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Arbitrage Between Ethanol And Gasoline: Evidence From Motor Fuel Consumption In Brazil, Sebastien Pouliot 2016 Iowa State University

Arbitrage Between Ethanol And Gasoline: Evidence From Motor Fuel Consumption In Brazil, Sebastien Pouliot

Sebastien Pouliot

Unlike regular cars, ex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) allow motorists to fuel on motor blends that contain between zero and one hundred percent of ethanol. This paper investigates how motorists arbitrage between hydrous ethanol and gasoline using aggregate fuel consumption data in Brazil. The ability of FFV motorists to arbitrage between fuel blends shapes of aggregate demands for hydrous ethanol and gasoline. I estimate using nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions the demands for hydrous ethanol and gasoline in Brazil, and motorists preferences for hydrous ethanol. I find that on average, accounting for the relative energy contents of the two fuels, FFV motorists in ...


Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, mario f. teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin 2016 University of Maine

Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, Mario F. Teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin

Jonathan Rubin

As national standards require increased use of renewable transportation fuels by 2022, Maine is positioned to be a leader in wood-based cellulosic ethanol production and use. Caroline Noblet, Mario Teisl, Katherine Farrow, and Jonathan Rubin consider Mainers’ willingness to accept and use biofuels. They document the current level of consumer knowledge and behavior and identify factors (environmental, economic, and energy security) that may assist or constrain drivers from purchasing biofuels.


Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, mario f. teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin 2016 University of Maine

Biofuels Development In Maine: Using Trees To Oil The Wheels Of Sustainabilty, Caroline L. Noblet, Mario F. Teisl, Katherine H. Farrow, Jonathan Rubin

Jonathan Rubin

As national standards require increased use of renewable transportation fuels by 2022, Maine is positioned to be a leader in wood-based cellulosic ethanol production and use. Caroline Noblet, Mario Teisl, Katherine Farrow, and Jonathan Rubin consider Mainers’ willingness to accept and use biofuels. They document the current level of consumer knowledge and behavior and identify factors (environmental, economic, and energy security) that may assist or constrain drivers from purchasing biofuels.


Transportation And Climate Change, Jonathan Rubin 2016 University of Maine

Transportation And Climate Change, Jonathan Rubin

Jonathan Rubin

The transportation and residential sectors in Maine use a large proportion of fossil fuels, primarily petroleum products, and are a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Jonathan Rubin’s article on transportation reviews mechanisms by which petroleum demand and greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced, emphasizing state and federal legislation to achieve these goals. He describes ways in which transportation systems will be affected by and have to adapt to climate change.


Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart 2016 University of Maine

Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Gasoline Powered Watercraft Use In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris, Suzanne K. Hart

Jonathan Rubin

No abstract provided.


Biomass And Biofuels In Maine: Estimating Supplies For Expanding The Forest Products Industry, Jonathan Rubin, Kate Dickerson, Jacob Kavkewitz 2016 University of Maine

Biomass And Biofuels In Maine: Estimating Supplies For Expanding The Forest Products Industry, Jonathan Rubin, Kate Dickerson, Jacob Kavkewitz

Jonathan Rubin

This paper estimates the renewable energy potential of Maine’s forest resources, and how much energy these resources could potentially provide the state. Using the most recent state-specific data available, and a methodology similar to the Billion Tons Report, we find that ethanol production from Maine’s forest residues could potentially provide 18% of Maine’s transportation (gasoline) fuels with a fermentation wood to ethanol process. Making Fischer-Tropsch diesel (F-T diesel) using forest residues can replace 39% of Maine’s petro-diesel consumption. Actual levels of biofuels that can be produced will depend on conversion factors and forestry residue removals that ...


Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Atvs In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris 2016 University of Maine - Main

Gasoline Consumption Attributable To Atvs In Maine, Jonathan Rubin, Charles Morrris

Jonathan Rubin

This study was conducted by the Margaret Chase Smith Center for Public Policy (MCSC) of the University of Maine at the request of the Maine Legislature’s Commission to Study Equity in the Distribution of Gas Tax Revenues Attributable to Snowmobiles, All-Terrain Vehicles and Watercraft. The Commission was created by the Legislature with a charge to collect and analyze information to determine an equitable distribution of gas tax revenues used in the enforcement and enhancement of programs supporting off-road vehicle use in Maine. The Commission concluded that snowmobiling, boating and ATV use has increased significantly over recent years and now ...


Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith 2016 Iowa State University

Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith

Gabriel Lade

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) mandates large increases in U.S. biofuel consumption and is implemented using a market for tradable compliance credits, known as RINs. In early 2013, RIN prices soared, causing the regulator to propose reducing future mandates. We develop a dynamic model of RFS2 compliance to demonstrate how changes in expectations about future policy affect current compliance costs, and we use a market effciency test to demonstrate that RIN markets have behaved in accordance with our model. We then estimate empirically the effect of three “policy shocks” that reduced the expected mandates in 2013. The largest of ...


Ga Based Optimal Control For Maximizing Pv Penetration At Transmission, Chittesh Veni Chandran 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Ga Based Optimal Control For Maximizing Pv Penetration At Transmission, Chittesh Veni Chandran

Student Journal of Energy Research

Utilization of distributed energy resources (DER’s) like photo-voltaic generators, is one of the possible solution for present scenario of energy crisis. Most of the study suggest the implementation of PV power stations at distribution level. In this paper detailed theoretical analyses of the impact of large scale PV on transmission level is analysed. The preliminary section of this paper provides literature review with specifications of IEEE-14 bus network. Two methodology ie, constant load method and maximum loading method is implemented here. A test study is done in IEEE 14 bus to find out the optimal location of solar photo-voltaic ...


