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Full-Text Articles in Environmental Sciences

Understanding Students’ Global Interdependence In Science Instruction, Walter S. Smith Dec 2021

Understanding Students’ Global Interdependence In Science Instruction, Walter S. Smith

Journal of Global Education and Research

Multiple American educational organizations such as the National Education Association, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the Council of Chief State School Officers have advocated for globalizing the K-12 curriculum. The National Science Teaching Association (NSTA) in a position statement on international education and the Next Generation Science Standards have produced goals and standards for internationalizing the science curriculum by addressing topics such as climate change, environment, and disease that cross borders. In contrast to those pronouncements on the curriculum, this article views global science education through an instructional lens that focuses on a students’ global interdependence in science ...


Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński Jun 2021

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a limited yet essential resource. P cannot be replaced, but it can be recovered from waste. We proposed the TRIZ approach (Teoria reszenija izobretatielskich zadacz - Rus., Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Eng.) to identify a feasible solution. We aimed at minimizing the environmental impact and, by eliminating contradictions, proposed viable technical solutions. P recovery can be more sustainable based on circular economy and 4Rs (reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling). The TRIZ approach identified sewage sludge (SS) as waste with a large potential for P recovery (up to 90%). Successful selection and application of SS management and P ...


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu May 2021

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


Farm To Boardroom: How Improving Farm Conditions Leads To Sustained And Ethical Profit, Emily Mueller May 2021

Farm To Boardroom: How Improving Farm Conditions Leads To Sustained And Ethical Profit, Emily Mueller

Student Theses 2015-Present

As a society evolving and innovating at a pace faster than ever before seen in human history, we find ourselves at a crossroads of dealing with planetary boundaries and improving social standards. We are met with a crisis just thirty years away; the crisis of needing to be able to effectively and sustainably feed ten billion people across the globe. The 20th century brought on a booming age for industrializing the food system in order to increase yield and thus profit. The new process was a significant breakthrough at its time, but now we must face the question of when ...


Transient Electronics As Sustainable Systems: From Fundamentals To Applications, Reihaneh Jamshidi, Mehrnoosh Taghavimehr, Yuanfen Chen, Nicole Hashemi, Reza Montazami May 2021

Transient Electronics As Sustainable Systems: From Fundamentals To Applications, Reihaneh Jamshidi, Mehrnoosh Taghavimehr, Yuanfen Chen, Nicole Hashemi, Reza Montazami

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The unique attribute of transient technology is that it promotes the potential for the design and implementation of sustainable systems through their capability to fully or partially disintegrate after a predefined period of stable operation. Transient electronics have a wide range of potential applications as biomedical implants, environmental sensors, and hardware‐secured devices. Controlled disintegration of such systems without the need for harsh solvents is a step toward realizing green and sustainable electronics. In this short review, recent progress in the development of transient electronics is studied. First, an overview of the transient materials, both the substrate and electronic component ...


Assessing Sustainability At Ccu, Savannah Billings May 2021

Assessing Sustainability At Ccu, Savannah Billings

Honors Theses

An assessment of sustainability initiatives and culture at Coastal Carolina University, recommending stronger institutional support for sustainability.


Bird-Safe Buildings Act: Ready To Take Flight, Kerry Sean Cooney May 2021

Bird-Safe Buildings Act: Ready To Take Flight, Kerry Sean Cooney

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Integrated Estuary Governance, Mary Jane Angelo, J.W. Glass May 2021

Integrated Estuary Governance, Mary Jane Angelo, J.W. Glass

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Estuaries are complex, dynamic ecosystems that play a critical role in supporting crucial economic industries, such as commercial fishing and tourism, and providing the resources necessary to sustain coastal communities. A range of anthropogenic environmental stressors are threatening the health of estuaries throughout the world. Traditional top-down single resource focused environmental regulatory approaches have proved inadequate to protect and restore estuarine systems. In recent years, scientific and legal academics, as well as policymakers, have called for more holistic participatory approaches to addressing environmental challenges. Drawing on the literature on ecosystem management, integrated water resources management, collaborative governance, and adaptive management ...


