decisions about the future of wetlands in Iowa. To that end, the authors created "The Iowa Wetlands Survey." How the survey was designed and administered is described and the results are summarized. The survey reveals important information about how Iowans use wetlands, what they know about wetlands, and how much they value preserving them.


A Tale Of Three Watersheds: Nonpoint Source Pollution And Conservation Practices Across Iowa, Keith E. Schilling, Mark D. Tomer, Philip W. Gassman, Catherine Kling, Thomas M. Isenhart, Thomas B. Moorman, William W. Simpkins, Calvin F. Wolter 2017 Iowa Geological Survey

A Tale Of Three Watersheds: Nonpoint Source Pollution And Conservation Practices Across Iowa, Keith E. Schilling, Mark D. Tomer, Philip W. Gassman, Catherine Kling, Thomas M. Isenhart, Thomas B. Moorman, William W. Simpkins, Calvin F. Wolter

Catherine Kling

Many conservation practices and implementation programs exist to address nonpoint source (NPS) pollution losses from agricultural landscapes (Helmers et al., this issue). In order to select the most appropriate practices and programs for reducing NPS pollution in a specific region while maintaining economic return for the landowner, the interacting processes of agricultural management and watershed hydrology need to be understood across broad spatial scales. On a nationwide basis, it is easy to see how NPS pollution in one part of the country might be different than those in another region of the country. For example, cotton growers in the South ...


Global Solutions To Regional Problems: Collecting Global Expertise To Address The Problem Of Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms. A Lake Erie Case Study, George S. Bullerjahn, Robert M. McKay, Timothy W. Davis, David B. Baker, Gregory L. Boyer, Leslie V. D'Anglada, Gregory J. Doucette, Jeff C. Ho, Elena G. Irwin, Catherine L. Kling, Raphael M. Kudela, Rainer Kurmayer, Anna M. Michalak, Joseph D. Ortiz, Timothy G. Otten, Hans W. Paerl, Boqiang Qin, Brent L. Sohngen, Richard P. Stumpf, Petra M. Visser, Steven W. Wilhelm 2017 Bowling Green State University

Global Solutions To Regional Problems: Collecting Global Expertise To Address The Problem Of Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms. A Lake Erie Case Study, George S. Bullerjahn, Robert M. Mckay, Timothy W. Davis, David B. Baker, Gregory L. Boyer, Leslie V. D'Anglada, Gregory J. Doucette, Jeff C. Ho, Elena G. Irwin, Catherine L. Kling, Raphael M. Kudela, Rainer Kurmayer, Anna M. Michalak, Joseph D. Ortiz, Timothy G. Otten, Hans W. Paerl, Boqiang Qin, Brent L. Sohngen, Richard P. Stumpf, Petra M. Visser, Steven W. Wilhelm

Catherine Kling

In early August 2014, the municipality of Toledo, OH (USA) issued a ‘do not drink’ advisory on their water supply directly affecting over 400,000 residential customers and hundreds of businesses (Wilson, 2014). This order was attributable to levels of microcystin, a potent liver toxin, which rose to 2.5 mg L1 in finished drinking water. The Toledo crisis afforded an opportunity to bring together scientists from around the world to share ideas regarding factors that contribute to bloom formation and toxigenicity, bloom and toxin detection as well as prevention and remediation of bloom events. These discussions took place at ...


Degraded Water Quality In Lakes: Consequences For Use, Hocheol Jeon, Catherine L. Kling, Yongjie Ji 2017 Iowa State University

Degraded Water Quality In Lakes: Consequences For Use, Hocheol Jeon, Catherine L. Kling, Yongjie Ji

Catherine Kling

Iowa, like many states in the Midwest, suffers from poor water quality. Excess nutrients in the state’s lakes and streams contribute to odor, limited clarity, excess algae and plant growth, and can contribute to a number of other undesirable changes to habitat and water quality. These changes, in turn, can reduce the usage and enjoyment of lakes and streams. Likewise, improvements in water quality brought about by reduced nutrient pollution or lake improvement projects can increase the number of visitors and their enjoyment of natural environments. To better understand what Iowans value about their natural environment and how changes ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress