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Biofuels From Crop Residue: Soil Organic Carbon And Climate Impacts In The Us And India, Adam Liska 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Biofuels From Crop Residue: Soil Organic Carbon And Climate Impacts In The Us And India, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

The transformation of crop residue to soil organic carbon and CO2 is a conserved process that occurs globally. Due to the mathematics of carbon intensity calculations found in government regulations, the amount of CO2 emitted from crop residue per unit of energy in biofuel is largely independent of the amount of residue removed and the location of its removal, as shown by results from the US and India.

Soil organic carbon (SOC) levels are at equilibria determined by carbon inputs from plant material (+Ic) and loss from oxidation to CO2

Are the US results relevant for ...


The Impact Weather Has On Nyc Citi Bike Share Company Activity, Mark Martinez 2017 Colby College

The Impact Weather Has On Nyc Citi Bike Share Company Activity, Mark Martinez

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper seeks to figure out the effect weather has on individuals’ behavior. A more focused approach to determining this effect is seeing how different weather conditions ranging from the temperature, the precipitation, the amount of inches of snowfall and the wind speed effect the ridership of Citi Bikes throughout all four seasons. The approach of this research paper is using data from the National Climatic Data Center that focuses in on the weather found in Manhattan, New York and correlates each of the weather conditions to the total number of trips per day that is provided by the Citi ...


Electricity Demand Due To Policy Change In The U.K., Kevin W. Doherty 2017 Colby College

Electricity Demand Due To Policy Change In The U.K., Kevin W. Doherty

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper examines United Kingdom Electricity Demand with regards to the Climate Change Act, which was enacted in November of 2008. Through actual demand data obtained from Nationalgrid, a U.K. based gas and electric utility company, this paper seeks to find out if the Climate Change Act has started to achieve its goal of reducing carbon emissions by looking at trends of electricity demand. Burning fossil fuels to produce electricity is a major contributor to global warming in the U.K. and policies enacted do not always live up to their ultimate goals. This paper tests how on track ...


The Demographic Drivers Of California’S Environmental Voting, Lukas Yasuda 2017 Colby College

The Demographic Drivers Of California’S Environmental Voting, Lukas Yasuda

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This study examines the demographics of California’s 53 congressional districts and the relationship with the voting patterns on three environmentally focused propositions in the 2008 and 2010 elections. Previous literature on the topic is mixed as some studies suggest that select attributes are found among environmental voting centers, yet other research describes the relationship as more complex than simple characteristics. Previous literature on the topic is mixed, with some studies suggesting that select attributes are found among environmental vote support hubs, whereas alternative research suggests the problem is more complex than simple characteristics. I collected data on income, education ...


The Long-Term Effect Of State Renewable Energy Incentive Programs, Fred Bower 2017 Colby College

The Long-Term Effect Of State Renewable Energy Incentive Programs, Fred Bower

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

Abstract: Renewable energy is praised for its environmental benefits and long run energy savings, however, for the average consumer, the up-front cost of this infrastructure deters investment. On the Federal and state level, incentive programs have been implemented to break down these initial barriers and give easier access to renewable energy. Studies have shown that these incentive programs have been successful at the consumer level (Crago, 2014). What policy makers and government officials should maybe be more concerned with though, is the long-term effect of these programs. This paper will analyze the long-term effect of renewable energy incentive programs beyond ...


The Effects From Public Transportation On Property Values: A Closer Look At Scituate, Hanover, And Norwell, Massachusetts, Alexandra Taylor Perticone, Christine S. Coveney 2017 Colby College

The Effects From Public Transportation On Property Values: A Closer Look At Scituate, Hanover, And Norwell, Massachusetts, Alexandra Taylor Perticone, Christine S. Coveney

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

Prior studies have expressed the value of location in real estate, but more recent studies have explored the influence that public transportation has had on housing prices. Access to public transportation is understood to increase the value of homes. Easier access to public transportation allows for shorter and more convenient commutes into or within cities. However, other studies have found that proximity to public transportation can also have adverse effects on property values. This paper investigates whether the implementation of the Greenbush Commuter line in Massachusetts in October 2007 increased the housing prices in Scituate, Ma--the furthest town from the ...


