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Evaluation Of Evaporative Drivers And Hydrologic Influences Using Energy And Water Budget Techniques At A Shallow Saline Lake In The Western Sandhills Of Nebraska, Usa, Colin Peake 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Evaporative Drivers And Hydrologic Influences Using Energy And Water Budget Techniques At A Shallow Saline Lake In The Western Sandhills Of Nebraska, Usa, Colin Peake

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The western Sandhills of Nebraska contain many shallow lakes and wetlands that interact strongly with groundwater and the overlying atmosphere. The region is semi-arid, and most of the lakes are saline, supporting a wide range of ecosystems. Water levels and salt concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in precipitation, evaporation, and groundwater fluxes, making the Sandhills an excellent laboratory for examining the effects of climate on the water balance of interdunal lakes. In this study, we investigate the atmospheric controls on evaporation rates, as well as the water balance of Alkali Lake, one of the more saline lakes in the ...


Climate Change: Threats To Social Welfare And Social Justice Requiring Social Work Intervention, Lauren Caroline Achstatter 2014 Fordham University

Climate Change: Threats To Social Welfare And Social Justice Requiring Social Work Intervention, Lauren Caroline Achstatter

21st Century Social Justice

The article looks at climate change though a social development framework, with emphasis on social justice and social welfare. It evaluates how market-based capitalism continues to contribute to the problem while ignoring the warnings from the scientific community. The article goes on to report that despite the devastation of climate change, concerns – mainly financial in nature - continue to hinder progress towards reform. The article then argues that given the evidence, climate change qualifies as a topic of interest for social workers. The article goes on to advocate for social work involvement highlighting some suggested areas for action.


A Geospatial Approach For Prioritizing Wind Farm Development In Northeast Nebraska, Usa, Adam Miller, Ruopu Li 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Geospatial Approach For Prioritizing Wind Farm Development In Northeast Nebraska, Usa, Adam Miller, Ruopu Li

Papers in Natural Resources

Being cleaner and climate friendly, wind energy has been increasingly utilized to meet the ever-growing global energy demands. In the State of Nebraska, USA, a wide gap exists between wind resource and actual energy production, and it is imperative to expand the wind energy development. Because of the formidable costs associated with wind energy development, the locations for new wind turbines need to be carefully selected to provide the greatest benefit for a given investment. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been widely used to identify the suitable wind farm locations. In this study, a GIS-based multi-criteria approach was developed to ...


A Conservation Status Index, As An Auxiliary Tool For The Management Of Cave Environments, Christiane Ramos Donato, Adauto de Souza Ribeiro, Leandro de Sousa Souto 2014 University of South Florida

A Conservation Status Index, As An Auxiliary Tool For The Management Of Cave Environments, Christiane Ramos Donato, Adauto De Souza Ribeiro, Leandro De Sousa Souto

International Journal of Speleology

The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features) and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI) were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr) comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due ...


The Natural, Jeff Clark 2014 Colby College

The Natural, Jeff Clark

Colby Magazine

Just before Thanksgiving Day last November, Kent Wommack '77 got the classic good-news, bad-news, worse-news call. Wommack is head of The Nature Conservancy in Maine, and the caller was a timberland manager who had asked Wommack to back a client in acquiring prime acres of Maine forest on the upper St. John River, one of the most unspoiled waterways left in the United States. The good news was that the owner had agreed to sell the breathtaking chunk of land in the first place. The bad news was that the client was no longer interested in the deal. The worse ...


Introduction: Geospatial Analysis Of Urban Environment, Changjoo Kim 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Introduction: Geospatial Analysis Of Urban Environment, Changjoo Kim

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

To provide a timely snapshot of current research that utilizes geospatial analysis and modeling in urban environment, the Korea-America Association for Geospatial and Environmental Sciences (KAGES) and the editorship of the International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research (IJGER) organized a special issue of IJGER on the theme of geospatial analysis and urban environment. Eight articles out of 13 submitted manuscripts have been published in this issue. This article provides an overview of the articles published in the special issue.


Measuring Spatial Health Disparity Using A Network-Based Accessibility Index Method In A Gis Environment: A Case Study Of Hillsborough County, Florida, Huairen Ye, Hyun Kim 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Measuring Spatial Health Disparity Using A Network-Based Accessibility Index Method In A Gis Environment: A Case Study Of Hillsborough County, Florida, Huairen Ye, Hyun Kim

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

In recent decades, the health care delivery system in the United States has been greatly transformed and more widely examined. Even with one of the most developed health care systems in the world, the United States still experiences great spatial disparity in health care access. Increasing diversity of class, culture, and ethnicity also has a significant impact on health disparity. The goal of this paper is to address the spatial disparity of health care access using a network-based health accessibility index method (NHAIM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Ensuring a desired level of accessibility for patients is the ...


