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Getches-Wilkinson Center Newsletter, Fall 2017, University of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment 2017 University of Colorado Law School

Getches-Wilkinson Center Newsletter, Fall 2017, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

Getches-Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment Newsletter (2013-)

No abstract provided.


Algae As A New Source Of Biofuel, John C. Staley, Moises Contreras, Austin W. Jesz, Md Yusoff Mohammad Iqbal 2017 Iowa State University

Algae As A New Source Of Biofuel, John C. Staley, Moises Contreras, Austin W. Jesz, Md Yusoff Mohammad Iqbal

Mohammad Z. Iqbal

Biofuels utilizing algae as a feedstock processes the algae’s chloroplasts to transform the plant into oil that is nearly chemically identical to crude oil. Algae can grow using only available raw materials including sunlight, carbon dioxide and nutrients from wastewater. Algae can play a major role in the treatment/utilization of major wastewater and reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. High upfront costs, outdated technology, and non-existing incentives are the main reasons algae as a feedstock is currently an unpopular choice for biofuel.


Trends In The Environmental Health Job Market For New Graduates, Jason W. Marion, Timothy J. Murphy PhD, Anne Marie Zimeri PhD 2017 Eastern Kentucky University

Trends In The Environmental Health Job Market For New Graduates, Jason W. Marion, Timothy J. Murphy Phd, Anne Marie Zimeri Phd

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The question of whether the job market can support future graduates of environmental health programs remains an important and difficult question for environmental health programs, current and prospective students, parents, and other stakeholders. Our previous report using 2014 data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics demonstrated anticipated growth and higher than average pay in the profession through at least 2022 for baccalaureate degree holders (Marion & Sinde, 2015). Growth in the profession does not necessarily translate into job availability if the market is saturated with job candidates. While university programs produce graduates, local health departments (LHDs) have suffered tremendous ...


Biofuels From Crop Residue: Soil Organic Carbon And Climate Impacts In The Us And India, Adam Liska 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Biofuels From Crop Residue: Soil Organic Carbon And Climate Impacts In The Us And India, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

The transformation of crop residue to soil organic carbon and CO2 is a conserved process that occurs globally. Due to the mathematics of carbon intensity calculations found in government regulations, the amount of CO2 emitted from crop residue per unit of energy in biofuel is largely independent of the amount of residue removed and the location of its removal, as shown by results from the US and India.

Soil organic carbon (SOC) levels are at equilibria determined by carbon inputs from plant material (+Ic) and loss from oxidation to CO2

Are the US results relevant for ...


A Laboratory-Scale Study On The Production Of High-Value Products From Broiler Litter Involving Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion And Mushroom Cultivation, Joe Barrett Carter III 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Laboratory-Scale Study On The Production Of High-Value Products From Broiler Litter Involving Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion And Mushroom Cultivation, Joe Barrett Carter Iii

Theses and Dissertations

There is a need to investigate alternate uses and treatments of broiler litter that lessen environmental impacts and decrease costs associated with its disposal. Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which organic material is converted to a renewable fuel source. However, the substrate for anaerobic digestion often requires some form or pretreatment. Certain types of fungus have been investigated as a pretreatment for anaerobic digestion, one of which is Pleurotis ostreatus or the oyster mushroom, which also produces an edible fruiting body. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the use of broiler litter for oyster mushroom cultivation and ...


Evaluating One-Step Catalytic Free Method Including Hydrolysis, Esterification, Transesterification, And Degradation Reactions To Produce Biodiesel From Soybean Oil, Mahmood Gheni Jebur 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating One-Step Catalytic Free Method Including Hydrolysis, Esterification, Transesterification, And Degradation Reactions To Produce Biodiesel From Soybean Oil, Mahmood Gheni Jebur

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the environmental and economic impacts of diesel fuel based on petroleum, several studies have been done to find an alternative source of energy. Biodiesel is considered one of these alternative sources. It is a renewable source of energy produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. There are two main reaction routes used to produce biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters). Transesterification reaction is the first route used to convert triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), while hydrolysis followed by esterification reactions are the second route employed to convert triglycerides to free fatty acids (FFA) and then further converted ...


