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Ga Based Optimal Control For Maximizing Pv Penetration At Transmission, Chittesh Veni Chandran 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Ga Based Optimal Control For Maximizing Pv Penetration At Transmission, Chittesh Veni Chandran

Student Journal of Energy Research

Utilization of distributed energy resources (DER’s) like photo-voltaic generators, is one of the possible solution for present scenario of energy crisis. Most of the study suggest the implementation of PV power stations at distribution level. In this paper detailed theoretical analyses of the impact of large scale PV on transmission level is analysed. The preliminary section of this paper provides literature review with specifications of IEEE-14 bus network. Two methodology ie, constant load method and maximum loading method is implemented here. A test study is done in IEEE 14 bus to find out the optimal location of solar photo-voltaic ...


Risk Assessment For Two Multi Terminal Vsc-Hvdc Control Schemes, Roberto Sandano 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Risk Assessment For Two Multi Terminal Vsc-Hvdc Control Schemes, Roberto Sandano

Student Journal of Energy Research

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) connections have been in operation since the 1950s. The vast majority of which are point to point connections and use Line Commutated Converter (LCC) technology. Since the late nineties Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology has become a feasible choice on HVDC transmission systems [1]. Research is now focused in the development of Multi-terminal (MT)-HVDC system which will facilitate the collection of energy from distant dispersed renewable energy resources and transport this energy to load centres.


Power Quality Improvement In Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Power System Using Statcom, Sandipan Patra 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Power Quality Improvement In Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Power System Using Statcom, Sandipan Patra

Student Journal of Energy Research

This paper presents the power quality improvement in a microgrid, supplying a nonlinear and unbalanced load using fuzzy logic controller based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The microgrid contains a hybrid combination photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) along with the battery energy storage system (BESS) where a decentralized power sharing algorithm is used to control its power management. Here, STATCOM is used as a compensator for the hybrid system to reduce the harmonics in the voltage and current profile at the point of common coupling (PCC). The current reference is generated taking into account, the active and reactive power to be ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Kevin Hallinan

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha

Kevin Hallinan

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


How Can Occupancy Modeling And Occupancy Sensors Reduce Energy Usage In Academic Buildings: An Application Approach To University Of San Francisco, Paloma R. Duong 2016 University of San Francisco

How Can Occupancy Modeling And Occupancy Sensors Reduce Energy Usage In Academic Buildings: An Application Approach To University Of San Francisco, Paloma R. Duong

Master's Projects

Buildings are amongst the highest energy consumers relative to industry and transportation. They account for 40% of the world’s energy consumption, due to the need for lighting, equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation. Academic buildings are multi-purpose buildings that create a challenge on energy reduction. Most are old and have fixed occupancy schedules, resulting in high energy consumption because these buildings experience significant occupancy variation throughout the day. Five academic buildings were analyzed; their building information, energy consumption data and methods to project energy savings have been analyzed. The case studies presented different strategies on predicting energy savings, but these ...


Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis 2016 University of San Francisco

Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis

Master's Projects

Oil spill models, ecological risks, response options, and costs were assessed for a discharge of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay from a train derailment. This assessment was based on the risk of crude by rail derailments into the San Francisco Bay; in 2014, California oil refineries imported over 240 million gallons of Bakken crude oil by rail for processing. A hypothetical scenario was developed from a derailment on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge and discharging 100,000 gallons of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay. The oil trajectory impacted the Carquinez Strait, Suisun ...


Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill 2016 Chapman University

Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has been shown to impact the environment and threaten both human and animal health, especially in heavily populated urban areas, yet to date there remains a paucity of direct measurements. Recent studies have suggested that ammonia may be generated as a byproduct of fossil fuel emissions due to highly active catalytic converters in light-duty gasoline vehicles. To investigate this relationship, an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was used to directly measure atmospheric ammonia and combustion reaction products in the Southern California LA Basin, during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The temporal ...


Chapman University 2016 Environmental Audit: Residence Life Dining Services Equipment, Alexandra FW Sidun, Devon T. Bloss 2016 Chapman University

Chapman University 2016 Environmental Audit: Residence Life Dining Services Equipment, Alexandra Fw Sidun, Devon T. Bloss

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Chapman University accommodates over 1700 student meal plans per day through the on-campus dining services provided by Sodexo Restaurant Services. The commercial-grade kitchens found in the Randall Dining Commons (RDC) of Sandhu Conference Center are frequently used to prepare food for students for every meal, seven days a week. The RDC kitchen facility has staff working around the clock and high consumption electrical, water, and gas appliances constantly running to parallel the high demand. The frequent use of commercial kitchen appliances results in an enormous consumption of energy and water resources leading to comparably high utility bills. Measuring the energy ...


Oil Contamination In Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Olof Lindén, Jonas Pålsson 2016 World Maritime University

Oil Contamination In Ogoniland, Niger Delta, Olof Lindén, Jonas Pålsson

Jonas Pålsson

The study shows extensive oil contamination of rivers, creeks, and ground waters in Ogoniland, Nigeria. The levels found in the more contaminated sites are high enough to cause severe impacts on the ecosystem and human health: extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (EPHs) (>10-C40) in surface waters up to 7420 μg L−1, drinking water wells show up to 42 200 μg L−1, and benzene up to 9000 μg L−1, more than 900 times the WHO guidelines. EPH concentrations in sediments were up to 17 900 mg kg−1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations reached 8.0 mg kg−1, in the ...