Using Fine Resolution Orthoimagery And Spatial Interpolation To Rapidly Map Turf Grass In Suburban Massachusetts, Daniel S.M. Runfola, Thomas Hamill, Robert Gilmore Pontius Jr., John Rogan, Nick Giner, Albert Decatur, Samuel Ratick 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Using Fine Resolution Orthoimagery And Spatial Interpolation To Rapidly Map Turf Grass In Suburban Massachusetts, Daniel S.M. Runfola, Thomas Hamill, Robert Gilmore Pontius Jr., John Rogan, Nick Giner, Albert Decatur, Samuel Ratick

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

This paper explores the use of spatial interpolative methods in conjunction with object based image analysis to estimate turf grass land cover quantity and allocation in Greater Boston, Massachusetts, USA. The goal is to learn how accurately turf grass can be estimated if only a limited portion of the study area is mapped. First, turf grass land cover is mapped at the 0.5 m resolution across the entire Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, a 1143-km2 area. Second, the turf grass map is aggregated into 120 m cells (N = 84,661). Third, a random ...


Measuring And Modeling Of Urban Growth And Its Impacts On Vegetation And Species Habitats In Greater Orlando, Florida, Sunhui Sim, Victor Mesev 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Measuring And Modeling Of Urban Growth And Its Impacts On Vegetation And Species Habitats In Greater Orlando, Florida, Sunhui Sim, Victor Mesev

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

Urban growth is widely regarded as an important driver of environmental and social problems. It causes the loss of informal open space and wildlife habitats. Timely and accurate assessments of future urban growth scenarios and associated environmental impacts are crucial for urban planning, policy decision, and natural resource management. In this study, five distinct scenarios ("no constraints", "compact development", "transit-oriented development", "agriculture protection" and "environmental protection" scenarios) were tested on Greater Orlando, Florida, along with conservation objectives and projections for future land use/cover from development demands. The study examined the consequences of alternative scenarios of urban growth on potential ...


Precipitation Patterns And Trends In The Metropolitan Area Of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Anke P.M. Keuser 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Precipitation Patterns And Trends In The Metropolitan Area Of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Anke P.M. Keuser

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

This study investigated changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the metropolitan area of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in an attempt to find the effects of urban areas on precipitation patterns. Precipitation data were obtained from a gridded (8-km spacing) historical climatic dataset for Wisconsin for 1950-2006. The Mann-Kendall test and the Sen’s slope test were applied to investigate temporal trends. Monthly wind directions were examined against monthly precipitation patterns. Main findings from the study include the following: (1) Annual precipitation significantly increased in the northern part of the study area during 1950-2006, whereas extreme precipitation showed virtually no trends; (2 ...


Impacts Of Remotely Sensed Land Use Data On Watershed Hydrologic Change Assessment, Gi-Choul Ahn, Steven I. Gordon, Carolyn J. Merry 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Impacts Of Remotely Sensed Land Use Data On Watershed Hydrologic Change Assessment, Gi-Choul Ahn, Steven I. Gordon, Carolyn J. Merry

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

Urbanization affects the stream system of a watershed. Increased urbanization alters the land cover and surface characteristics, the stream channel characteristics, and pollutant load of a stream system by increasing the amount of impervious surface. Once rural, forest, or wetland areas are changed to streets, highways, parking lots, sidewalks, and building rooftops. This results in large volumes of runoff being generated for an intense storm over a relatively short time period. As a result, sensitive ecosystems are likely to be damaged by increased urbanization.

Projecting the impact of land use changes on a watershed scale often requires the use of ...


Sensitivity Of Urban Water Consumption To Weather And Climate Variability At Multiple Temporal Scales: The Case Of Portland, Oregon, Heejun Chang, Sarah Praskievicz, Hossein Parandvash 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Sensitivity Of Urban Water Consumption To Weather And Climate Variability At Multiple Temporal Scales: The Case Of Portland, Oregon, Heejun Chang, Sarah Praskievicz, Hossein Parandvash

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

The sensitivity of municipal water consumption to climate and weather variability is investigated for Portland’s water provider service area between 1960 and 2013. The relationship between detrended seasonal urban water use (the difference between total water use and base use) and weather and climate variables (precipitation, maximum temperature) is examined at daily, monthly, and seasonal scales using stepwise multiple regression and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. At a seasonal and a monthly timescales, interannual variation in maximum temperature is the most important predictor of seasonal water consumption per capita, explaining up to 48% of the variation in seasonal ...


Assessing Survivability Of The Beijing Subway System, Yan Li, Hyun Kim 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Assessing Survivability Of The Beijing Subway System, Yan Li, Hyun Kim

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

The Beijing subway system, the third largest in the world, serves more than ten million passengers a day. As Beijing is the capital city of China and thus a booming urban center, its subway system has experienced rapid evolution from a local single line system to a complicated network. Due to its constantly increasing complexity, the system is both a critical asset for a local transit artery and a bridge between intercity transportation modes, increasing the issue of network survivability in the face of potential outages of network components. In this study, we provide a connectivity-based survivability measure with which ...