A "Directed Trust" Approach To Intergenerational Solidarity In American Environmental Law And Policy: A Modest Proposal, Lucia A. Silecchia May 2021

A "Directed Trust" Approach To Intergenerational Solidarity In American Environmental Law And Policy: A Modest Proposal, Lucia A. Silecchia

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Microbial Assemblages In Relation To Host And Environmental Surroundings, Mark Fischer May 2021

Microbial Assemblages In Relation To Host And Environmental Surroundings, Mark Fischer

Senior Honors Theses

The goal of this study was to determine if the microbiome between two crayfish microhabitats were different from one other, in addition to the surrounding water and sediment. This project was a field-based study in which all environmental samples and crayfish were collected from a central Virginian freshwater stream. Molecular techniques were employed to sequence bacterial DNA from the various sample types and Qiime 2 was used to analyze statistical differences. The results from this study aligned well with the initial hypothesis in that the alpha-diversities between all of the sample types were statistically different (P<0.05) except for the gill chamber and surrounding water microbial assemblages. In addition, the Beta-diversity was statistically different when the bacterial composition of one sample type was compared to the composition of the other samples (P<0.05). This data aids in our understanding of the significance of microbes within a freshwater ecosystem and how they are distributed among freshwater organisms, such as the crayfish.


Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison May 2021

Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-term agricultural sustainability and productivity are controlled by the integrative effects of different management practices on the soil. Many Arkansas producers use the double-crop system to grow soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Studying combinations of different, non-traditional, alternative agricultural techniques may help producers better understand the long-term implications of various management practice options on sustainability and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices, including residue level, tillage, irrigation, and burning, and soil depth on the change in various soil properties from 2010 to 2020 in a long-term ...


Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla Demark May 2021

Comparative Analysis Of Azo Dye Restriction In The International Textile Industry, Kayla Demark

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

Azo dyes are the most used type of dye in the textile industry. Some of these dyes have the potential to be extremely toxic to both human health and the environment. While regulations of these dyes vary across the world, it is suggested that not enough is being done to protect consumers and the environment from potentially harmful azo dyes (Rawat et al., 2016). It is the responsibility of apparel companies to ensure that their products that contain azo dyes are safe for consumers.

The purpose of this study was to understand how azo dyes and their by-products are restricted ...


A Comparison Of The Environmental Effects Of Renewable And Non-Renewable Energies, Jordan Moore May 2021

A Comparison Of The Environmental Effects Of Renewable And Non-Renewable Energies, Jordan Moore

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study presents current energy data from the United States and data from literature reviews to create life cycle assessments (LCA) for comparing the environmental impacts of wind and coal-fired energy generation and use. The environmental impacts were evaluated using emissions data, principally carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide equivalents from methane. Other environmental impacts such as avian mortality and land use were compared as well. The LCA includes four phases: raw materials, transportation, use/retail, and waste. Overall, wind energy has a smaller environmental impact than coal-fired energy for the raw materials, transportation, use/retail, and waste phases. Wind ...


Conceptual Framework Linking Resource Size And Recreational Use, Derek Kane May 2021

Conceptual Framework Linking Resource Size And Recreational Use, Derek Kane

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Participation in recreational activities at natural resource systems is important to many people. However, the use of these resource systems can cause negative social and ecological impacts. To manage the potential negative impacts of resource use, natural resource managers must have the ability to quantify and monitor the amount of use that is occurring. Unfortunately, it is difficult and costly to quantify and monitor resource system use. Natural resource management would benefit from uncovering a simple, easily accessible metric that could predict resource system use. The size of a resource system is related to social and ecological aspects of the ...