When Trash Costs Money: Analyzing The Impact Of Pay-As-You-Throw Programs In Massachusetts, Thomas W. Barry IV 2017 Colby College

When Trash Costs Money: Analyzing The Impact Of Pay-As-You-Throw Programs In Massachusetts, Thomas W. Barry Iv

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper evaluates whether municipalities with Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) programs dispose of less trash per household than municipalities without them. Given how much trash U.S. residents produce, the negative environmental effects associated with trash disposal, as well as how much the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency advocates for PAYT, it is important to closely analyze whether these programs actually do their job. This paper formally analyzes the effects of PAYT programs using the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection’s trash disposal data from 2011-2015. After controlling for municipality and time heterogeneity, my analysis shows that PAYT programs reduce trash per ...


Invited Introduction To Jerec, Matthew Kahn 2017 University of Southern California and NBER

Invited Introduction To Jerec, Matthew Kahn

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

No abstract provided.


Welcome By The Editor, Nathan W. Chan 2017 Colby College

Welcome By The Editor, Nathan W. Chan

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

No abstract provided.


One-Step Laser-Induced Hydrogen Generation From Coal Powders In Water, Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev 2017 Western Kentucky University

One-Step Laser-Induced Hydrogen Generation From Coal Powders In Water, Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study presents a simple way of obtaining hydrogen gas (H2) from various ranks of coal, coke, and graphite using nanosecond laser pulses. Powder samples of coal and graphite with and without water were irradiated with 1064 nm and 532 nm pulses from an Nd: YAG laser for 45 minutes under air and argon atmospheres. It was observed that 532 nm laser pulses were more effective than 1064 nm pulses in gas generation and both were nonlinearly correlated with respect to the laser energy density. Mainly hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed. The H2 to CO ratio shows ...


Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew VanLoocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Research Needs And Challenges In The Few System: Coupling Economic Models With Agronomic, Hydrologic, And Bioenergy Models For Sustainable Food, Energy, And Water Systems, Catherine L. Kling, Raymond W. Arritt, Gray Calhoun, David A. Keiser, John M. Antle, Jeffery G. Arnold, Miguel Carriquiry, Indrajeet Chaubey, Peter Christensen, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Philip Gassman, William Gutowski, Thomas W. Hertel, Gerritt Hoogenboom, Elena Irwin, Madhu Khanna, Pierre Mérel, Daniel J. Phaneuf, Andrew Plantinga, Stephen Polasky, Paul Preckel, Sergey Rabotyagov, Ivan Rudik, Silvia Secchi, Aaron Smith, Andrew Vanloocke, Calvin Wolter, Jinhua Zhao, Wendong Zhang

Wendong Zhang

On October 12–13, a workshop funded by the National Science Foundation was held at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa with a goal of identifying research needs related to coupled economic and biophysical models within the FEW system. Approximately 80 people attended the workshop with about half representing the social sciences (primarily economics) and the rest from the physical and natural sciences. The focus and attendees were chosen so that findings would be particularly relevant to SBE research needs while taking into account the critical connectivity needed between social sciences and other disciplines. We have identified several major gaps ...


Sustainable Production Of Bioenergy From Agricultural And Food Waste, Stéphanie Jung 2017 Iowa State University

Sustainable Production Of Bioenergy From Agricultural And Food Waste, Stéphanie Jung

Stéphanie Jung

This project will determine the potential of pre- and post-consumer waste collected from ISU Dining for bioethanol production. The investigator will gather data about the quantity and composition of these wastes and how much energy could be produced.


Impact On Merchant Refiners And Blenders From Changing The Rfs Point Of Obligation, Bruce A. Babcock, Gabriel E. Lade, Sébastien Pouliot 2017 Iowa State University

Impact On Merchant Refiners And Blenders From Changing The Rfs Point Of Obligation, Bruce A. Babcock, Gabriel E. Lade, Sébastien Pouliot

Sebastien Pouliot

The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed to deny a request to move the point of obligation under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from oil refiners to fuel blenders. Supporters of the request argue that those refiners who do not have the fuel blending capabilities of large, integrated oil companies are in danger of going out of business due to their need to buy RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) to show compliance with the RFS. We demonstrate that this claim is false and that moving the point of obligation would have no impact on refiner profits. The key point that is neglected ...