Effects Of Land Cover Change On Water Quality In Urban Streams At Two Spatial Scales, Sonia Singh, Heejun Chang 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Effects Of Land Cover Change On Water Quality In Urban Streams At Two Spatial Scales, Sonia Singh, Heejun Chang

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

This study examines the relationships between land cover change and water quality change in three urbanizing watersheds in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States: Burnt Bridge Creek, Salmon Creek, and the Tualatin River. All three watersheds have had many of their water quality parameters exceeding Total Maximum Daily Loads as required by their state’s environmental agencies in the past decades. By using the National Land Cover Datasets classified by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for 1992, 2001 and 2006 and water quality data for a period between 1991 and 2010, this paper aims to examine whether ...


Global Economic Impacts Of Shoreline Degradation: A Socioeconomic Analysis, Alexa Brockamp 2014 University of Washington Tacoma

Global Economic Impacts Of Shoreline Degradation: A Socioeconomic Analysis, Alexa Brockamp

Global Honors Theses

Shoreline Degradation is an economically important issue, which damages coastal tourism economies, and causes shifts in flows of tourist capital. Shifts in flows of tourist capital have the potential to cause shifts in economic power relationships between nations. Governments and planning agencies should acknowledge the inherent dependence of coastal tourism economies on shoreline health and water quality, and conceptions framing the two issues as dichotomous are destructive – causing urban decisions to be made as if environmental and economic interests are mutually exclusive. It is important that such perceptions shift in order to maintain healthy coastal economies. Additionally, the socio- economic ...


An Empirical Exploration Of The Effects Of Natural Gas Prices On Solar Energy Growth, Jeffrey Walton 2014 University of Puget Sound

An Empirical Exploration Of The Effects Of Natural Gas Prices On Solar Energy Growth, Jeffrey Walton

Economics Theses

This paper analyzes the relationship between natural gas prices and solar installation in the past ten years. The point is to explain how the fluctuations in natural gas prices have effected solar installation. Briefly, natural gas prices from three to five years ago have a positive coefficient on solar installation in the current period, meaning that as the natural gas price three to five years ago increases, solar installation today increases. In course of the analysis, we find that the Goldilocks theory holds true and a natural gas price range from $4 to $6 leads to the highest level of ...


Vehicle Multi-Pass Rut Volume And Mobility Power Study, William W. Barbour 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Vehicle Multi-Pass Rut Volume And Mobility Power Study, William W. Barbour

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

This paper presents the relationship between applied power by a wheeled vehicle to soil and the rutting effects. Specifically, a strong positive relationship was found between cumulative applied power and total rut volume across multiple passes by the vehicle over the same tracks. Field-testing was conducted using a high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) and two distinct soil types. Sensors on the vehicle measured torque and angular velocity of each of the four wheels, from which applied power was calculated. A rut profile meter was used to document the shape of the rut after set numbers of passes and this profile ...


Streamflow Modeling Of Johnson Creek Subwatersheds Using The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, Theophilus M. Malone 2014 Portland State University

Streamflow Modeling Of Johnson Creek Subwatersheds Using The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, Theophilus M. Malone

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

Johnson Creek, in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan region, has several pollutants on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) 303(d) list including excess heat, low dissolved oxygen, and harmful bacteria. Understanding streamflow response to precipitation events is an important component to evaluating water quality trends and calculating the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for pollutants of concern. Investigating the streamflow-precipitation relationship on the subwatershed scale can give insight to the hydrologic response of a given watershed. However, developing rating curves for several subwatersheds can be cost and time prohibitive. The objective of this project was to develop a ...


What Components Influence Hypothetical Willingness To Pay For The Environmental Benefits Of Shade-Grown Coffee?, Ellen V. Webb 2014 DePaul University

What Components Influence Hypothetical Willingness To Pay For The Environmental Benefits Of Shade-Grown Coffee?, Ellen V. Webb

DePaul Discoveries

Coffee is one example of a good whose consumption can lead to environmental degradation that the consumer is unaware of. During the 19th century, new high-yield varieties of coffee were developed that could be grown under the direct sunlight of recently deforested areas. An ecologically friendly alternative to mass-produced sun-grown systems is shade-grown coffee. This coffee is grown under traditional forest cover, providing ecological benefits such as species habitat, but at lower yields. In the global market, a price premium is the practice of placing a higher price than the market price on a specific good. If consumers value ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Vegetation On The Carbon Storage Of Northern Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, Nia Hurst 2014 DePaul University

Quantifying The Effects Of Vegetation On The Carbon Storage Of Northern Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, Nia Hurst

DePaul Discoveries

Given the rising concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere, it is important to assess the natural reservoirs in which carbon can be stored. Great Lakes coastal wetlands are a potentially significant pool of carbon that have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Our study measured soil C (carbon) and depth of organic matter in swamp, transitional, and wet meadow vegetation zones of three wetlands located in the Eastern half of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, in the Les Chenaux Islands. It was hypothesized that soil C would decrease moving lakeward (swamp>transitional>wet meadow); however, this hypothesis ...


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