Economic Feasibility Of Mixed Plastic Waste Pyrolysis Using Twin Reactor System In Northwest Arkansas, Carol Rogers, Patricia Means, Renato Gonzalez, Kaida Sheets, Hayden Townsend May 2021

Economic Feasibility Of Mixed Plastic Waste Pyrolysis Using Twin Reactor System In Northwest Arkansas, Carol Rogers, Patricia Means, Renato Gonzalez, Kaida Sheets, Hayden Townsend

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plastic waste generation is increasing at an unsustainable rate while recycling solutions remain stagnant. As a chemical means of recycling, mixed plastic waste pyrolysis can generate synthetic oil appropriate for use as fuel in power generation from plastic waste that otherwise accumulates in landfills. With the scaling of a commercial plastic pyrolysis process in Northwest Arkansas (NWA) modeled after an operational sawdust pyrolysis unit in Huntsville, Arkansas, economic analysis resulted in 26.3% internal rate of return. Therefore, construction of a commercial mixed plastic-to-fuel pyrolysis plant is economically justified and should be pursued. To effectively implement the proposed design, NWA ...


Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh May 2021

Estimating Irrigation In Rice Fields With A Water Balance Approach, Kristen Trinh

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global food production must increase to meet the demand associated with increased population growth, so irrigation water use will continue to rise. Therefore, it is important to monitor water usage particularly when an irrigation flowmeter is unavailable. A field water balance was created for a selection of rice fields in East-central Arkansas under observation in 2018 and 2019. From those, irrigation inputs are deduced from the water balance alone. First, each field had sensors that collected water table level (WTL) data. Next, other water inputs and outputs such as precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) were collected from two modeled sources. The ...


Low Impact Development: Low-Maintenance Design To Encourage Residential Adoption Of Sustainable Systems, Haley Ellis May 2021

Low Impact Development: Low-Maintenance Design To Encourage Residential Adoption Of Sustainable Systems, Haley Ellis

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Residential adoption of low-impact development (LID) technology can positively impact downstream watershed hydrology by reducing total volumetric discharge from the residential site. This reduction can provide economic, environmental, and social benefits for the residents as well as the community at large. Additionally, homeowners are often affected by stormwater related issues, like flooding or washout, that could be easily mitigated with a sustainably engineered LID structure or network. Engineering for sustainability often includes the blending of several objectives to provide greater overall benefit. This thesis compares the outflow characteristics of three low-maintenance residential LID design scenarios differing in rain garden soil ...


The Bridge To Closing The Green Gap, Samantha Rife May 2021

The Bridge To Closing The Green Gap, Samantha Rife

Marketing Undergraduate Honors Theses

In today’s society, we have seen the theme of green consciousness and sustainability become more prevalent as the years pass by. Even as this concept seems to increase in consumer engagement there is not a proportional increase in consumer behavior. This is what is referred to as the gap between green consciousness and green consumerism. Many believe the root of this issue can be solved by increasing regulations. However, I believe this gap can be narrowed by using brands to shift consumers behaviors through their message. The main question that I want to focus in on is, “Can a ...


Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty May 2021

Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The logistics industry is among the world’s largest and most essential. Specifically, trucking is a massive component of the modern logistics system. In 2012, truck transportation carried 68% of all freight tonnage in the U.S. However, trucking currently faces significant problems with efficiency and sustainability. Of all miles driven by trucks yearly in the U.S., 25% are driven with empty loads and 36% are driven with underutilized loads. In addition to this economic inefficiency, the industry faces social and environmental challenges. Driver turnover rates are near 100%, and trucking accounts for a significant level of greenhouse gas ...


Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen May 2021

Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen

Honors Theses

Coastal water quality in the Grand Strand of South Carolina is directly influenced by human activities. Nutrient-rich runoff, stemming from numerous anthropogenic sources, finds its way into coastal waters through freshwater inputs often through tidal creeks, termed swashes. In order to better describe the amount of nutrient inputs into Singleton Swash and White Point Swash, we examine anthropogenic runoff from isolated identifiable point discharges and their nutrient concentrations. We report concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, as the sum of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) and phosphate in discharge and creek water. We hypothesize that nutrient concentrations of isolated, minor point ...


Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson May 2021

Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson

Honors Theses

Sandy coastlines serve crucial functions to coastal economies and coastal ecology alike. In the past, organic-poor sands were considered of lower importance than organic-rich muds. Recent studies showed that sands’ low organic matter concentrations are due to high biogeochemical cycling rates, driven by rapid physical exchange, but remain infrequently studied. I present time-series of sand mass-loss-on-ignition (LOI, an organic matter proxy) profiles from February 2017 onwards at multiple sites along Long Bay, South Carolina. LOI profiles exhibit subsurface maximum values, unlike the typical decrease with depth in muddy sediments. I hypothesize that organic matter distribution with depth is affected by ...


Epa Applications To Identify Headwater Watershed Changes And Best Management Practices In The San Bernardino National Forest, Sandra Ukaru May 2021

Epa Applications To Identify Headwater Watershed Changes And Best Management Practices In The San Bernardino National Forest, Sandra Ukaru

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The human-environmental landscape influences water quality across highly variable spatiotemporal scales. One such example is the human-environmental landscape in California, which has changed dramatically over the past several decades leading to a multitude of environmental issues including the reduction and impairment of water resources. This study compares surface water quality at four headwater streams in the San Bernardino National Forests using multiple assessment tools including in situ data, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPAs) Model My Watershed Tool and multiple databases within a GIS framework. These collective efforts enabled headwater watershed landscape changes and the extent of impacts to soil erosion ...


Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi May 2021

Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The College Woods, west of William & Mary’s campus, consists of ~900 acres of protected southern mixed hardwood forest. The woods surround Lake Matoaka, a former millpond established in ~1700. Despite the rich history of the area, little is known about how the dominant vegetative landcover has shifted over the last 300 years. This study set out to quantify the modern vegetation within the College Woods via the phytolith assemblages within the soil and identify shifts in the assemblages since the creation of Lake Matoaka and whether these changes are distinct from the vegetation that existed in the area before the lake. To accomplish this, I studied the composition and preservation of phytoliths – silica bodies generated within and between plant cells. The study focused on the two questions: do the modern phytolith assemblages in the soil of the College Woods reflect the vegetation present and can phytoliths within the sediments of Lake Matoaka be used to identify the dominant vegetative communities over the last ~300 years? I addressed these questions with three approaches: 1) Identify the primary phytolith producing taxa within the College Woods; 2) Identify the modern phytolith assemblages within the soil of the College Woods; 3) Identify the differences between phytolith assemblages from the lake sediment core samples. I found the following: 1) The production of phytoliths varies heavily between and within different common taxa of the College Woods, with species of oaks (Quercus spp.) unpredictably producing phytoliths and beeches (Fagus grandifolia) likely contributing the majority of dicot phytoliths; 2) The modern phytolith assemblages of the College Woods reflect a low phytolith producing environment, and the vegetative homogeneity is reflected in the phytolith record; 3) The ...


Formation Of Oil-Particle-Aggregates: Numerical Model Formulation And Calibration, Linlin Cui, Courtney K. Harris, Danielle R.N. Tarpley May 2021

Formation Of Oil-Particle-Aggregates: Numerical Model Formulation And Calibration, Linlin Cui, Courtney K. Harris, Danielle R.N. Tarpley

VIMS Articles

When oil spills occur in turbid waters, the oil droplets and mineral grains can combine to form oil-particle aggregates (OPAs). The formation of OPAs impacts the vertical transport of both the oil and the mineral grains; especially increasing deposition of oil to the seabed. Though the coastal oceans can be very turbid, to date, few numerical ocean models have accounted for aggregation processes that form OPAs. However, interactions between oil and mineral aggregates may be represented using techniques developed to account for sediment aggregation. As part of Consortium for Simulation of Oil Microbial Interactions in the Ocean (CSOMIO), we modified ...


“Garden-Magic”: Conceptions Of Nature In Edith Wharton’S Fiction, Jonathan Malks May 2021

“Garden-Magic”: Conceptions Of Nature In Edith Wharton’S Fiction, Jonathan Malks

Undergraduate Honors Theses

I situate Edith Wharton’s guiding idea of “garden-magic” at the center of my thesis because Wharton’s fiction shows how a garden space could naturalize otherwise inadmissible behaviors within upper-class society while helping a character tie such behavior to a greater possibility for escape. To this end, Wharton situates gardens as idealized touchstones within the built environment of New York City, spaces where characters believe they can reach self-actualization within a version of nature that is man-made. Actualization, in this sense, stems from a character’s imaginative escape that is enabled by a perception of the garden as a ...