An Economic Analysis Of Residential Photovoltaic Systems With And Without Energy Storage, Rodney Moses Kizito 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Economic Analysis Of Residential Photovoltaic Systems With And Without Energy Storage, Rodney Moses Kizito

Theses and Dissertations

Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems serve as a source of electricity generation that is separate from the traditional utilities. Investor investment into residential PV systems provides several financial benefits such as federal tax credit incentives for installation, net metering credit from excess generated electricity added back to the grid, and savings in price per kilowatt-hour (kWh) from the PV system generation versus the increasing conventional utility price per kWh. As much benefit as stand-alone PV systems present, the incorporation of energy storage yields even greater benefits. Energy storage (ES) is capable of storing unused PV provided energy from daytime periods of ...


The Impact Weather Has On Nyc Citi Bike Share Company Activity, Mark Martinez 2017 Colby College

The Impact Weather Has On Nyc Citi Bike Share Company Activity, Mark Martinez

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper seeks to figure out the effect weather has on individuals’ behavior. A more focused approach to determining this effect is seeing how different weather conditions ranging from the temperature, the precipitation, the amount of inches of snowfall and the wind speed effect the ridership of Citi Bikes throughout all four seasons. The approach of this research paper is using data from the National Climatic Data Center that focuses in on the weather found in Manhattan, New York and correlates each of the weather conditions to the total number of trips per day that is provided by the Citi ...


Electricity Demand Due To Policy Change In The U.K., Kevin W. Doherty 2017 Colby College

Electricity Demand Due To Policy Change In The U.K., Kevin W. Doherty

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper examines United Kingdom Electricity Demand with regards to the Climate Change Act, which was enacted in November of 2008. Through actual demand data obtained from Nationalgrid, a U.K. based gas and electric utility company, this paper seeks to find out if the Climate Change Act has started to achieve its goal of reducing carbon emissions by looking at trends of electricity demand. Burning fossil fuels to produce electricity is a major contributor to global warming in the U.K. and policies enacted do not always live up to their ultimate goals. This paper tests how on track ...


The Demographic Drivers Of California’S Environmental Voting, Lukas Yasuda 2017 Colby College

The Demographic Drivers Of California’S Environmental Voting, Lukas Yasuda

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This study examines the demographics of California’s 53 congressional districts and the relationship with the voting patterns on three environmentally focused propositions in the 2008 and 2010 elections. Previous literature on the topic is mixed as some studies suggest that select attributes are found among environmental voting centers, yet other research describes the relationship as more complex than simple characteristics. Previous literature on the topic is mixed, with some studies suggesting that select attributes are found among environmental vote support hubs, whereas alternative research suggests the problem is more complex than simple characteristics. I collected data on income, education ...


The Long-Term Effect Of State Renewable Energy Incentive Programs, Fred Bower 2017 Colby College

The Long-Term Effect Of State Renewable Energy Incentive Programs, Fred Bower

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

Abstract: Renewable energy is praised for its environmental benefits and long run energy savings, however, for the average consumer, the up-front cost of this infrastructure deters investment. On the Federal and state level, incentive programs have been implemented to break down these initial barriers and give easier access to renewable energy. Studies have shown that these incentive programs have been successful at the consumer level (Crago, 2014). What policy makers and government officials should maybe be more concerned with though, is the long-term effect of these programs. This paper will analyze the long-term effect of renewable energy incentive programs beyond ...


The Effects From Public Transportation On Property Values: A Closer Look At Scituate, Hanover, And Norwell, Massachusetts, Alexandra Taylor Perticone, Christine S. Coveney 2017 Colby College

The Effects From Public Transportation On Property Values: A Closer Look At Scituate, Hanover, And Norwell, Massachusetts, Alexandra Taylor Perticone, Christine S. Coveney

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

Prior studies have expressed the value of location in real estate, but more recent studies have explored the influence that public transportation has had on housing prices. Access to public transportation is understood to increase the value of homes. Easier access to public transportation allows for shorter and more convenient commutes into or within cities. However, other studies have found that proximity to public transportation can also have adverse effects on property values. This paper investigates whether the implementation of the Greenbush Commuter line in Massachusetts in October 2007 increased the housing prices in Scituate, Ma--the furthest town from the ...