Risk Assessment For Two Multi Terminal Vsc-Hvdc Control Schemes, Roberto Sandano 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Risk Assessment For Two Multi Terminal Vsc-Hvdc Control Schemes, Roberto Sandano

Student Journal of Energy Research

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) connections have been in operation since the 1950s. The vast majority of which are point to point connections and use Line Commutated Converter (LCC) technology. Since the late nineties Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology has become a feasible choice on HVDC transmission systems [1]. Research is now focused in the development of Multi-terminal (MT)-HVDC system which will facilitate the collection of energy from distant dispersed renewable energy resources and transport this energy to load centres.


Power Quality Improvement In Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Power System Using Statcom, Sandipan Patra 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Power Quality Improvement In Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Power System Using Statcom, Sandipan Patra

Student Journal of Energy Research

This paper presents the power quality improvement in a microgrid, supplying a nonlinear and unbalanced load using fuzzy logic controller based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The microgrid contains a hybrid combination photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) along with the battery energy storage system (BESS) where a decentralized power sharing algorithm is used to control its power management. Here, STATCOM is used as a compensator for the hybrid system to reduce the harmonics in the voltage and current profile at the point of common coupling (PCC). The current reference is generated taking into account, the active and reactive power to be ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell 2016 University of Dayton

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Kevin Hallinan

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha

Kevin Hallinan

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


The Design And Testing Of A Novel Batch Photocatalytic Reactor And Photocatalyst, Shawn Sasser 2016 University of South Florida

The Design And Testing Of A Novel Batch Photocatalytic Reactor And Photocatalyst, Shawn Sasser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With an ever-increasing human population, the importance in having sustainable energy resources is becoming increasingly evident, as the current energy habits have brought about massive atmospheric pollution in the form of CO2 emissions, resulting in a rise in the average global temperature. To battle the effects of climate change, many alternative energy resources have been investigated. Among these, photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to renewable hydrocarbon fuels such as methane and methanol is one of the most desirable, as it provides the opportunity to utilize the sun’s energy to convert CO2 to renewable fuels. The work in this study is ...


How Can Occupancy Modeling And Occupancy Sensors Reduce Energy Usage In Academic Buildings: An Application Approach To University Of San Francisco, Paloma R. Duong 2016 University of San Francisco

How Can Occupancy Modeling And Occupancy Sensors Reduce Energy Usage In Academic Buildings: An Application Approach To University Of San Francisco, Paloma R. Duong

Master's Projects

Buildings are amongst the highest energy consumers relative to industry and transportation. They account for 40% of the world’s energy consumption, due to the need for lighting, equipment, heating, cooling and ventilation. Academic buildings are multi-purpose buildings that create a challenge on energy reduction. Most are old and have fixed occupancy schedules, resulting in high energy consumption because these buildings experience significant occupancy variation throughout the day. Five academic buildings were analyzed; their building information, energy consumption data and methods to project energy savings have been analyzed. The case studies presented different strategies on predicting energy savings, but these ...


Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis 2016 University of San Francisco

Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis

Master's Projects

Oil spill models, ecological risks, response options, and costs were assessed for a discharge of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay from a train derailment. This assessment was based on the risk of crude by rail derailments into the San Francisco Bay; in 2014, California oil refineries imported over 240 million gallons of Bakken crude oil by rail for processing. A hypothetical scenario was developed from a derailment on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge and discharging 100,000 gallons of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay. The oil trajectory impacted the Carquinez Strait, Suisun ...


Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill 2016 Chapman University

Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has been shown to impact the environment and threaten both human and animal health, especially in heavily populated urban areas, yet to date there remains a paucity of direct measurements. Recent studies have suggested that ammonia may be generated as a byproduct of fossil fuel emissions due to highly active catalytic converters in light-duty gasoline vehicles. To investigate this relationship, an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was used to directly measure atmospheric ammonia and combustion reaction products in the Southern California LA Basin, during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The temporal ...


Chapman University 2016 Environmental Audit: Residence Life Dining Services Equipment, Alexandra FW Sidun, Devon T. Bloss 2016 Chapman University

Chapman University 2016 Environmental Audit: Residence Life Dining Services Equipment, Alexandra Fw Sidun, Devon T. Bloss

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Chapman University accommodates over 1700 student meal plans per day through the on-campus dining services provided by Sodexo Restaurant Services. The commercial-grade kitchens found in the Randall Dining Commons (RDC) of Sandhu Conference Center are frequently used to prepare food for students for every meal, seven days a week. The RDC kitchen facility has staff working around the clock and high consumption electrical, water, and gas appliances constantly running to parallel the high demand. The frequent use of commercial kitchen appliances results in an enormous consumption of energy and water resources leading to comparably high utility bills. Measuring the energy ...


The Outlook For Corn And Ethanol, Chad E. Hart 2016 Iowa State University

The Outlook For Corn And Ethanol, Chad E. Hart

Chad Hart

The federal government definitely joined in the spirit of cooperation this holiday season with the passage of the 2007 energy act and progress on the farm bill. These moves, along with developments in the energy and agricultural sectors, have improved the prospects for corn and ethanol over the next few years.


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