Contentious Vulnerability: Infrastructure, Assemblages, And Environmental Justice Communities, Mads Emmett May 2021

Contentious Vulnerability: Infrastructure, Assemblages, And Environmental Justice Communities, Mads Emmett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Charles City County, Virginia has been the target of several large developmental proposals in recent years. Two of these proposed projects, the C4GT and Chickahominy natural gas power stations, have faced opposition from residents of Charles City County and people across the state who are concerned about the environmental impacts and health risks associated with fossil fuel infrastructure. These proposed power plants are part of an extensive assemblage of infrastructure: an uneven built network of physical and affective relationships brought together through contingencies which involves human and non-human parts and facilitates the distribution of resources and people around the world ...


Consumer Food Waste Behaviors In Relation To Open Date Label Misinterpretation, Daniel Hutchings, Elisabeth Seliga, Anya O'Meara, Anna Blank Apr 2021

Consumer Food Waste Behaviors In Relation To Open Date Label Misinterpretation, Daniel Hutchings, Elisabeth Seliga, Anya O'Meara, Anna Blank

Thinking Matters Symposium

In the United States, the legal framework for product date labeling is minimal and varies across states. Manufacturers have the discretion to use any date label that they deem appropriate, and this lack of uniformity leaves room for misinterpretation by both retailers and consumers. Previous studies have examined consumer misinterpretation of date labels and how this lack of knowledge correlates to food waste behaviors. This study was aimed at understanding how consumers apply their knowledge about date labels to make decisions about purchasing and discarding food. The research was conducted via an intercept survey outside of a grocery store to ...


Media Analysis Of Coverage Of Environmental Issues In The Midst Of A Pandemic, Alexandria N. Miller, Lucia A. Bolles Apr 2021

Media Analysis Of Coverage Of Environmental Issues In The Midst Of A Pandemic, Alexandria N. Miller, Lucia A. Bolles

Thinking Matters Symposium

This research aimed to answer the question “has the coronavirus impacted the print media’s coverage of important environmental issues?” The research analyzed 2 different print newspapers - The New York Times and the Wall Street Journal - to determine if there was a change in coverage of environmental news as the coronavirus spread in the US. Data for stories published in the first four days of every month from March through September was compiled for 2019 and 2020. Our findings showed a 78.85% decrease in coverage of environmental issues between 2019 and 2020 when stories related to the coronavirus pandemic ...


The Power Of Information: Information, Leak Notices, And Water Conservation In Edina, Mn, Federico Chung Apr 2021

The Power Of Information: Information, Leak Notices, And Water Conservation In Edina, Mn, Federico Chung

Economics Honors Projects

This paper provides evidence on the effects of information provision on households’ water use. I use quarterly household consumption data from a utility in Minnesota to test the effect of a new residential water billing system on households’ water consumption. The updated billing format was possible as the utility transitioned to an automated meter reading (AMR) system. I also study impacts of another source of improved information provision from AMR adoption, faster high-water consumption notices. I find mixed evidence of the impact of personalized information on households’ water use. Households respond to high-consumption notices by significantly reducing consumption, even relative ...


Fish Disease Outreach Messages: Testing Of Gain And Loss Frames, Erin L. Pavloski, Heather A. Triezenberg Apr 2021

Fish Disease Outreach Messages: Testing Of Gain And Loss Frames, Erin L. Pavloski, Heather A. Triezenberg

Journal of Extension

Gain and loss framing has been used as a technique in risk communication to shape individuals’ behaviors in many fields. Our community-engaged research, conducted in partnership with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), experimentally tested five message frames to determine efficacy for outreach programs. We found: a) to increase risk perceptions of fish disease use a loss frame in a management context, b) to decrease risk perceptions of fish disease management use a gain frame in a disease context, and c) to motivate behavioral intentions for prevention and risk reduction use a gain frame in a disease context.