When Trash Costs Money: Analyzing The Impact Of Pay-As-You-Throw Programs In Massachusetts, Thomas W. Barry IV 2017 Colby College

When Trash Costs Money: Analyzing The Impact Of Pay-As-You-Throw Programs In Massachusetts, Thomas W. Barry Iv

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper evaluates whether municipalities with Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) programs dispose of less trash per household than municipalities without them. Given how much trash U.S. residents produce, the negative environmental effects associated with trash disposal, as well as how much the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency advocates for PAYT, it is important to closely analyze whether these programs actually do their job. This paper formally analyzes the effects of PAYT programs using the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection’s trash disposal data from 2011-2015. After controlling for municipality and time heterogeneity, my analysis shows that PAYT programs reduce trash per ...


Invited Introduction To Jerec, Matthew Kahn 2017 University of Southern California and NBER

Invited Introduction To Jerec, Matthew Kahn

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

No abstract provided.


Welcome By The Editor, Nathan W. Chan 2017 Colby College

Welcome By The Editor, Nathan W. Chan

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

No abstract provided.


One-Step Laser-Induced Hydrogen Generation From Coal Powders In Water, Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev 2017 Western Kentucky University

One-Step Laser-Induced Hydrogen Generation From Coal Powders In Water, Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study presents a simple way of obtaining hydrogen gas (H2) from various ranks of coal, coke, and graphite using nanosecond laser pulses. Powder samples of coal and graphite with and without water were irradiated with 1064 nm and 532 nm pulses from an Nd: YAG laser for 45 minutes under air and argon atmospheres. It was observed that 532 nm laser pulses were more effective than 1064 nm pulses in gas generation and both were nonlinearly correlated with respect to the laser energy density. Mainly hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed. The H2 to CO ratio shows ...


Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew VanLoocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew Vanloocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang

Wendong Zhang

On October 12–13, a workshop funded by the National Science Foundation was held at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa with a goal of identifying research needs related to coupled economic and biophysical models within the FEW system. Approximately 80 people attended the workshop with about half representing the social sciences (primarily economics) and the rest from the physical and natural sciences. The focus and attendees were chosen so that findings would be particularly relevant to SBE research needs while taking into account the critical connectivity needed between social sciences and other disciplines. We have identified several major gaps ...


Impact On Merchant Refiners And Blenders From Changing The Rfs Point Of Obligation, Bruce A. Babcock, Gabriel E. Lade, Sébastien Pouliot 2017 Iowa State University

Impact On Merchant Refiners And Blenders From Changing The Rfs Point Of Obligation, Bruce A. Babcock, Gabriel E. Lade, Sébastien Pouliot

Sebastien Pouliot

The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed to deny a request to move the point of obligation under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from oil refiners to fuel blenders. Supporters of the request argue that those refiners who do not have the fuel blending capabilities of large, integrated oil companies are in danger of going out of business due to their need to buy RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) to show compliance with the RFS. We demonstrate that this claim is false and that moving the point of obligation would have no impact on refiner profits. The key point that is neglected ...


Estimating Willingness To Pay For E85 In The United States, Kenneth Liao, Sébastien Pouliot, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 Iowa State University

Estimating Willingness To Pay For E85 In The United States, Kenneth Liao, Sébastien Pouliot, Bruce A. Babcock

Sebastien Pouliot

Meeting US ethanol blending mandates proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency will require a substantial number of motorists with flex-fuel vehicles to switch from low ethanol-gasoline blends to high ethanol-gasoline blends. The lower the willingness to pay for high-ethanol blends, the greater the cost of complying with the proposed mandates. Existing estimates of the willingness to pay for high-ethanol blends use data from Brazil (where consumers have knowledge of and experience with high-ethanol blends), data generated when retail prices greatly favored low-ethanol blends, or stated data collected from mail and online surveys. To obtain more accurate estimates of US willingness ...


Greenhouse Gas Impacts Of Ethanol From Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis Versus System-Wide Accounting, Hongli Feng, Ofir D. Rubin, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 Iowa State University

Greenhouse Gas Impacts Of Ethanol From Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis Versus System-Wide Accounting, Hongli Feng, Ofir D. Rubin, Bruce A. Babcock

Hongli Feng

Life cycle analysis (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, it is increasingly recognized that LCA results do not account for some impacts—including land use changes—that have important implications on GHGs. Thus, an alternative accounting system that goes beyond LCA is needed. In this paper, we contribute to the literature by laying out the basics of a system-wide accounting (SWA) method that takes into account all potential changes in GHGs resulting from biofuel expansion. We applied both LCA and SWA to assess the GHG impacts of ethanol based on ...


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