Oil Contamination In The Niger Delta, Jonas Pålsson, Olof Lindén 2016 World Maritime University

Oil Contamination In The Niger Delta, Jonas Pålsson, Olof Lindén

Jonas Pålsson

Oil spills in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has occurred frequently since oil extraction started in the 1950's. The oil spills originates from facilities and pipelines, leaks from ageing and abandoned infrastructure and from spills during transport and artisanal refining of stolen oil under primitive conditions. It is estimated that spills in Nigeria amount to 100 000 to 200 000 tons per year and have been doing so for almost 60 years. While a number of reports have been written about the Niger Delta and the civil unrest in this area during the last decades, very few scientific ...


Simplified Methodology For Designing Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, Ricardo Vasquez Padilla 2016 University of South Florida

Simplified Methodology For Designing Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, Ricardo Vasquez Padilla

Dr Ricardo Vasquez Padilla

The performance of parabolic trough based solar power plants over the last 25 years has proven that this technology is an excellent alternative for the commercial power industry. Compared to conventional power plants, parabolic trough solar power plants produce significantly lower levels of carbon dioxide, although additional research is required to bring the cost of concentrator solar plants to a competitive level. The cost reduction is focused on three areas: thermodynamic efficiency improvements by research and development, scaling up of the unit size, and mass production of the equipment. The optimum design, performance simulation and cost analysis of the parabolic ...


A New Paradigm Of Maximizing The Wind And Solar Penetration– A Economical Assessment, Yuming Chen 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A New Paradigm Of Maximizing The Wind And Solar Penetration– A Economical Assessment, Yuming Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Wind and solar energies are the most potential and widely-used renewable energies. But in most cases these energies cannot be maximized because of transmission line capacity and their remote location. Therefore, this thesis proposes a new paradigm which using battery transportation and logistics instead of transmission line, to maximize wind and solar energies. The main focus of this work is to investigate the economical feasibilities of this new paradigm.

In the first part, different models and application are presented. The purpose is finding an appropriate model which can make full use of existing grid resources such as transmission line and ...


Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith 2016 Iowa State University

Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith

CARD Working Papers

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) mandates large increases in U.S. biofuel consumption and is implemented using a market for tradable compliance credits, known as RINs. In early 2013, RIN prices soared, causing the regulator to propose reducing future mandates. We develop a dynamic model of RFS2 compliance to demonstrate how changes in expectations about future policy affect current compliance costs, and we use a market effciency test to demonstrate that RIN markets have behaved in accordance with our model. We then estimate empirically the effect of three “policy shocks” that reduced the expected mandates in 2013. The largest of ...


Laboratory Determination Of Porosity For A Vugular Carbonate Core Section By Water Immersion Method - Is It Effective Porosity?, Nolan Shula 2016 Cedarville University

Laboratory Determination Of Porosity For A Vugular Carbonate Core Section By Water Immersion Method - Is It Effective Porosity?, Nolan Shula

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Porosity is one of the most vital characteristics in hydrocarbon reservoir evaluations, affecting the methods implemented in the completion process and the efficiency of the production process. Several methods are used for porosity calculations, but due to both lithologic and downhole drilling factors, these values can range more than ± 5%. Also, most limestone reservoirs contain multiple-porosity systems, which lead to effective porosity concerns, especially when secondary porosity is a significant factor. Therefore, through both geophysical wireline log analysis and basic laboratory analyses, this project compared total and effective porosity values of a vugular Onondaga Limestone pinnacle reef core section from ...


Getches-Wilkinson Center Newsletter, Spring 2016, University of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment 2016 University of Colorado Law School

Getches-Wilkinson Center Newsletter, Spring 2016, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

Getches-Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment Newsletter (2013-)

No abstract provided.


Fracking In Pennsylvania: A Spatial Analysis Of Impacts On Land Cover And Land Use, The Viewshed, And The Audioshed, Kelly A. Collins 2016 Gettysburg College

Fracking In Pennsylvania: A Spatial Analysis Of Impacts On Land Cover And Land Use, The Viewshed, And The Audioshed, Kelly A. Collins

Student Publications

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of extracting natural gas from layers of shale rock beneath the surface of the Earth. The largest source of natural gas in the US is the Marcellus Shale, largely located in Pennsylvania, and it is believed to hold about 141 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in its shale deposits. My study examined the impacts of well sites on land cover and land use, the viewshed, and the audioshed. To study the effect of wellpads on land use and land cover, we overlaid a layer of wellpads over land cover data as well as a ...


Undimmed: Nurturing Indian Solar-Power Technology Within The Strictures Of The Wto, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan, Manmeet Singh 2016 National Institute of Advanced Studies

Undimmed: Nurturing Indian Solar-Power Technology Within The Strictures Of The Wto, Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan, Manmeet Singh

Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan

This February, a World Trade Organisation dispute panel adjudged the National Solar Mission’s "domestic content requirement," or DCR measures—agreements to purchase solar electricity from power companies on the condition that certain shares of the cells and panels they use be of Indian provenance—to be illegal. In its ruling, the panel cited provisions in the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs, or GATT, to which India is signatory, prohibiting member countries from giving preference to domestic products over imported ones.

This leaves the Indian government in a difficult position. Currently, indigenous solar modules are roughly a third more ...


Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha 2016 First Solar

Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

The environmental sciences have been critical to identifying global environmental challenges such as climate change, but they have been less extensively utilized in deploying solutions to those challenges, such as solar energy. Environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, aerosols, clouds, soiling, and snowfall have important effects on solar PV performance, and these effects can vary regionally. The current status of large-scale solar PV deployment will be discussed along with the role of environmental variables on PV performance.


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