Estimating Willingness To Pay For E85 In The United States, Kenneth Liao, Sébastien Pouliot, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 Iowa State University

Estimating Willingness To Pay For E85 In The United States, Kenneth Liao, Sébastien Pouliot, Bruce A. Babcock

Sebastien Pouliot

Meeting US ethanol blending mandates proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency will require a substantial number of motorists with flex-fuel vehicles to switch from low ethanol-gasoline blends to high ethanol-gasoline blends. The lower the willingness to pay for high-ethanol blends, the greater the cost of complying with the proposed mandates. Existing estimates of the willingness to pay for high-ethanol blends use data from Brazil (where consumers have knowledge of and experience with high-ethanol blends), data generated when retail prices greatly favored low-ethanol blends, or stated data collected from mail and online surveys. To obtain more accurate estimates of US willingness ...


Greenhouse Gas Impacts Of Ethanol From Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis Versus System-Wide Accounting, Hongli Feng, Ofir D. Rubin, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 Iowa State University

Greenhouse Gas Impacts Of Ethanol From Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis Versus System-Wide Accounting, Hongli Feng, Ofir D. Rubin, Bruce A. Babcock

Hongli Feng

Life cycle analysis (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, it is increasingly recognized that LCA results do not account for some impacts—including land use changes—that have important implications on GHGs. Thus, an alternative accounting system that goes beyond LCA is needed. In this paper, we contribute to the literature by laying out the basics of a system-wide accounting (SWA) method that takes into account all potential changes in GHGs resulting from biofuel expansion. We applied both LCA and SWA to assess the GHG impacts of ethanol based on ...


Is Corn Ethanol A Low-Carbon Fuel?, Bruce A. Babcock, Ofir Rubin, Hongli Feng 2017 Iowa State University

Is Corn Ethanol A Low-Carbon Fuel?, Bruce A. Babcock, Ofir Rubin, Hongli Feng

Hongli Feng

Reports of disappearing glaciers, shrinking arctic ice, rising sea levels, stronger hurricanes, and unprecedented European heat waves combined with an inexorable buildup in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is increasing pressure on governments to respond with new greenhouse gas initiatives. California and other states are providing policy leadership in the United States


Impacts Of Ethanol On Planted Acreage In Market Equilibrium, Hongli Feng, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 Iowa State University

Impacts Of Ethanol On Planted Acreage In Market Equilibrium, Hongli Feng, Bruce A. Babcock

Hongli Feng

Land use impacts of biofuel expansion have attracted a tremendous amount of attention because of the implications for the climate, the environment, and the food supply. To examine these impacts, we set up an economic framework that links input use and land allocation decisions with ethanol and agricultural commodity markets. Crops can be substitutes or complements in supply depending on the relative magnitude of three effects of crop prices: total cropland effect, land share effect, and input use effect. We show that with unregulated free markets, total cropland area increases with corn prices whether crops are substitutes or complements in ...


Metabolic Engineering For Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals: Contributions Of Synthetic Biology, Laura R. Jarboe, Xueli Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jonathan C. Moore, K. T. Shanmugam, Lonnie O. Ingram 2017 Iowa State University

Metabolic Engineering For Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals: Contributions Of Synthetic Biology, Laura R. Jarboe, Xueli Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jonathan C. Moore, K. T. Shanmugam, Lonnie O. Ingram

Laura R. Jarboe

Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemicalbased production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use ...


Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram 2017 Iowa State University

Optimization Of Enzyme Parameters For Fermentative Production Of Biorenewable Fuels And Chemicals, Laura R. Jarboe, Ping Liu, Kumar Babu Kautharapu, Lonnie O. Ingram

Laura R. Jarboe

Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of ...


Metabolic Engineering Of Biocatalysts For Carboxylic Acids Production, Ping Liu, Laura R. Jarboe 2017 Iowa State University

Metabolic Engineering Of Biocatalysts For Carboxylic Acids Production, Ping Liu, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Fermentation of renewable feedstocks by microbes to produce sustainable fuels and chemicals has the potential to replace petrochemical-based production. For example, carboxylic acids produced by microbial fermentation can be used to generate primary building blocks of industrial chemicals by either enzymatic or chemical catalysis. In order to achieve the titer, yield and productivity values required for economically viable processes, the carboxylic acid-producing microbes need to be robust and wellperforming. Traditional strain development methods based on mutagenesis have proven useful in the selection of desirable microbial behavior, such as robustness and carboxylic acid production. On the other hand, rationally-based metabolic engineering ...


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